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Biography Aryabhata, the Indian mathematician Essay. Aryabhata (476 CE – 550 CE) was the first Hindu mathematician and astronomers from India. He wrote couple of treatise about mathematics and astronomy. Some of them were lost. His most famous works Aryabhatiya completed in 499 CE and business rus, the Arya-Siddhanta. Aryabhatiya consists of 108 verses, in john nash essay which Aryabhata wrote about the mathematics and astronomy at the age of 23 in business rus 499 CE. He was born in India at Asmaka or Kusumapura in 476 CE. There is no clear evidence of the place of birth (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012). Aryabhata studied in Kusumapura and stayed there for some time. The evidences from Hindu, Buddhist tradition, and Bhaskara I (629 CE) recognize Kusumapura as Pataliputra, currently known as Patna. Aryabhata was the head of an institution at Kusumapura.
The University of Nalanda was in persuasive Pataliputra at the time. This university had an astronomical observatory that forces the belief that Aryabhata was the head of the Nalanda University. Aryabhata set up an observatory at rus the Sun temple in Taregana, Bihar (Aryabhata – Indian Mathematician). Aryabhatiya deals with mathematics and astronomy. That consists of an introduction containing astronomical tables and Aryabhata’s system of phonemic number notation. This work consists of three sections: Ganita (means mathematics), Kala-kriya (means Time calculations), and Gola (means Sphere). Ganita covers decimal number system, algorithms for square and cubic roots, geometric measurements, the algorithm for Pi, tables of sines using Pythagorean Theorem, quadratic equations, proportions, and the solution of christopher columbus paper for kids linear equations. Business? This discusses the much Aryabhata’s method to solve the mathematical problem, Kuttaka (means pulverizer) also known as Aryabhata’s algorithm.
This algorithm suggests breaking a problem in smaller fractions. Kala-kriya speaks about astronomy. It is about treating planetary motion and include the definition of various units for time, eccentric, epicyclic planetary motion modes, longitude, and latitude. Gola discusses the plane trigonometry to spherical geometry. It also has prediction of business rus solar and lunar eclipses and explicit statement about westward motion of stars because of the game spherical rotation of the Earth about its axis (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012). The Arya-siddhanta was the plan work on astronomical computations. Surya Siddhanta was the base of this work and essay, considered the start of the day at the midnight, as opposed to sunrise according to Aryabhatiya. It also contained a description of business several astronomical instruments: the gnomon (shanku-yantra), a shadow instrument (chhAyA-yantra), possibly angle-measuring devices, semicircular, and circular (dhanur-yantra/chakra-yantra), a cylindrical stick yasti-yantra, an umbrella-shaped device called the chhatra-yantra, and water clocks of at least two types, bow-shaped and cylindrical.
Bakhshali Manuscript discussed the place-value system first in the 3rd century. Georges Ifrah, the mathematician from France, acknowledged that awareness of zero by Aryabhata in place-value system because of homework a place holder for the powers of 10 with null coefficients. Instead of using Brahmi numerals Aryabhata continued the tradition from Vedic times by rus, using letters of the alphabet for denoting numbers, expressing quantities, such as the table of sines in a mnemonic form (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012). John Nash Essay? The Surya Siddhanta laid foundational rules to business plan determine the true motions of the luminaries and introduced the get too sine, cosine trigonometric functions. Aryabhata devised the formulae for calculating the area of triangle and circle. Rus? He also devised the same for pyramid and sphere. Formulae for triangle and essay, circle were correct. Business Plan Rus? Most historians claimed that formulae for sphere and pyramid were incorrect. He created a table of sines and versine with formula sin (n+1) x – sin nx = sin (n-1) x – (1/225) sin nx versin= 1 – cosine. Aryabhata’s definition of jya (sine), kojya (cosine), urkrama-jya (versine), and content proposal dissertation, otkram-jya (inverse sine) influence the trigonometry (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012).
Aryabhata concluded that the approximation for pi ([pic]) is irrational. In Ganitapada he gave the plan formula for the ratio of circumference to rules the diameter as ((4 + 100) ? 8 + 62000)/20000 = 62832/20000 = 3.1416, which is accurate to five significant figures (Aryabhata – Indian Mathematician). The speculation was that Aryabhata used ‘asanna’ (means approaching), to mean that not only is this approximation but also that the value is irrational. This shows quite a sophisticated insight from him because Lambert proved the irrationality of pi in Europe only in 1761. Bhaskara’s commentary on Aryabhatiya discusses the business rus topic known as Diophantine equations, e.g., integer solutions to the equations that have the form ax+by = c. That formula to find value of N stated as N = 8x+5 = 9y+4 = 7z+1. It turns out that the smallest value for N is 85. Vedic text Sulba Sutras discussed these notoriously difficult diophantine equations. Aryabhata provided rules of algebra in the Aryabhatia and those are as follows: and 13 + 23 +…+n3= (1+2+…+n) 2. Christopher Columbus Research Paper For Kids? In some texts, Aryabhata seems to ascribe the apparent motions of the business rus heavens to the Earth#8217;s rotation. He believed that the planet#8217;s orbits as elliptical rather than circular.
Aryabhata correctly insisted that the earth rotates about its axis daily and that the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of the earth, contrary to the then-prevailing view in other parts of the world that the sky rotated. The first chapter of the Aryabhatiya indicated this, where he gives the number of rotations of the earth in john nash essay a yuga, and made more explicit in his gola chapter (A He used analogy of movement of boat going forward. During this movement person feels an unmoving object going in opposite direction than the boat. With this analogy he discussed the appearance of unmoving stars going uniformly westward. The cause of rising and business plan, setting is that the sphere of the stars together with the planets apparently turns due west at john nash essay the equator, constantly pushed by business rus, the cosmic wind. Aryabhata described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which he mentioned that the Sun and Moon in content proposal dissertation turn revolve around the Earth. He calculated the positions and periods of the planets with respect to uniformly moving points. He stated that speed at which Mercury, Venus, and Sun move around the Earth is identical and is different from the specific speed of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.
He represented each planet#8217;s motion through the zodiac. Most historians of astronomy expressed that this two-epicycle model reflects elements of business pre-Ptolemaic Greek astronomy. Historians saw another element in Aryabhata#8217;s model, the sighrocca, the homework basic planetary period in relation to the Sun as a sign of an underlying heliocentric model. He explained solar and lunar eclipses. He stated that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight and explained eclipses in terms of shadows cast by business, and falling on Earth. Columbus Research Paper For Kids? His theory explained the lunar eclipse occurs when the moon enters into the Earth#8217;s shadow and discussed the length the size and extent of the plan rus Earth#8217;s shadow. He provided the macbeth and macduff computation and the size of the eclipsed part during an business eclipse. Later Indian astronomers improved on the calculations, but Aryabhata#8217;s methods provided the core. Aryabhata calculated the sidereal rotation as 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.1 seconds; the modern value is do students get too 23:56:4.091. Similarly, his value for the length of the sidereal year at 365 days, six hours, 12 minutes, and 30 seconds is an error of business plan rus three minutes and 20 seconds over the length of a year (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012).
Aryabhata#8217;s work influenced the Indian astronomical tradition and several neighboring cultures through translations. His work as translated in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age (c. 820 CE). Al-Khwarizmi cited some of his results and in the 10th century Al-Biruni stated that Aryabhata#8217;s followers believed that the Earth rotated on its axis. Aryabhata#8217;s astronomical calculation methods were also very influential. Islamic world widely used the trigonometric tables to compute many Arabic astronomical tables (zijes). Calendric calculations devised by Aryabhata and his followers contributed the practical purposes of content proposal fixing the Panchangam (the Hindu calendar). Other cultures used this for forming the calendar systems. India honored Aryabhata by naming India#8217;s first satellite as Aryabhata. An Institute for conducting research in astronomy, astrophysics, and atmospheric sciences is the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIOS) near Nainital, India.
Indian authorities named the inter-school math competition as ‘Aryabhata Maths Competition’, as is Bacillus Aryabhata, a species of bacteria discovered by ISRO scientists in 2009. Indian Streams Research General: Avhale, P. S; Waghmare, R. V.; Kolhe, S. Business? B. Indian Streams Research Journal. Sep2012, Vol. 2 Issue 8, Special section p1-5. 5p. Retrieved from https://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/detail?vid=2hid=117sid=d84c9078-6d85-4131-9209-e44cdb4cba58%40sessionmgr110bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=a9hAN=82351338. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for business, and executing the “A” essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in columbus paper for kids concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learns—finally—to learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of rus a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams. This program was exactly what I needed Ђ” the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. — Jan Court, Univ Texas '00.
Just knowing you have a plan Ђ” i.e., the steps Ђ” keeps you from worrying about panic. Ђ” Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by macbeth a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is plan rus essay in nature. (You are basically asked to essay, identify and plan rus analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to macbeth, bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids. Open or closed book, the plan law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and students alike.
Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the example of a argumentative grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the business rus eight in the appendix of the of the essay topics LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of rus concise paragraphs, roughly one per get too, issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models. Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to business rus, identify or spot the legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer.
You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York.
As she explained to john nash essay, her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and business plan rus bring home din-din. I'm going to be in the hot tub for hours. Content! As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into business rus the club owner, Jett Setter.
He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world. At which point Coris determined to christopher research paper, sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 Ђ” OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to plan, Queens County. 2 Ђ” Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and example argumentative essay mail service.] 3 Ђ” Although the business rus complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and christopher columbus for kids otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense.
4 Ђ” OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for business, a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 Ђ” OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to macbeth essay, negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 Ђ” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of business plan action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and do students appellate judges assigned to this case. Business Plan Rus! Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.)
Discovery (scope of) Ђ” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses Ђ” A confidential communication between husband and of the game essay topics wife is business plan privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by macbeth essay a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction Ђ” Generally, in business plan order to research, determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an business plan rus action is brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on example persuasive a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to rus, substitute such service by affixing a copy of the topics summons and complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of business plan same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of get too business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at business plan rus the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of john nash essay Ђ” Where a defendant appears, answers the plan complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal.
Requests for admission Ђ” A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to john nash essay, prove at business plan trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond. Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the rules of the essay topics party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). However, it is not proper to request an admission to business plan rus, an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per game, se). Res Judicata Ђ” Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of business inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the example of a persuasive argumentative relitigation of business plan claims and john nash essay issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion Ђ” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of business rus that claim or cause of action in rules game essay topics a subsequent suit. Venue Ђ” Refers to the proper place for trial of business plan rus a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to example of a persuasive argumentative essay, prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for rus, him to appear and defend (policy!). John Nash Essay! Unless compelling reasons exist to plan rus, direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the rules transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose.
MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview Ђ” Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and rus Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. And Macduff! [Always the Steps, always the Steps Ђ” a constant way of thinking.] Step One Ђ” [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.]
The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other. Business Rus! However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the of the topics objectives that count for purposes of plan rus generating premises are intermediate in do students nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to business plan rus, the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to rules of the topics, Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of rus overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable.
5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and dissertation will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of business thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from this point on content proposal dissertation I shall work on each question to completion before going on to the plan next .] Step Two Ђ” [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is rules of the topics overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.)
2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for admission, and failure to rus, respond thereto overrides.
6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three Ђ” [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is part and john nash essay parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to rus, the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the christopher for kids law to begin the first paragraph of business analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on john nash essay as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion Ђ” No overlap of discussion apparent. Plan Rus! No reason apparent not to john nash essay, proceed in the chronology given.
[When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to rus, direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose. Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. Of The Essay Topics! (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of business plan Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the content proposal action in New York County.
It is business plan hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the of the game requirements of business personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the john nash essay summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the business rus requirements of due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at content dissertation his place of business. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at business plan no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.]
Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and content dissertation is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an plan rus indication of Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and christopher research paper a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and business rus that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to essay, an abstract statement of plan rus law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se).
The statement in content dissertation question seems manifestly a matter that is in business rus some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is macbeth and macduff essay a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to business plan rus, be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on columbus research for kids the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of plan rus action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in john nash essay small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata.
Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for business plan rus, the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in macbeth essay their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in rus the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on rules of the topics the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the business outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block.
Thus, acquiescence in john nash essay their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at business the initial offering, took umbrage at essay RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of rus Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to rules essay topics, the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to business rus, gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the macbeth essay action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and business plan rus failure to state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the macbeth and macduff suit. 3) Meanwhile, the business rus RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the do students much court decide the rus motions under 1, 2, and 3 above?
RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts Ђ” Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in christopher columbus paper for kids an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to plan, the following: 1) the rules game right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights Ђ” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in plan common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the game topics demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action Ђ” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in business plan rus favor of the corporation.
The latter derivative action may be maintained only persuasive argumentative essay if 1) the plan plaintiff is example persuasive argumentative a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plan plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to do students get too, the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the business rus board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the content proposal demand (e.g., the board members are the plan rus defendants). Note that in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the and macduff plaintiff to post security for business, costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification Ђ” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by john nash essay the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the plan above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the christopher columbus research officer/director is shown.
MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview Ђ” The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to business plan, be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.] Step One Ђ” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Get Too Homework! Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the business plan rus objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon example persuasive resolution of the plan rus motions.]
1) dismiss the and macduff essay action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of plan rus same. Step Two Ђ” [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises. Content Proposal Dissertation! In that a court may dismiss all or part of business plan a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in example of a argumentative essay the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. Business Plan Rus! but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in do students get too much homework toolbox only. Don't write it in business your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit.
Step Three Ђ” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for of a persuasive argumentative, a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion Ђ” No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action.
Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the business latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the get too action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and business rus has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to proposal, a proper purpose. Rus! Courts will determine whether a purpose is macbeth essay proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at business rus least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of paper for kids any class of outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of rus shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the game initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts Ђ” acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the business rus corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders.
Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to example of a persuasive essay, manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on business plan rus the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is of the that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the plan defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of example argumentative one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. Plan! [Yes, basic math may be necessary!]
Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is essay unlikely that a court would permit the rus corporation to impose this financial impediment. Columbus Research! [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in business plan a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against john nash essay expenses of business plan rus defending the macbeth and macduff essay action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for plan rus, even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown.
[Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the content dissertation analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in business rus a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is christopher research unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of plan rus such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of columbus research for kids any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X.
Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the business rest, residue, and christopher columbus paper remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the business plan rus rest, residue, and and macduff essay remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B.
In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by business the terms of which he increased the legacy to and macduff, Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of business his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for christopher research paper, $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in plan rus hand, set fire to some papers. Of A Persuasive Argumentative Essay! One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the business plan 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from T's estate.
RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption Ђ” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). And Macduff Essay! When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary Ђ” A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). Business Plan! By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate Ђ” Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament.
Execution of a will Ђ” A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication Ђ” A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. Revocation Ђ” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to proposal dissertation, have revoked the prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy Ђ” A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from rus all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity Ђ” Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary Ђ” A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance.
MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview Ђ” The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One Ђ” X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. Macbeth And Macduff! anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from rus T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two Ђ” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Game Essay Topics! Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into plan rus play.
However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Better to and macduff, focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three Ђ” [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is that once the business plan rus controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an of the game interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion Ђ” Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense.
B and Z's rights [This label conforms to business rus, the instruction. B v. Z might confuse. Rules Of The Game Topics! But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the business testator's property, shall be deemed to macbeth, have revoked the business rus prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of macbeth essay T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of business plan rus a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the columbus research paper properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the business plan rus codicil.
Although a will may be revoked by content means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for plan rus, the purpose of revoking the will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in example persuasive argumentative essay 2000 is thus of no avail to plan, B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the example of a persuasive argumentative essay 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the plan same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel.
In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the content republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Business Plan! Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is of a persuasive argumentative essay not disqualified by business plan rus having witnessed the now republished 1994 will.
A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. John Nash Essay! The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to business plan rus, probate to proposal dissertation, take under the will being probated is plan rus presumably the columbus research conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to take under the 1994 will.
Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. Business Plan Rus! However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. Example Of A! However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Rus! Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per research paper for kids, stirpes . S's having witnessed the plan rus will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to christopher, prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and plan rus model response sent to christopher research paper, us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of business plan rus 2009E (evening division).
The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the macbeth essay audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section.
Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is business a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the john nash essay examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. Business Rus! For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and macbeth and macduff essay conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman)
Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above.
F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions.
If your examination is business incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to christopher paper, ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is business plan closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the christopher for kids answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of plan course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided.
Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.). When you have completed your answers to john nash essay, Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and business plan staple all of the research for kids pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for rus, Part II and get too much mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number.
Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to business, anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. Essay! You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the booklet in business rus order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the macbeth essay answers. Business Plan Rus! Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of content proposal dissertation civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure;
2. Plan! all states have enacted statutes that authorize the of a persuasive essay exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of plan rus its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the columbus research paper for kids following statutes: X.C.A. Business Plan! § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the personЂ™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at macbeth and macduff essay the time of contracting. X.C.A. Business Plan Rus! § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of content proposal dissertation process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located.
The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an plan associate attorney in a law firm. Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of your employers. ЂњI QuitЂќ is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006.
[Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of example persuasive argumentative essay their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of business plan rus Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in columbus for kids Prussia and plan rus lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into rules an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [ЂњFirst CommercialЂќ] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. Plan Rus! He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the do students get too much bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the bankЂ™s services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First CommercialЂ™s main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia.
First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on the loan. Business Plan Rus! When First Commercial threatened to john nash essay, sue them, Tristan settled the bankЂ™s claim against him for $50,000. Business Plan Rus! First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest. First CommercialЂ™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in get too Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the business rus United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there.
[Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. Argumentative Essay! The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec.
12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to business, the nearest hospital, which was located in do students get too much Prussia. Three days after the business plan accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in christopher paper for kids her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to rus, me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on columbus research paper for kids Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a studentЂ™s essay that received a top grade. Business Plan! Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. Research Paper For Kids! . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to rus, precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of macbeth essay premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this.
Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in business plan the preamble of law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of do students get too much Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for one month. Business Plan! [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at john nash essay the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005.
Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of rus 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see Ђњif she would enjoyЂќ life on her own. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is of the game topics not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the plan parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in dissertation controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. Business Plan! N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under Ђњfederal questionЂќ jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiffЂ™s complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the homework United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in plan this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack.
However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to john nash essay, Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the business plan District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the christopher research for kids alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in the enforcing court. Business! [We would have preferred a discussion at dissertation this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. Rus! The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in of a essay Swabia to plan, establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile.
Even though the do students get too homework contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to business plan rus, possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. John Nash Essay! At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and plan not a choice of law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a personЂ™s demonstrated obliviousness to john nash essay, important distinctions. Others simply didnЂ™t know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to plan, study the Burger King opinion and to john nash essay, pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. Plan! First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: Ђњa) transacting any business within the content dissertation State.Ђќ The claim for relief, the plan rus $100,000 breach of argumentative contract, arises from the defendantЂ™s act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on TristanЂ™s delivery of the loan documents to rus, the BankЂ™s main office in Prussia.
Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at john nash essay the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the plan rus signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the and macduff essay execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the business plan construction of the and macduff essay statute as the rus court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the of a persuasive argumentative essay facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state Ђњdirectly or by an agent.Ђќ Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the business papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. Of A Essay! You should never, as many of you did, overlook the business rus statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didnЂ™t know what she was signing.
Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law. Game Essay! The U.S. Supreme Court defined the rus due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendantЂ™s minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of example persuasive argumentative jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over business plan rus Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the do students get too much homework court first accepts the argument that the plan rus statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. Example Argumentative! First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Business Plan Rus! Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over any disputes to the contract. Macbeth And Macduff Essay! (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial.
In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the business plan fairness factors, defining Ђњfair play and macbeth substantial justice,Ђќ articulated in business plan rus the US Supreme CourtЂ™s Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to homework, require Isolde to business plan rus, travel to macbeth and macduff, a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the business plan rus forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the much choice of law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the several states in plan efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the essay picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an business unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion.
Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on do students get too much a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction. [Many of you neglected altogether most of the business rus issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]
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The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. Business. No one really knows who came up with the rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in the world of resume writing. Christopher Columbus Research. Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and business plan rus, you can’t include negative information. Just about christopher research paper every other rule you’ve ever heard about resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise. Rules are one thing, but trends are another.
After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. “The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to business plan rus two pages, even for very experienced professionals,” says the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The publication went on john nash essay, to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an plan, overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to john nash essay help you determine the right length for business rus your resume. It should be noted that length is primarily an issue that pertains to the traditional, formatted, “print” version of your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. “The length of your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of whether it’s two pages or four. Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in the system,” Ciampi says in content proposal dissertation Levinson’s article. Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by human eyes without having been placed into rus a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of applicants.
Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for the college population. Content Dissertation. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to a one-page resume.” Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for a one-page resume, it is college students and business rus, new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Much Homework. Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume.
Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for college students,” Pierce-Williams says. “Length depends on extra-curricular involvement and leadership. It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is entitled ‘Key Leadership and business rus, Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to list three to four projects in which the student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to go to two pages, just be sure that you have the relevant material to justify a second page. “Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.” In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the christopher for kids, place of the initial interview, and only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview. True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is business plan rus, seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to the length of the resume itself. Executives in essay particular were advised till recently that three- and four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of plan, Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and content dissertation, expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for even greater depth without cluttering the business, resume.” Creating various supplements and do students much homework, addenda enables the job-seeker to choose which pieces to send along with the rus, resume.
He or she might instead choose not to send any addenda but to christopher columbus research bring them to the interview. Even among employers, there’s no consensus on preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is too short. Rus. Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is content proposal dissertation, about the business, right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. “If the resume is longer than two pages, it needs to be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. “Most of essay, my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Recruiter opinions about plan resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of and macduff essay, any detail in business plan rus order to confine them to christopher one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for plan Professional Personnel in Alabama. “My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for proposal a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to plan rus one that has cut out all the substance to meet some passe idea of of the game topics, a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at plan, Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to get too much homework the position. If a candidate has 20 years of business plan rus, experience directly relating to the position being applied for content dissertation and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.”
Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. “As long as the resume grabs the attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. Business. “Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is piqued within the first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. “Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of macbeth and macduff essay, bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of business rus, 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers . “In addition, it is essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in christopher columbus research for kids one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the page. If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the preceding page becomes the business plan, last page of your resume. Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to get too fill up the last page of your resume. Business Plan Rus. “I never fluff up content for the sake of macbeth and macduff essay, filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and business plan rus, not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to john nash essay make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on plan, the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Dissertation. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is plan rus, better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of pages. “It’s less taxing and research for kids, time-consuming to read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is simply too difficult for rus a hiring director to read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. And Macduff Essay. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and well-formatted two-page resume that is business plan, easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need.”
Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Example Of A Persuasive Argumentative Essay. Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of 3” model. “If you decide to rus go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and example persuasive argumentative essay, appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of rus, Best Resumes. “And organize all of the information with distinct categories to example of a persuasive essay make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the first page of your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the employer to keep reading the resume: “At the bottom of business rus, my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for rules game essay topics a resume section, such as your experience, to business plan straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over persuasive essay, two pages.
Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on Job-Seeker Resume Length. One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at job fairs. If you’re still torn about rus how long to of the game essay topics make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for an expert consultation. Questions about some of the terminology used in rus this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on essay, key college, career, and job-search terms by going to plan our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at macbeth essay, A Storied Career . Plan Rus. Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in argumentative organizational behavior from plan rus Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and john nash essay, A Foot in plan rus t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by content dissertation, Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to business plan a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).
Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and content dissertation, more that we have in the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers? QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and rus, professional designs for all jobs and industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by persuasive argumentative essay, our experts, plus helpful tips and advice to make your resume stand out.
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Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to business plan rus help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is columbus research for kids, also founder of business plan rus, MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of dissertation, Quintessential Careers Press, including the plan, Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Macbeth And Macduff. Dr. Business Rus. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Macbeth. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country.
Finally, Dr. Plan Rus. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by john nash essay, email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Business Plan. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of research paper for kids, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for business rus Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is rules of the essay, author of Dynamic Cover Letters for plan rus New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at email@example.com.
Check out Dr. Game. Hansen on business, GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for macbeth all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Business Plan. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and content dissertation, Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and business plan, scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Proposal Dissertation. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job 
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corruption essay But it’s not just individuals in public office that are corrupt. Leaders of large companies can misuse power to influence or achieve a possible goal for the company they are in charge of. Corruption can take on many forms including but not limited to: rent seeking behavior, bribery, and regulations or trade restrictions. Economic Rent The term rent or rent seeking is business rus, not what we pay to the landlord of our apartment or house.
According to Mauro (1997), rent (which is short for economic rent) contribute greatly to proposal, acts of corruption especially so where the gregariously revered are the corrupt ones. This presupposes that in an environment where an individual visually perceive others around him/her benefiting from corruption, they may well opt to indulge additionally. Nepotism, that is, availing others because they are proximately cognate to you can furthermore be compared in psychological term. Business Plan? Moreover, monopoly of potency can additionally be a cause of corruption. This could often apply. Bureaucratic corruption has been described as a function of the size of the rewards and penalties under an john nash essay, official’s control, the discretion of the official in their allocation and, the accountability of officials for plan rus, decisions and actions taken. Example Of A Argumentative? As discretion increases and accountability declines, the potential for corruption grows. Further, where the wages of public servants are low or there exists a large disparity between public and private sector wages, public servants may be more tempted to. Leadership and rus, Corruption in example Nigeria Essay. practices by her leaders” (Anazodo Rosemary 1).
Not only Nigeria, in the whole of Africa; its bad leadership and corruption that hinders our development. “. . . Corruption in Africa siphons off 20 to 30 percent of business plan rus, funding from basic service provision” (Oluwole Owoye). As a matter of get too homework, fact, before we gained independence, everything was going just good. Nigeria had no problem of corruption; our currency was one of the business plan, strongest as of do students get too homework, that time, we were economically diversified and there was peace. Now. Police corruption can be a very bad and business plan, crucial situation which causes a lot of problem and costs. Corruption Imposes high costs on the police, the criminal just system and society. A corrupt act by a police officer is a criminal act. Criminal activity by a police officer undermines the basic integrity of any law enforcement agency. Corruption protects other criminal activity.
Corruption protected gambling syndicates which were the major source of income for organized crime. Police corruption undermines. hosting promotional campaigns. Carrefour aims to example persuasive argumentative essay, rid itself of business plan, corruption | | | www.chinaview.cn 2006-07-18 10:58:33 | | BEIJING, July 18 -- Carrefour China is do students much homework, undergoing an anti-corruption drive in its 75 supermarkets across the country in a bid to improve management. Business Plan? Rapid expansion in China by the France-based retail giant has generated huge profits but also caused problems such as bribes and corruption in stores. The company's Shanghai headquarters yesterday sent. In both Hong Kong and Singapore, the top political leadership was committed to fighting corruption. In many developing countries, this commitment cannot be taken for granted (Svensson, 2005). This commitment by leadership and strength given to enforcement agencies, Svensson says, is crucial. This is in line with Paul Romer’s assessment of Hong Kong.
Initial attempts at reform in Hong Kong were met with mixed results. For example, Andvig and persuasive argumentative essay, Fjeldstad note that the legalization of the Hong. Politial Corruption in business plan China Essay. financial benefits from guanxixue, reinforced the prevalence and christopher columbus paper, importance of the networks in Chinese society (Yang, 172). Given the ideological nature of socialism, it is business, not surprising that the of a argumentative, CPC has a negative view of guanxixue and modern-day corruption. Furthermore, the ability of business plan, citizens to use social networks to accomplish official tasks and receive favors undermines the credibility of the state. Dissertation? As Guthrie notes, in the 1980s the CPC began to address the problem by creating state regulations. Corruption in Mexico Essay example. administration, which is so committed to cleansing Mexico of this endemic corruption, accomplish this goal? The sad fact is, it can't.
Mexico is up against roughly 500 years of history ingrained into his people. It also has two other major things working against it: the economy and an organized crime crisis. **If the average Mexican citizen could make a fair living by living fairly, then corruption wouldn't be seen as necessary. While corruption exists in the United States (and every country, for that matter) death of Macbeth. He was brutally killed by Macduf, the commander in chief of the english army set out to retake Scotland. Business Plan Rus? He was motivated by the killings of content, his family, in which Macbeth had killed. What I write here is the many problems with corruption and business, what hasen't been done to aviod it. Macbeth was an example of many problems that go on research in the world today.
There's always that deception you makes you believe everything is alright but that's never true When people come into a position of. Remuneration can also be a factor that can lead to fraud and corruption as poor pay contributes to how employees tend to conduct their activities, often by accepting bribes and falsifying accounting documents. Impact of fraud and corruption to the organization Most organizations end up loosing a lot of profits due to the scrupulous nature of its employees. The organization ends up loosing its place in the competitive market and at times leading to business rus, bankruptcy as most of its customers will tend. attorneys weve had.” “ He was also extremely fair,” said Miller, who represented two officers who were convicted with several witnesses (Jim Smith, 1987). Although the FBI’S police corruption probe continues Klien said during an interview last week that the primary thrust is behind him (Jim Smith, 1987). The corruption began in 1981 and has led so far to the convictions of 31 former officers including Deputy police commissioner James Martin who has since died. Thomas H. Lee 35 an assistant U.S. attorney.
the work of a 30-person staff, including about john nash essay a dozen investigators asserted that the Lindsay administration had failed to promptly investigate reports on specific corrupt acts, despite evidence that the corruption was widespread. Bit by bit, reports of the rus, commission’s findings of police corruption in New York City leaked out to the public. John Nash Essay? One of the most sordid stories was told by then 14 year veteran officer, William Phillips. Officer Phillips, explained how he and innumerable other cops had taken. Why Is Corruption a Problem? Essay example.
In the political realm, it undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or even subverting formal processes. Corruption in elections and in legislative bodies reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking; corruption in the judiciary compromises the business plan, rule of law; and corruption in public administration results in the inefficient provision of services. In some country like Indonesia, some or maybe most of the politicians are corrupt. They can get huge houses, cars imported. Corruption and Indian Politics Essay. gone 'rotten in the Kingdom of India'. With India being the ‘largest democracy in the world’,can the number of zeros looted be proportional to the size of the democracy? The answer is an emphatic NO. Well what is democracy then? And how is corruption killing it?
Abraham Lincoln spoke of a representative democracy as a 'government of the people, by the people, for the people'. A government of topics, which people? A prime minister who is only worried that the corporate sector will feel bad after the. The Westminster System and Corruption Essay. inherited system of government has been of greater advantage or disadvantage to citizens throughout the Caribbean region. the governing of business, several countries throughout the region over the past few decades has been marked by a steady increase in corruption, a lack of accountability and transparency among public officials, abuse of do students, power by political factions and increasing crime rates. the business plan rus, point must be made that the view that what is good for Britain is good for get too much, the Caribbean can no longer be. Economy and Government Corruption in the World Essay. lone positive outlier. Asian countries have the most spread of business plan, corruption amongst all of the region groups, which has some countries occupying the bottom and being the john nash essay, most corruption. Asia also has some of the least corrupted countries in New Zealand, Singapore, and Australia.
Countries such as Finland, Denmark, and New Zealand maintain top positions in plan being the least corrupt countries but have experienced a slight dip in their corruption ratings. There is also a pattern of countries becoming less. How To Reduce Police Corruption Essay. Are certain types of officers more prone to being corrupted than others? As stated earlier, all officers are vulnerable to corruption.
A well trained, most often educated officer will be able to example essay, recognize the beginning stages of corruption. Business? Ultimately it is the officer’s decision whether or not to fall prey to the exploitation presented to them. There are certain factors that play a role in the development of a rogue officer. These factors include unfavorable work environments, police subculture. 63-64). His innocence is no longer available, that it is nearly a pawn in his game to be crown King of columbus for kids, Scotland. While he seems very strong on the outside, very quietly on business the inside Macbeth's existence is being thrown about, all from the corruption of the want of power which leads to the feeling of guilt. Macbeth's ambition allows him to become more involved in the thought of becoming powerful. He first begins to think of his being King, after the three witches begin to tell. Corruption in Nigeria Tertiary Institution Essay.
Objective: The Nigerian society is undergoing reformation as a result of confusion in governance, moral decadence, corruption and corrupt practices on the part of stakeholders in education. These actions have affected educational quality and delivery. It is paper, unfortunate that the educational system has lost its values and business plan rus, the society is john nash essay, not any better due to corruption. The paper focuses on corruption in the tertiary institutions in Nigeria, which is a huge stumbling block in the educational sector. This paper. Corruption and Tribalism in Jamaican Politics Essay. eventually, eliminate, conditions in which corruption can exist.
There are too many departments that exist in government agencies that have to be accessed when carrying transactions. Administrative reform will give birth to new mechanisms, such as auditing and inspection, which will demand a more open and accountable work practices within the crucial government agencies in our country. Rus? The aim of this measure is to efficiently combat and eliminate corruption across the administration. During the reforming. Bribery and Corruption in International Trade Essay. The distinction between international and domestic corruption is that normally international is involved with grand corruption and petty corruption is involved in domestic corruption. “Bribery of public officials takes place to persuasive, obtain government contracts or to get officials to do what they should be doing anyway” The problem of countries that uses a legal basis for ethical behaviour is that laws vary between countries. Not all moral values are common to every culture and rus, strong governments may. Essay about Clean Rewards Prevent Corruption. However, the key to curbing corruption relies on working out a set of severe supervisory measures that match rewards. It's easy to see whether civil servants have made mistakes or not, but it's difficult to determine whether they are corrupt.
How is content dissertation, clean performance defined? There must be a rigid assessment standard to ensure the transparency and fairness of reward system, so that it could really help curb corruption. Movies Backgrounders Special Photo Gallery Wuyetingcan (wenming. Essay on plan Global Political Corruption: Causes, Effects and christopher, Remedies. Besides in the era of democracy, members of the parliaments are hired through votes, but unfortunately vote rigging is a very common thing. Business Plan? Parliamentarians also add their considerable shares in content dissertation moving the business, corruption cycle by having undue access to public funds.
However, Politicians may use the funds on their personal leisure like vocational trips abroad with their family etc. No doubt, elected members are supposed to utilize state assets in john nash essay best possible way; however, they may sell valuable asset. Taxation, Corruption and Unsuccessful Reforms Caused Rome to Fall. profits. This lead to disputes and the citizens of Rome could not raise enough money to business, pay all the taxes imposed because of this feud between the generals and the tax farmers (A.H.M. Jones Bartlett 291). In addition to the corruption between officials, there was corruption in the collection of taxes. When tax farmers went to collect taxes and the citizens could not pay they were subject to severe beatings (Shaw 818). Roman tax collectors often hired thugs and soldiers to brutally mutilate and john nash essay, attack.
Violence and plan rus, Corruption Analysis: Slumdog Millionaire Essay example. with the simplicity of the statement, “The answers. I knew the answers.” Boyle’s use of christopher research paper for kids, dialogue to reinforce images of violence and corruption emphasise Jamal’s essential goodness and honesty and allows the rus, audience to witness the ability of get too, inner strength to overcome physical brutality. Boyle uses cross cutting to plan rus, further foreground the violence and corruption in the opening sequence. By cutting to the “Millionaire” set, with the example of a persuasive essay, non-diegetic ticking clock, the responder is bombarded with a. Police Corruption in business plan rus the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) practices? And what can the LAPD do within the department and community to regain the public trust? The purpose of this paper is to explore the rules of the game, nature and prevalence of corruption in the Los Angeles Police Department. The research will further explore administrative changes made as a result of the recent probe into corruption. The report will also present relevant portions of an interview with Captain Gary Williams, the Commanding Officer of business, LAPD Pacific Division. The research paper will also conclude.
Corruption in Somalia Impedes the Distribution of Aid Essay. the same year. John Nash Essay? Although it appears Somalia has finally gained relative stability, the country is plan, still characterized by massive secular, ethnic, political, and territorial issues. Corruption Somalia has long been regarded as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Transparency International’s 2013 corruption perceptions index, ranked Somalia, along with Afghanistan and North Korea, the worst performers, with. Training Day - Police Corruption Misconduct Essay. Therefore, producing an honest and ethical officer is essential to prevent misconduct and corruption in any department. It is also imperative for each individual who is essay topics, placed into a position where they are granted extreme discretionary powers to encompass personal and professional integrity.
A list of characteristics important for officers to possess integrity include; prudence, trust, effacement of self-interests, courage, intellectual honesty, justice and responsibility (Martin 2011). When. Corruption and Consequences in The Picture of Dorian Gray Essay. if he was made out of ivory and rose-leaves”. These statements further the notion that Dorian is open for an artist’s impressions, a position assumed by Lord Henry Wotton. Lord Henry’s presence around Dorian is in essence the beginning of business, his corruption.
Basil attempted to deter Lord Henry claiming that he would “spoil him” and pleaded with Lord Henry saying, “don’t influence him. Your influence would be bad” (10; ch. Argumentative? 1). And later remarks “something has changed in you completely… you talk as if. Conflict and Corruption in the Democratic Republic of Congo Essay. These institutions provide a strong foundation, which can enforce laws, taxes and much more. The countries people will then have something to rally around and believe in when the country is faced with a crisis.
A government needs to be run without corruption and plan, the DRC had the opposite. Mobutu’s rule in Congo could have been strong if he would have applied democratic policies and strived to create fair and example essay, balanced institutions. Instead he promoted his own self-wealth and only allowed one party to. The Picture of Dorian Gray: Corruption Through Aestheticism Essay. protagonists, Dorian's downfall is the most clearly recognized.
A young man who was pure at the beginning of the novel becomes depraved by the influence of Lord Henry. He grew more and more enamored of his own beauty, more and more interested in the corruption of his own soul (Bloom 121). He begins to lead a life of immorality, including the murder of his dear friend Basil Hallward. Rus? There were moments when he looked on evil simply as a mode through which he could realize his conception of beautiful How is Political Corruption (Nepotism, Collusion and Embezzlement) affecting the Economic Development of Guinea? dysfunctional administration during this period, the example of a argumentative essay, weak judiciary, and embezzlement caused the tentacles of corruption to choke off water services, disrupt electricity and relegate healthcare to a service-for-bribe system.
The main problem in Guinea is plan rus, that the justice system does not work, the government’s anti-corruption law is john nash essay, unbelievably poor and such unfair legal systems contribute immensely to corruption by making it difficult for the poor to have access to the legal system (i.e. the people in business plan rus the informal. Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Individual Report: Corruption. Corruption takes several forms, among them bribery, fraud, money laundering, undue influence and collusion. Columbus Paper For Kids? The corruption issue is not only with receivers of bribery, the issue is also related to those authorising the payment. The Bribe Payers Index 2011 detected the probability of companies from these countries to pay bribes in business plan rus a foreign country. The scale is 0 – 10, 0 suggest that the country is perceived to always bribe and 10 that the john nash essay, country never bribes. The full index is available on Transparency. Essay about Young Goodman Brown: Puritan Corruption, Fear and Innocence. Corruption can be seen within all of the characters in plan the story. Faith, despite her name, was anything but faithful, at least to her religion. The first impression given to us on do students homework Faith is that of a devout Christian wife, young and beautiful, trusting, and an embodiment of virtue, but later to be viewed as sinful in nature as Brown.
Goody Cloyse is a citizen of Salem Village who is introduced in the woods. Plan? Through Brown we find that she is a Christian woman who helps the youth learn the bible. Brown. Innocence to Corruption in Oscar Wilde?s The Picture of do students get too, Dorian Grey. full control of Dorian’s life.
Lord Henry creates a domino effect with Dorian corrupting anyone and business plan, everyone around him, “Yet these whispered scandals only increased in the eyes of christopher columbus paper for kids, many his strange and dangerous charm.” Wilde conveys this corruption through diction within this story, “A horrible sense of sickness came over him. Business Plan? He felt as if his heart was beating itself to proposal, death in some empty hollow.” Dorian corrupts Alan, convincing him to help destroy Basil’s body using blackmail. The Corruption of the business plan rus, American Dream in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. changed. The American Dream shrunk from self-betterment, wealth, and success through hard work and perseverance to 'success' through wealth by any means possible, just as Gatsby's dream, his Platonic conception of himself, shrunk into Daisy.
The corruption of the persuasive essay, American dream can be illustrated by how Gatsby came by his fortune. Through his dealings with organized crime, he didn't adhere to the original American Dream guidelines. His very dishonesty that allowed him to business plan rus, get the wealth and connections. Corruption is identified as ‘the single greatest’ obstacle to economic and social development. Content? Anupam Das et al (2011),by squeezing from several studies, have theorized that corruption can lead to the destruction of democracy, the plan, violation of human rights, the collapse of markets, lower quality of john nash essay, life, and increased threats to social welfare. Business Plan? The impact of corruption in the developing world is thought to be particularly damaging, as it is believed to hurt the poor disproportionately. World. How Can High Levels of Corruption in Central and Eastern Europe Be Explained? What Impact Does It Have on of the game essay topics Societies at Large?
Communist regimes outlawed “independent, social, communal and civic groups but unofficial networks flourished(Miller, p 77). During the transitional period, in plan Eastern Europe most corruption took places “during business transactions with public administration and government offices” (Zuzowski, p 137), this in turn discouraged foreign investment. Examples provided by Walezcki state that in rules of the game essay topics 1998 the Czech deputy prime minister and business, minister of environment resigned as a result of a political scandal. Essay about Corruption in john nash essay Procurement. maintenance strategies, including corruption to business rus, address the income shortfall.
1.2 statement of the problem The procurement process has been the john nash essay, locus of government corruption- unless this can be addressed; the citizens of Tanzania will continue to rus, suffer. It is necessary that strategies and measures be introduced in the government procurement profession to reduce the corruption in this process and in of the game topics effect, corruption in the government. Procurement corruption is business rus, deeply rooted in the political. control. Do we need corruption? My research would suggest that yes we do. One example would be the public pressures of catching the bad guy for a hennas crime with the death of a child and the officer tampering with evidence to catch someone just to silence the angry public. How about the coach giving enhancing drugs to his/her athletes to tip the competition. I’ve heard of cases like these in the media. Corruption comes in many forms and not just bribery.
Believing that corruption is just a legal. needed from the community. Officers were distrustful of proposal dissertation, management, had low morale, engaged in racial profiling, and did Not see their communities as partners in business plan crime solving, but as enemies. Perjury is also a huge problem associated with corruption. Officers in question follow the unwritten tradition of gathering evidence illegally and then lying about it on the stand. Rules Of The Topics? They basically decide to business plan rus, forget evidence altogether. Framing suspects, or even the framing of innocent people, became. once eager to be an honest cop, after being exposed to the way it works in his dysfunctional department is conditioned to the status-quo of the corrupt organization.
The corruption perpetuates itself from of a persuasive argumentative essay, one generation of officer to another. The last hypothesis is the Rotten-Apple hypothesis. It asserts the problem of corruption is centered around poor recruitment combined with poor supervision. Delattres book, Character and Cops, points out the Miami police department for plan, a case study. What happened. Essay Corruption in proposal dissertation Corporate America. Cuba was very popular and affected the New York Yankees and business plan, ESPN. Orlando Hernandez was not supposed to be in rules game topics the United States and the Yankees felt the heat for that.
But it is quite evident that the government has to step in, but how? In July of 2002, the bipartisan house overwhelmingly passed a bill that deal with corporate reform. In majority, the bill would add criminal penalties and plan rus, now make the guilty do time behind bars like the essay, rest of the criminals. As said by plan, House Judiciary Committee. Of course, the problem did arise again.
One of the macbeth and macduff essay, more recent events to shake New York City and bring attention to the national problem of police corruption was brought up beginning in 1992, when five officers were arrested on drug-trafficking charges. Business Plan? Michael Dowd, the suspected 'ring leader', was the kind of cop who gave new meaning to the word moonlighting. It wasn't just any job that the 10-year veteran of the New York City force was working on the side. Dowd was a drug dealer. From scoring. Another recent issue that has received many different views was Clinton’s clemency offer to 16 hispanic prisoners. The National Review immediately blasted Clinton for offering clemency to these prisoners because of their involvement in terrorist bombings.
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Low prices set on business energy result in huge losses for the government enterprises engaged in this area. Consequently, they do not have. Corruption in the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay. Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opiate, which derives from opium. The danger of this drug has been known since the 1960’s, yet doctors today still use the drug. The problem with Oxycodone is proposal, it only worked for business plan rus, about 2-3 hours at a time. In 1995, the Food and Drug Administration approved the drug Oxycontin. Oxycontin is the same thing as Oxycodone but the time release is the only difference. The manufactures made it were the drug can last about 12 hours long.
Our government knew of the dangers of Oxycodone. Essay on john nash essay Death And Corruption In Hamlet. My father's spirit in plan rus arms! All is not well; I doubt some foul play. Would the night were come. Till then sit still, my soul. Foul deeds will rise, Though all the earth o'erwhelm them, to men's eyes. (1.3.254-58) Marcellus reinforces the idea with his comment that “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.” (1.4.67) This alludes to john nash essay, a plot or some such, that has been perpetrated against business plan King Hamlet. Hamlet and the guards realize now that there must be some. Corruption in Eritrean Government Essay. In 1885 the Italians, along with much of Western Europe was seeking to john nash essay, colonize the countries of Africa, mainly to gain access to plan rus, its resources. In 1896, Italy attempted to take Ethiopia as a colony, launching the john nash essay, offensive from Eritrea.
This resulted in a disastrous loss by plan rus, the Italians. In 1935, at the behest of Benito Mussolini, the Italians again launched an offensive from both Eritrea and Italian Somaliland which resulted in the annexation of Ethiopia which brought it into the fold of Italian.