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AP and Other Stories Summary and annotate website Analysis of A P, Part 1. This story is narrated by Sammy, a young cashier at the supermarket A P. One day, three girls in bathing suits stop in to essay activity, buy some snacks. Sammy is immediately struck by a “chunky” (596) girl with a “sweet broad soft-looking can.” He is so attracted to her that he accidentally rings up a box of crackers twice, provoking the essay, ire of the middle-aged customer who was trying to buy them. By the time Sammy calms down the irate customer, the girls are making their way towards an aisle close to upsc political question papers, his checkout slot. He notices that the girls are barefoot. None of them are particularly beautiful; he characterizes the website essay, first as chunky and “pale” and immerwahr the second as “the kind of website essay girl that other girls think is essay activity based very ‘striking’ and ‘attractive’ but never quite makes it.” However, he quickly identifies the annotate essay, third as their leader, noticing that she walks slightly ahead of her friends and almost seems to be showing them how to command attention. He infers that it was her idea to come to A P in the first place. Costing! He calls her the queen or, later, Queenie. Sammy notices that the straps of the annotate, queen’s bathing suit have slipped off her shoulders, so there is no clothing between the top of the bathing suit and the top of her head. He is in awe of political science papers 2010 her beauty, and marvels that only an extraordinarily pretty girl could get away with walking into website essay, a grocery store with her straps down. He continues to critical essays on edward albee, stare at annotate, her physical features, including her long neck and her oaky hair. The other people in the store are shocked by the girls’ skimpy attire, as well as the fact that they are walking “against the usual traffic” (597) down the aisles.
Sammy criticizes these “sheep” for looking askance at the girls but also being attracted to them. He speculates that “you could set off dynamite” (598) in phd thesis wur, an A P and annotate essay the shoppers would still go about their business as usual. Phd Thesis Wur! Nevertheless, they do seem a bit “jiggled,” with some women even turning around to look at annotate essay, the girls again, as if they cannot believe their eyes. Only ten years before John Updike published “A P,” his New Yorker colleague J.D. Salinger rocked the literary establishment with his first novel, The Catcher in about traveling around the world, the Rye . There are striking similarities between Holden Caulfield, the main character of Salinger’s novel, and Updike’s narrator Sammy. Both hold a deep-seated contempt for authority and hypocrisy. But while Salinger’s hero is so self-absorbed that we never get an objective perspective on his world, Sammy is sharply perceptive, offering insights about human nature and society at large. The main action of “A P” unfolds not in website, the grocery store but in Sammy’s mind.
It is not a chronicle of his ordinary day at work, but rather of his rejection of bourgeois conformity. Some critics trace Sammy’s heritage not to Holden Caulfield but to Ralph Waldo Emerson, who advocated for non-conformity and moral self-reliance (Porter 1155). Immerwahr! In the early pages of annotate website essay “A P,” Sammy establishes his contempt for conformity and consumerism, insinuating that the people who shop at A P are “sheep” (597) who can never be roused out of their daily routines. This critique is phd thesis wur cemented by his detailed description of the store. Sammy locates himself “between the checkouts and the Special bins” (596) and describes the annotate, girls going up “the cat-and-dog-food-breakfast-cereal-macaroni-rice-raisins-seasonings-spreads-spaghetti-soft-drinks-crackers-and-cookies aisle” (597). Critical Essays On Edward Albee! This careful delineation of the story’s space suggests an underlying concern for realism despite Sammy’s lighthearted rhetorical style, which often relies on caricature. Sammy’s list of annotate website essay grocery items in the aisle is humorous, but it also indicates a deep sense of unease with the rampant consumerism in American culture. None of the foods Sammy lists are nutritious. They are all snack foods or condiments—or in the case of the pet foods, not for human consumption at all. Rather than a necessity for essay about around survival, Updike portrays grocery shopping as a lavish exercise in self-indulgence. By buying so many unnecessary items, he suggests that people abstract themselves from their physical existence as human beings.
Sammy’s sexual desire for the girls initially seems to be an antidote to this deadening consumerism. If the other shoppers have, in conforming, sacrificed their humanity, then the girls’ rebellion against social norms seems to annotate essay, be a refreshing dose of human vitality. This interpretation is upsc papers 2010 reinforced by their nakedness; by forgoing regular clothing and the conformity that comes with it, they embrace their fundamental human nature, and the beauty of this spectacle is essay stunning to all who witness it. However, there is an alternate interpretation of the girls’ nudity. Based! They are consumers just as much as the older shoppers are, and like those shoppers, they embrace unhealthy foods, looking at cookies before finally deciding to buy the herring snacks. They are conformists in their own way, with the queen leading the other two girls who timidly “peek around [the queen’s body] and [hunch] over a little” (597).
Although he knows nothing of their personalities and concedes that two of the girls are unattractive, Sammy still lusts after them. His sexual desire, then, is just as greedy and overindulgent as the shoppers’ desire for website essay snack foods. Over the course of essay traveling around his career, Updike has sometimes been accused of misogyny (Shapiro, Roiphe). Based on his descriptions of the women in the story, Sammy certainly seems to annotate, have a misogynist worldview. He insinuates that the young girls are catty exhibitionists, but the brunt of his contempt is reserved for older women. These middle-aged housewives, he suggests, are the engines of American consumerism, and he consistently belittles them, describing them as “houseslaves in pin curlers” (598). His account of the middle-aged woman at the beginning of “A P” is dehumanizing; he calls her a witch and compares her to a bird, calming her down by “[getting] her feathers smoothed and her goodies into a bag” (596).
Although the character’s outlook should not necessarily be extended to Updike himself, there are certainly grounds to essay about traveling, criticize his treatment of women. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-and-p-and-other-stories/study-guide/summary-a-and-p-part-1 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About AP and Other Stories AP and Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. AP and Other Stories Questions and annotate website Answers. Essay Traveling The World! The Question and Answer section for AP and website essay Other Stories is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at the A P, a large supermarket chain. He narrates a day at the store, complaining about customers who are mean or behave like sheep. By Zulfikar! He is annotate essay critical of the on edward, commercialism of annotate website modern culture. Three. Sammy thinks he experiences an epiphany for the rights of these girls but his decision to quit his job is really driven by teen angst and critical on edward albee sexual attraction. Check out this GradeSaver link below: Study Guide for AP and Other Stories. AP and Other Stories study guide contains a biography of John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. AP and Other Stories essays are academic essays for citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of AP and other short stories by website essay John Updike.
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lying essay This is for Shlomo Elfassy. I hate being lied to. Short of violence, it is the worst thing you can do to me. Annotate Website. Not because of God, or the Ten Commandments, or any universal moral precepts. The reason that I hate lies is because, like you, I wish to navigate carefully through life, and to do so I must be able to costing, calculate my true position. When you lie to me, you know your position but you have given me false data which obscures mine. Lying is theft. When you tell me something which I take to essay, be true and as a result I invest my time, or my money, or even my care, you have stolen these things from me because you obtained them with false information.
Lying creates inequality. Since you also do not like being lied to--I have never known anyone who wanted to be deceived-- you have acted as if there were two classes of humans: you, with the right to lie, and everyone else, who must be truthful to you so that you too will not lose your way. Lying treats people as means to the end you wish to accomplish, and not as ends in immerwahr, themselves. Lying is one of annotate those rare areas in which the moral rulebook and the legal one overlap each other quite neatly. Fraud is defined as an essay about, intentional falsehood on which another relies to his detriment.
A fraud is a lie writ large, often in a financial context, where the damage to annotate website, me is essay about traveling around, quantifiable in annotate website essay, money. Even those lies which the ghose essay law does not define as fraud tend to fit the annotate website same definition: a knowing false utterance which the mark is decomposition ghose essay, intended to rely on to his harm, and does. The only website, differences are of degree, for example, when we cannot assess the loss in money. The basic tenet that lying is wrong seems to be universal to by zulfikar ghose essay, all cultures, probably because humans are social animals. To live together in a society we must tell the annotate essay truth to each other about such basic matters as sources of food or of critical essays on edward danger.
Sissela Bok writes in annotate website essay, Lying: Moral Choice in activity, Public and annotate website, Private Life : A society, then, whose members were unable to about around, distinguish truthful messages from annotate essay deceptive ones, would collapse. Phd Thesis Wur. But even before such a general collapse, individual choice and survival would be imperilled. The search for essay, food and shelter could depend on no expectations from essay about traveling around others. A warning that a well was poisoned or a plea for help in an accident would come to be ignored unless independent confirmation could be found. Since even liars agree that lying is wrong, to the extent that they do not wish to annotate, be lied to essay costing, and to annotate essay, lose their way, there are some remarkable special cases in our society: we justify some lies and are resigned to others. Why does indignation fail in certain cases? Public and private spheres. Before looking at specific cases, I would like to dispose of the idea that, where lying is concerned, there is an important distinction to be made between public and private life. Some people believe lying is more justified in activity based, one area than the annotate website other. This can cut either way: we tolerate a politician who lies because he adores, and is rigorously faithful to, his wife of forty years. Or we excuse a friend's marital infidelity because we believe him to be of complete integrity in business relationships.
Ross Perot pointed out, correctly in my view, that where lying is concerned you cannot separate the spheres. He did not want adulterers working for him because any man who will lie to by zulfikar ghose essay, his wife will lie to annotate essay, me. You can test this assertion by asking yourself: why wouldn't he? Because his wife is dissertation, a thing to him but I am a person? There is essay, no answer to the question likely to inspire continuing confidence in the individual.
Once we know that another violated a relationship of trust and reliance, there is no moral distinction to be drawn based on the sphere in which the phd thesis wur deed occurred. Infidelity. Sexual infidelity has become so common in annotate website essay, our society that it is increasingly treated as if it were a sociological phenomenon rather than a moral issue: men are more likely to have multiple mates and families during life, women are more likely to have one. Decomposition By Zulfikar Ghose Essay. As Richard Dawkins teaches us in The Selfish Gene , both approaches can be evolutionarily successful strategies: investing maximum time in a few offspring gives them a better chance of website survival; having as many offspring as possible with multiple mates makes it likely that at least some will survive, though you have invested no time in them. Lying itself can be an eminently successful strategy; as Huxley pointed out in Darwin's lifetime, there is no overlap between evolution and ethics. Infidelity is of interest for our purposes here because it is involves lying (if we choose to have an open relationship, there is no infidelity, so the phrase itself requires that a lie have occurred). In being unfaithful, I create a situation in which my wife has a false view of reality: she loses her way.
She reposes all her trust and love in immerwahr dissertation, me based on an understanding that we are exclusive, that all my concern is invested in annotate website, her, and this understanding is completely false. She is in effect living in a house which may appear solid but has no foundation. I can't imagine a greater fraud than to essay about around the world, steal years of someone's life this way. Annotate. The opportunity costs are tremendous: your spouse had the opportunity to find someone else who was truthful and build a life with him and you robbed her of phd thesis wur that. The existence of sexually transmitted diseases makes infidelity even more horrendous. Even in annotate website essay, nonmarital relationships, deliberately tolerated or encouraged mismatches of expectations are quite common.
If one member of a couple has communicated a wish to be exclusive, in my rulebook the other has a reciprocal responsibility to be truthful about whether or not this is agreeable. The consequences of lying are not just emotional but because of disease, may bring severe physical harm. There are many people who contracted AIDS from daniel immerwahr dissertation a companion they thought was faithful, but even if the ailment is merely an itch curable by penicillin you had no right to make me run a risk I never chose to undertake, any more than you have the right to steal an hour of annotate essay my time with a lie. Several human conventions and self-deceptions interfere with the perception that infidelity involves a horrendous lie. Feminism temporarily clouded the around the world issue because of ancient concepts of property lying at the roots of marriage and sexual relationships.
If the man is a master, free to act as he pleases, and the woman a chattel, infidelity restores the balance by granting the woman some autonomy. Concepts of turning the tables, of two wrongs make a right do not end inequality; they promote or exploit it. Once relationships are reconceived as a partnership of annotate website equals, having nothing to do with mastery or property, the phd thesis wur obligation of website truthfulness comes to the fore, as it does in any kind of partnership. Another human convention about infidelity seems to be based merely on the fact that it has become so common. We reverse engineer morality from ubiquity; in other words, we cease believing that anything so prevalent can be wrong (a similar mental accomodation led many to tolerate human slavery.) People commonly remain friendly with someone who told the essay activity costing most appalling lies to a spouse. A related kind of tolerance is annotate website essay, engendered sometimes from the lack of legal consequences; we sometimes confuse the legal plane with the moral, so as to say that if the behavior does not result in a judgment for damages, it is not wrong in a fundamental sense. Ironically, the reconception of marriage as a partnership of equals in this case has had the decomposition by zulfikar ghose unintended consequence of diminishing our sense of shock at adultery. Two career marriages are common, and alimony almost unknown today; therefore there is increasingly a conception that someone who did not end up in annotate, a mess (struggling to take care of phd thesis wur two families) could not have done something wrong. Annotate Website Essay. (Of course, when adulterers more commonly ended up in essay traveling around the world, financially untenable situations, this as frequently excited the compassion of the annotate website people around them. My wife remembers bitterly the friends who said, But he's a student! when she expressed an decomposition ghose essay, expectation that her estranged first husband would contribute to the support of their child.) But it is incorrect to work backwards from annotate website essay a lack of consequences to the morality of an action; human life is inherently ragged and uneven and an action violating a moral rule does not inevitably lead to phd thesis wur, any punishment.
Another set of excuses arise from a loss of annotate website essay respect for the institution of marriage. Just as women, treated as chattels, may have regarded infidelity as a way to restore their self-respect, men who feel that they were dragged into rather than choosing marriage have long justified infidelity as if it were a dessert which you eat to comfort yourself at the end of a bad day. There is an entire literary genre of the 1960's, which I find to decomposition by zulfikar, be infantile and unreadable: the annotate website self-pitying novel of adultery, by a male author, presumably autobiographical, where marriage is portrayed as an absurd collection of social expectations which the protagonist undertakes because he has no choice and because society expects it. This is the novel of I live in on edward albee, the suburbs, my wife is website, a stranger, I am alienated, and dissertation, my nubile young student represents freedom. Such excuses are pathetic because they justify lies by denying that the website liar is essay activity based costing, a moral actor: he is essay, just a chip in a billow, carried into marriage.
By blaming society, his or her parents, the phd thesis wur spouse, everyone but himself, he obscures what is essentially a simple situation: as a moral actor, he has a responsibility either to make it work, as earlier generations did, or not to be there. Annotate Website Essay. But the not to be there must also be seen through a lens of daniel dissertation moral responsibility, because where there has been very substantial reliance, make it work may be the annotate website only moral choice. Otherwise its too facile. She invested thirty years of her life in me, but she's not who I thought, so I'm going to abandon her and start over, should not be an easy or common choice. I love being married. Marriage in my book is about equality, partnership and essay about the world, truth.
The ideal is website, a relationship of phd thesis wur complete trust and website essay, corresponding simplicity, the most uncomplicated and invigorating atmosphere on earth. Lying in business. Commerce is an ancient and respectable human activity that predates written language. If I have extra wheat and phd thesis wur, you have extra apples, lets work out a trade. While to many people today, lying and business are as inextricably entangled as deceit and war, there is annotate website essay, nothing about the phd thesis wur fundamental nature of commerce which dictates that lying form an essential part. A business organization is annotate website, a form of human community dedicated to essay based, commerce. As such, it can be based on the same assumptions as any other type of community: that people are ends, not means, and annotate, that the community is formed for essays on edward albee, the benefit of all. While a few businesses are run so that the employees are all equal (co-ops and ESOP's), even those more hierarchically organized can be based on the premise that people treated with honesty and concern will respond with loyalty and hard work. If this sounds impossibly idealistic, it is not.
I am a businessman and have founded and run companies based on annotate, this premise. Companies, like any other community, are held together by a type of glue. In political communities, there are three types available, fear, greed or loyalty; businesses are usually based on phd thesis wur, either greed or loyalty, as fear does not apply when there is a large choice of other communities which can be easily joined by changing jobs. People may work in a business based on lies without being disturbed by it if they are resigned to it and especially if the lies do not impact them personally (similar to the tolerance of adultery by website friends mentioned above.) They may tolerate an environment in essay activity costing, which they are routinely lied to if the financial opportunity is large enough and especially if they are of the type who can thrive in annotate, an environment of lies. Phd Thesis Wur. However, I believe most people would prefer, if the opportunity exists, to website, work in a company whose goals they approve and which treats them as human beings and about around the world, not as things. If I am correct about this, then it follows that they look to business leadership with the same standards as any other kind of website essay leadership. They may be resigned to a lack of phd thesis wur integrity, but it nevertheless remains an essay, ideal. Businesses can be tremendously successful without engaging in fraud. Essay Costing. While we may be suckered into buying products that are highly hyped, we also have a special affection for, and annotate, often a lifelong relationship to, products that accomplish a job unpretentiously and about which no extraordinary claims are made.
I value the car I drive, and phd thesis wur, will buy another of the website same kind, because it hasn't broken down in six years, not because I believe that by owning it I am younger or better-looking than I actually am. One of the companies in which I worked had a business model which was ninety percent sales and around, ten percent implementation. I am not implying any dishonesty built into the model; there are businesses where finding the opportunity is most of the work, and delivering the result is much easier. Through years of close involvement with the salespeople, during which time I assisted in solving various conflicts and ethical dilemmas, I learned that sales, which has such a bad reputation, can itself be a business of great integrity. At its most transparent, sales involves the matching of a problem and website, a solution, or a need and the thing which satisfies it.
The salesperson, rather than lying to the purchaser and getting him to want something unsuitable, can simply work to eliminate the friction of the system by honestly addressing the purchaser's concerns. There is an incentive to be honest in costing, business, as in annotate website essay, other kinds of activities, which works entirely on a practical and not a moral plane. Customers who discover that they have been lied to will not return; employees who have been lied to will leave, and it will become harder to recruit new ones. Critical Albee. These practical incentives do not always work (economic necessity, the lack of choice, or simply the ease of website obfuscation and difficulty of transmitting information, may be enough to counter them.) Nevertheless, they work enough of the time that the consequences of deception provide a practical brake on the system. Leadership and Lying.
A study done right after World War II concluded that soldiers did not fight for the American flag, or some devout conception of country or democracy, or for the president. Essay Activity Costing. They fought for the other members of annotate website their squad, the dissertation smallest unit of the huge community of which they were members. The squad may also have been the only unit in which they could have been certain there was rigorous honesty among the members. In the squad, lies could be most easily detected and their consequences were most grave. Since our daily survival depends on our watching each other's backs, if you are not carrying the weight, if you are making excuses and annotate website essay, taking more from me than you are giving, I will certainly know. In a primal unit dedicated entirely to survival, there is no room for liars.
It is interesting to compare the beauty and about traveling the world, simplicity of the website squad with the larger components of the community. Why would we not hope for the same clarity in the larger groups that we found in the smallest one? Who wouldn't want to ghose, be able to look at the captain, the colonel or the general with the same implicit trust one felt for one's squad mates? That we regard this as a naive aspiration is based on experience and resignation, not on our desire for a rulebook which permits lying. These distinctions are built into our vocabulary: we talk about politicians lying, not leaders; not every politician is a leader, not even one in a position of website essay ostensible leadership. A leader is phd thesis wur, like a flag: we want to know what he stands for website, in order to salute him. Phd Thesis Wur. We want him to take our side, solve our problems, treat us as people rather than chattel, and website, be responsive to our opinions. Essay The World. His honesty is the cornerstone of the structure; if we catch him lying to us it is impossible to annotate website, be confident he is carrying out the rest of his mission.
While many people are resigned to being lied to by politicians, few will defend the premise that a leader should lie to us for our own good. Even liars want the people around them to be truthful, so that they do not lose their own way. A leader who is phd thesis wur, tasked with acting as navigator for an entire community must seek to have people around him who will give him rigorously accurate information, so he does not crash the vessel on the rocks. If he is a liar, he has arrogated the right to himself to be the only one in website, the system, as he could not do his job if the others around him behaved as he did. Note that I make the essay costing assumption that lies cannot be contained, while many lying leaders assume they can. We can all collaborate to lie to the public, as long as we are honest with one another: this was the ethic of the Nixon administration and of many other governments through-out history. Crisis situations tend to annotate website essay, bring out this ethic; in crises, war being a prime example, conventional rulebooks are suspended and fraud (alongside force) is dissertation, engaged to achieve our goals.
As Sissela Bok points out, apologists for annotate website, lying have long maintained that there are people to whom we owe no obligation of truth. Science Papers. The starkest example is the murderer who asks you where his intended victim is hiding. This hypothetical, discussed by every philosopher who has analyzed the phenomenon of lying, divides the absolutists from the relativists. Annotate Website. Kant, an absolutist, maintained we must not even lie to a murderer. Most of upsc political mains papers 2010 us would find this lie completely justified, even if there was no other lie we would ever tell. At the other extreme, we may create structures in website essay, which we owe no obligation of truth to large groups of people, based on such factors as race, geographical origin, economic status, or the mere fact that they are our followers.
Here the exception winds up eating the rule: we may have no obligation of political mains honesty to anyone except a select few--and we may even betray those when there is something else to be gained. We can call this the annotate website essay organized crime theory of leadership. Human inertia leads to complacency sometimes. We tolerate the harm a friend did another because we do not want to give up a friend. We tolerate even more dishonesty in the workplace, because we do not want to leave a job. The unwillingness to take action or make significant changes in our lives thus promotes lying to ourselves. Essay About Traveling The World. Sometimes we render a lie innocuous by regarding it as an extraordinary event. Someone told a lie to annotate website, promote a particularly important goal, but now that things have returned to decomposition by zulfikar ghose essay, normal he will return to truth and I can count on him. The problem is that this flies in the face of human nature. Website Essay. Just as bodies in motion tend to remain in motion, liars who have succeeded in obtaining something important through a falsehood should be expected to utter another one when there is something else to obtain.
Lies become habitual and the goals may be of decreasing importance. The belief that lies can be contained within neat temporal, geographical or ethnic lines is disproved by experience. [F]ew lies, says Bok, are solitary ones: The first lie 'must be thatched with another or it will rain through.' More and more lies may come to be needed; the liar always has more mending to do. And the strains on critical essays albee, him become greater each time. After the first lies, moreover, others can come more easily. Psychological barriers wear down; lies seem more necessary, less reprehensible; the ability to make moral distinctions can coarsen. A man who has obtained a leadership position through a lie faces an interesting challenge. If he cannot convince the people around him that there was no lie, then he must try to persuade them that it was the last one; in other words, that lies can be contained.
Since his entire authority, the position itself, was obtained by annotate website essay that lie, it will be a very difficult task. It is on a moral plane with: We had to commit one murder to achieve our goals, but there will never be another. In life, as in the movies, everyone usually has their knives out a remarkably short time after this statement is made. In the upsc political science question papers 2010 graphic hypothetical of the killer seeking his victim, we face an extraordinary situation. The rules have broken down (or the authorities who could apply them cannot reach us in time) and we are in a state of nature where the individual we are facing is prepared to apply force. However, even in this situation we have other choices. We could respond with force, or run away, or refuse to answer. The fact that a lie may be the most practical response does not mean it complies with our rulebook. Nor are we compelled to rewrite the rules to accomodate it. Here we face the old confusion between the moral and practical. Most moral rulebooks do not attempt to annotate, incorporate the practical at all turns. (If they did, only one rule would be necessary: Anything practical is mains papers, acceptable.) It may be highly practical to throw some people from the annotate website essay lifeboat when the waves get high or food is short (it may be even more practical to kill and decomposition, eat them.) But under most of our rulebooks, it would be a highly unethical choice.
Thus the statement I had to lie is never true, because there are other choices which we evaluated but found too costly. A common experience of my generation was the choice of whether to annotate, lie to avoid the draft during Vietnam. Dissertation. (I turned 18 the year the draft ended. I had already formulated the ideas I am expressing here,but I cannot say with certainty that I would have had the courage of my convictions.) On the one hand, most people who evaded the website draft had a genuine belief that the war was immoral. Decomposition By Zulfikar Essay. On the other hand, many missed the fact that draft evasion was not a moral choice, nor was it in any way (because concealed) an act of protest. Annotate Website. On a spectrum of moral statement, two other choices were more honest. The highest form of protest, involving the most personal risk, was to phd thesis wur, refuse to serve and accept the website essay consequences. Few people had the courage to do this. Another choice was to upsc political mains question, withdraw from the essay community altogether and go live in another country, which more people did.
Draft evaders, by contrast, became free riders who continued to accept the benefits of daniel immerwahr American society without paying the price that society demanded in annotate, return. As such, they were on the same moral plane as welfare cheats and anyone else who obtains something on false pretenses. In a Hobbesian state of nature, we may face stark choices. In wars, good men may face each other every day in circumstances which they did not choose and from which only one can emerge alive. Still, there is a choice made, to kill and live, where another path was available (to die rather than kill.) The choice to live, though natural and understandable, need not be elevated into a moral imperative. Upsc Papers. In fact, it is not under most rulebooks; think again about the lifeboat example, where we are not permitted to kill other inhabitants of the boat, even to ensure our own survival. Lies and violence can be viewed similarly. Lies are never necessary and when applied to protect an important interest, like survival, never need to be elevated to the level of a morally acceptable choice. Our rulebooks, after all, are compilations of the ways we should behave.
If riddled with exceptions, they lose simplicity and efficacy and become mere sociological mirrors of actuality. Aren't there white lies? It is very hard to say what these are. Essay. Personally, I feel better saying nothing about your appalling tie than praising it falsely. Though I have told enough lies to phd thesis wur, get out of social engagements I wanted to annotate website essay, avoid, I believe today that an accretion of such lies, however trivial, undermines the trust we feel for another human being in more significant matters. It is hard to by zulfikar ghose essay, say that any lie is annotate website essay, wholly beneficial or otherwise completely without consequences. When my grandfather had leukemia, his doctor did not tell him; the conventional medical wisdom of the 1950's said it was merciful to lie. About. In my opinion, he was robbed of the opportunity to navigate his life knowingly in the light of a major obstacle in website, the landscape. When my father contracted lymphoma, medical ethics had changed, and he was told everything from the start. When my own cancer arrives, I expect to essay traveling the world, be treated no differently.
A very common and trivial lie involves deceiving someone about which others possess certain information. Many, perhaps most, promises of confidentiality are deceptive because privately conditional: I have the mental reservation (which I do not communicate to annotate website essay, you) that I will not tell anyone except my wife, or a friend whom I trust also to keep the secret. I told a memorable lie of this type, which backfired. (It was an important goal to include in this essay at essays, least one example of a lie I told, so as not to create a false impression that I have never lied.) Within a company, I was in an ambiguous situation of having two bosses: I was on loan from annotate Boss 1 to albee, Boss 2 (who did not want my help and regarded me as a spy for Boss 1.) Someone made a comment in internal email in annotate website essay, Boss 2's group which I knew would anger Boss 1. I told Boss 1 about it in confidence. Boss 2 asked me if I had told anyone and I said no. I was uncomfortable with the question, which I certainly could have answered honestly, and I took the activity based line of least resistance. Website. Boss 1 was so angered by the comment that he responded in email to the entire group, establishing me as a liar. My already difficult relations with Boss 2 and his group were now further undercut; I was publicly shamed and I can't say I fully recovered from this in my dealings with Boss 2. Yet the lie, at the moment I told it, seemed a very trivial one. I thought it would never be detected, so there would be no consequences. Phd Thesis Wur. Also, I believed it was not a lie uttered in order to obtain a benefit on false pretenses.
In reality, it was, because what I was trying to obtain was the continued level of trust, however small, which Boss 2 placed in me before I told the lie. Another common excuse for annotate website essay, a lie is daniel immerwahr, that it is uttered in annotate website essay, response to essay activity based costing, an intrusive, inappropriate question. I probably thought Boss 2 really had no right to ask me what I had or hadn't told Boss 1. Some people made this excuse for Bill Clinton lying about Monica Lewinsky: that the press had no right to inquire into his private life. Annotate Website. However, even if we claim a distinction (which I rejected above) between the essay costing moral implications of private and public behavior, this is a very weak excuse. The President could have told the truth or refused to answer. It would be refreshing to hear a public figure say, That's none of your damn business once in a while. By lying, he did himself immense public damage, of which the website essay impeachment trial was the most visible and expensive consequence.
Truth stands as an absolute value, the phd thesis wur glue which binds the rulebook. When regard for truth has been broken down or even slightly weakened, says St. Augustine (quoted by Bok), all things will remain doubtful.
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darwiniana essays Links to our Past. THE ESSAY in science is an art form as well as a means of communicating ideas. All scientists publish their findings somewhere, but relatively few produce books or monographs. Annotate Essay? Even fewer produce essays.
Modern readers who are interested in evolution or natural history usually recognize the phd thesis wur, names Gould, Zimmer and Dawkins as essayists. But relatively few are those who have read Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky and many older writers. All of essay these authors are worth reading today. In some cases they are worth reading not only for phd thesis wur, the beauty of their prose and the forcefulness of their argument, but also to discover what earlier generations of scientists once thought. Darwin and Wallace are omitted here on purpose. You will find them on my Darwiniana Page. Formerly a senior editor at Discover magazine he now writes for annotate essay, National Geographic, Science, Audubon , and Natural History , where he succeeds Steve Gould with a regular column on upsc political science mains question, evolution. Website? His journalism prizes include the Pan-American Health Organization Award for Excellence in science papers, International Health Reporting, the American Institute Biological Sciences Media Award, and the Everett Clark Award for science writing. After a Lost Balloon : Chapter 1 from website essay At The Water's Edge : Fish with fingers, whales with legs, and how life came ashore but then went back to sea. Critical Essays On Edward? The story of vertebrate evolution and the closing of Romer's Gap. Essay? Amazon.com book details.
A professor of cell biology at Brown University, Dr. Miller wears a number of other hats. With co-author Joe Levine he has written a series of biology textbooks emphasizing evolution. His book Finding Darwin's God is an excellent response to the creationism and about around the world intelligent design movements. His essays, participation in creationism debates, and appearances in PBS and other documentaries on evolution give him a high public profile. Click on essay, books covers for reviews and purchasing details at Amazon.com.
Top Ten Facts about the Human Genome : This is a short course by Professor Miller that might whet your appetite for more information about about the world human genetics and DNA. Dr. Gould succeeded Dr. Mayr in the teaching chair at Harvard. Through his many books and monthly essays in Natural History magazine he became the annotate website, foremost popularizer of evolution in the United States. His incisive wit and pugnacious character, not to mention his polymath brilliance, cast him in upsc mains question papers 2010, the roll of the teacher you had to love or hate. His last book, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory was far too long. His life was far too short. Darwin's More Stately Mansion : A famous Victorian story reports the reaction of an aristocratic lady to the primary heresy of her time: Let us hope that what Mr. Darwin says is not true; but, if it is annotate website essay true, let us hope that it will not become generally known.
To my mind Dr. Dawkins has been to the UK what Dr. Gould has been to science mains question papers 2010, the USA, its finest teacher of evolution. Equally witty and pugnacious, I consider Dr. Dawkins' essay The Forty-fold Path to Enlightenment (in his book Climbing Mount Improbable ) one of the website essay, finest pieces of writing in natural history. Dawkins holds the Charles Simonyi Professorship in the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. An Open Letter to Prince Charles : Your Reith lecture saddened me.
I have deep sympathy for immerwahr dissertation, your aims, and website admiration for your sincerity. But your hostility to science will not serve those aims; and your embracing of an ill-assorted jumble of mutually contradictory alternatives will lose you the respect that I think you deserve. Click on a book cover to see reviews and purchasing details at phd thesis wur Amazon.com. Branching Out : Could multiple species of early hominids have existed side by side? This is a review by Dawkins of the book Extinct Humans by Ian Tattersall and Jeffrey H. Schwartz. Best known for his books bearing upon the Evolution-Creationism debates, Dr. Ruse is a polymathic philosopher and historian of annotate website science, particularly with respect to the history of evolutionary thought. Based largely on his testimony, Creation Science was defeated in Arkansas in 1981 as being devoid of science. His book Can a Darwinian be a Christian should be required reading for all fundamentalists. Darwinism and Atheism: A Marriage Made in Heaven? : Somewhat immodestly let me elevate myself up to the status of essay about around the world Wilson, Dawkins, Dennett, and Lewontin, and consider a Darwinism-based argument which I have myself put forward against Christian belief.
Click on a book cover to see reviews and purchasing details at Amazon.com. Darwin's New Critics on Trial: Irreducible Complexity : from Taking Darwin Seriously . Annotate Website Essay? The new Creationists have recently started to break from their strategy of unrelenting attack. Thanks to biochemist Michael J. Behe, author of Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution , they have started to lift the veil from their own beliefs about origins qua science. Probably unheard of by most readers of this website, Dr. Forsdyke is upsc question papers unusual among modern essayists in science. While he has published a great deal in essay, technical journals of science and has two recent books to his credit, his work as an essayist is presented almost exclusively on his own academic website in well written and highly illustrated pages. It is to daniel, be hoped that this body of work will survive his tenure in academia.
Pellegrino University Research Professor and Honorary Curator in website, Entomology at Harvard University, Wilson is the author of 18 books, 2 of which have received the Pulitzer Prize; an ardent defender of the critical essays, liberal arts; and a promoter of global conservation of species and natural ecosystems. Annotate Essay? Founded the phd thesis wur, discipline of Sociobiology, more commonly called Evolutionary Psychology today, and annotate essay cofounded the critical on edward, study of island biogeography. A Global Biodiversity Map : Commentary in website, Science 289 (5488):2279 . Upsc 2010? As genomics and biomedicine are to human health, so ecology and conservation biology are to the planet's health. Unfortunately, compared with their sister disciplines, ecology and conservation biology are still disadvantaged. Click on essay, a book cover to see reviews and purchasing details at Amazon.com. The Biological Basis of Morality : in The Atlantic . Essay About Traveling Around The World? Do we invent our moral absolutes in order to make society workable? Or are these enduring principles expressed to us by website essay, some transcendent or Godlike authority? Efforts to resolve this conundrum have perplexed, sometimes inflamed, our best minds for centuries, but the natural sciences are telling us more and more about the choices we make and our reasons for making them. Dr.
Mayr helped establish the neodarwinian synthesis and was a tireless teacher of evolution. His work, combined with that of critical essays on edward albee Dobzhansky and Simpson who are also represented here, established the basis for the modern theory of evolution. In addition to careers in Ornithology, Taxonomy and Systematics, he was a Professor of Zoology and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard and director of its Museum of Comparative Zoology. Ernst Mayr died on February 3, 2005, at annotate website the age of 100. What is a Species, and What is Not? : The Old Man of American Biology reviews the variety of species concepts, especially his Biological Species Concept, and responds to his critics. Originally published in Philosophy of political science 2010 Science 63:262-277  and here borrowed from the AAAS website.
Click on a book cover to see reviews and purchasing details at Amazon.com. Darwin's Influence on Modern Thought : This article is based on essay, 1999 lecture that Mayr delivered in Stockholm on receiving the Crafoord Prize from the Royal Swedish Academy of Science. Great minds shape the thinking of successive historical periods. Luther and Calvin inspired the Reformation; Locke, Leibniz, Voltaire and Rousseau, the Enlightenment. Modern thought is most dependent on the influence of Charles Darwin. See my separate page What Evolution Is for commentary about Dr. Decomposition Essay? Mayr, more of his essays, and a complete list of website his books. Dr. Simpson was a paleontologist and phd thesis wur taxonomist whose influential text The Principles of Classification and a Classification of the Mammals  remained the standard for treatment of the subject for many years. His was the last of website a series of major publications, by authors from several different disciplines, that became known as the neodarwinian synthesis, the foundation for modern-day evolutionary biology.
Born in Russia where he trained as an essay about around the world entomologist, Dr. Dobzhansky emigrated to the USA where his research with fruit flies led to many publications in genetics. He was one of the principle founders of the neodarwinian synthesis and trained many students in biology, genetics and evolutionary theory. Annotate? In contradististinction to some other noted scientists of phd thesis wur his time, Dr. Dhobzhansky never relinquished his religious orthodoxy. Evolution in the Tropics : American Scientist 38 (2): 209-221 .
Natural selection augments the frequency of favorable types and reduces the frequency of unfavorable types. Populations thus react to changes in annotate website essay, their environment by adaptive modifications. This is one of the rare occasions when evolutionary changes taking place in nature under the influence of natural selection can actually be observed in the process of happening. A mathematician perhaps best known for Haldane's Dilemma, he was one of the major synthesizers of evolutionary theory in the 1930s. Based? Unfortunately, not many of his writings are currently on the Internet. Those that are tend toward his viewpoints on politics and religion.
He has been enshrined in the mythology of science for remarks attributed to him about God's fondness for beetles—He made so many of them.. On Being the Right Size : Haldane's essay is widely anthologized and frequently quoted, at least when the subject of biological scaling crops up. Sir Ronald Fisher was a geneticist and a founder of classical statistical analysis. His book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection in 1930 helped pave the way for the modern Darwinian synthesis, giving it strong mathematical and statistical support. He was Galton Professor of Eugenics at the University of London and annotate website essay later Balfour Professor of Genetics at the University of Cambridge. He ended his career in Australia. Collected Papers of R. A. Fisher Relating to Genetics, Evolution and Eugenics : These are all large files in .pdf format and are more than 65 papers published in The Collected Papers of R.A. Fisher edited by essay activity, J.H. Bennett and published in five volumes by annotate, the University of Adelaide between 1971 and 1974. In most cases the papers are highly technical and might not be of interest to the general reader. One might at least view the list of titles to see the daniel dissertation, breadth of research that Fisher conducted.
A tireless advocate of Evolutionary Theory, Professor Huxley took on Richard Owen, Bishop Wilberforce—any and all of Darwin's critics—even though he did not fully accept all of Darwin's ideas. He was also a tireless advocate for secular public education and the professionalization of science. Like A. R. Wallace he was outspoken on a wide range of issues. He is credited with having coined the term agnosticism . America's leading botanist in the mid-19th century, and Darwin's strongest early supporter in the USA, in 1857 he became only the third scientist (after Hooker and Lyell) to learn of the theory from Darwin. He debated L. Essay? Agassiz between 1859 and phd thesis wur 1861 on variation and geographic distribution. His discovery of close affinities between East Asian and North American floras was a key piece of evidence in favor of evolution. Natural Science and Religion : I am invited to address you upon the relations of website science to religion, in reference, as I suppose, to those claims of natural science which have been thought to be antagonistic to religion, and to those assumptions connected with the essay activity based costing, Christian faith which scientific men in our day are disposed to question. . A zoologist and paleontologist, Agassiz came to the USA in 1846, becoming a professor at Harvard in 1848. He acquiring funding for and built the Museum of Comparative Zoology in 1860. He urged the creation of a National Academy of Sciences, becoming a founding member in 1863, and was appointed a regent of the Smithsonian Institution.
Yet, until his death, he was passionate in his opposition to Darwinian evolution. Geographical Distribution of Animals : Christian Examiner and Religious Miscellany 48 (2):181-204 . The leading anatomist and annotate website essay paleontologist in England during the period of Darwin's voyage and essay traveling around later writings, Darwin turned over to Owen the fossils he collected for description. Owen was later a leading opponent of Darwin's ideas about annotate website evolution and engaged in lengthy and acrimonious public debates with Thomas Huxley, Darwin's principle defender. About? Owen's review of On the Origin of Species is available here. In October of 1844, a small bomb went off in the world of British science.
The bomb took the annotate, form of a 400-page book with the grand title Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, presenting a comprehensive account of the history of the Earth, from the formation of the Solar System through the development of plant and animal life, up to the origins of phd thesis wur humankind. Strangely, there was no author's name on the cover. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation : [1844 1st ed. in HTML format] : (anonymous). J. Churchill, 390 pp., . This was a book that everyone seemed to criticize. But read it they did, and it sold many more copies than Darwin's On The Origin of Species . A number of website noted personalities were evolutionists before Darwin published, based on the reading of this book. Essay Traveling Around? President Abraham Lincoln was one of them. Also available as Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation : [1857 ed. as full-page photos]
During Darwin's lifetime Lyell was the world's leading exponent of geology and annotate website essay one of the principle influences on Darwin's thinking. Few people realize that Darwin's original contributions to science were mainly books on geology. Traveling? Lyell was Darwin's main sounding board during the 20 years he spent developing the Theory of Evolution, but Lyell never completely agreed with Darwin about natural selection or the descent of annotate website essay man. The Progress Of Geology : A chapter from Lyell's classic Principles of Geology [1830 and many revisions]. Remembered principally as the inventor of the forerunner of the calculating computer, Babbage was a leader in several scientific societies and he held the Lucasian Chair in Mathematics at Cambridge University. A polymath, he helped establish the modern British postal system and compiled the first reliable actuarial tables. He also participated in the pre-Darwinian debates in natural theology, contributing to the Bridgewater Treatises. The Ninth Bridgewater Treatise : 2nd Ed., London, . The first class of truths then (those of Pure Mathematics) appears to rest on necessity. The second, (the Laws of Nature,) on necessity and our external senses. The third, (those of Natural Religion,) on our external senses and essay activity based internal consciousness.
The last, (those of Revelation,) on annotate website essay, human testimony. I have placed them in traveling around, the only order which, in my opinion, is consistent with truth; convinced that it is more injurious to religion to overrate, than to undervalue the cogency of the website, evidence on which it rests. Working at the Musee National d'Histoire Naturelle, Cuvier established the fact of past extinction, founded vertebrate paleontology as a scientific discipline and created the comparative method of organismal biology. Albee? He argued for periodic revolutionary episodes in earth history that replaced whole suites of organisms. Annotate Essay? His geological study of the Paris basin with Alexandre Brongniart established basic principles of biostratigraphy. William Strata Smith, a civil engineer and surveyor, was well acquainted with areas in southern England where limestone and daniel immerwahr dissertation shales are layered like slices of bread and butter. His hobby of collecting and cataloging fossil shells from these rocks led to the discovery that certain layers contained fossils unlike those in other layers. Using these key or index fossils as markers, Smith could identify a particular layer of rock wherever it was exposed. Strata Identified by Organized Fossils : [1816-1819]. Essay? A facsimile edition in daniel, four parts with explanatory notes. Known primarily for his rejected concept of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, Lamarck was, nevertheless, one of the most important scientists of his day.
He made many contributions to botany, museum curatorship, invertebrate paleontology and taxonomy. His concept of acquired characteristics was in part adopted by Darwin and retained followers within science up to the 1930s, until set aside by discoveries in genetics. Zoological Philosophy . Website? Of the considerations relevant to the natural history of animals; to the diversity of phd thesis wur their organic structure and of the faculties which they derive from it; to the physical causes sustaining life in essay, them and producing the movements which they carry out; finally, to those causes which produce feeling in phd thesis wur, some and intelligence in others endowed with it. For many years Paley's writings in moral and website political philosophy served as the basic texts and doctrines at Cambridge University. All students had to read them and Darwin was no exception. Paley's analogy of the watch requiring a watchmaker remains the central tenet for those who claim evidence of design in nature (the Intelligent Design movement).
Darwin later refuted Paley, and Richard Dawkins et al., continue to do so today. Natural Theology : or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity [12th ed. 1809]. Albee? Downloadable text file. Darwin was, during his university years, a student of Paley writings, and much of annotate what Darwin later wrote refuted this work by demonstrating the on edward, haphazard and contingent nature of annotate website essay evolution. A Scottish geologist and naturalist, Hutton is recognized as the originator of one of the fundamental principles of geology, that of uniformitarianism, which explains the features of the Earth's crust by means of natural processes operating over geologic time. Hutton's 1785 publication led, within just a few decades, to the almost total abandonment of the concept that the based, Earth was formed just a few thousand years ago. Theory of the Earth Or an Investigation of the Laws Observable in the Composition, Dissolution, and website Restoration of Land upon the Globe . When we trace the parts of which this terrestrial system is composed, and when we view the general connection of those several parts, the whole presents a machine of upsc question 2010 a peculiar construction by which it is annotate website essay adapted to a certain end. We perceive a fabric, erected in wisdom, to obtain a purpose worthy of the upsc political 2010, power that is apparent in the production of it.
In the tradition of essay science in his time, Gilbert White was a clergyman in the Anglican Church of England. Education in natural history was a normal part of the education of those persons destined to take holy orders, and much of what we think of as published science in that era was the recording by clergymen of observations made in geology and field biology. White's Natural History of Selborne is a classic of the genre. The bulk of the based costing, work is composed of a series of letters sent to two sponsors over a period of many years. Early Classics in website essay, Biogeography, Distribution, and upsc science mains question papers 2010 Diversity Studies : Up to 1950, a collection of essays that may be difficult to find elsewhere.
A number of them are listed here, but there are many more. Send suggestions, additions, corrections to Richard White at R. White.