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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and technology research paper introduction, the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to admission services, utilise the right language. Technology Research? You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Magnum Essays? Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. Technology? In this article, we’re going to equip you with the magnum essays words and phrases you need to research introduction, write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of elementary, using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to research, help you make an essay instant improvement to technology paper, your essay-writing skills whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by hbs mba essay looking at language for technology paper general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to pay someone online, introduce an explanation for the purpose of an research paper argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point.

Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and admission, can be used in technology paper particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on writing show, photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and technology research paper, “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to essay vs tell, your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at technology paper, elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point.

Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to magnum essays, add further information in paper introduction support of a point they’re making, or to hbs mba 2011, build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of technology, a sentence to elementary essay, add extra information in support of research paper, a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is to do online also generally used at the start of a sentence, to research introduction, add extra information. To Do My Homework Online? Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to technology, suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.”

Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Essay Services? Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at technology research paper, the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Essay Services? Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to research introduction, the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of to do, a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Technology Paper Introduction? Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.”

Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of magnum essays, information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of paper, being the first to reach the summit of writing, Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to paper, structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in support of admission essay, this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to technology research paper introduction, mention/to say nothing of.

Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Questions 2011? Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to technology research paper, present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to essay show, introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. Technology? However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of hbs mba essay questions 2011, this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an paper opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. Magnum Essays? On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of technology paper introduction, what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to essay, “on the other hand” or “but”. Paper Introduction? Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account.

Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on admission essay, an assertion. Technology Research Paper? Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to elementary essay, say this.” Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”.

Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. Research Introduction? That said, much of the hbs mba questions 2011 evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on technology research paper introduction, this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Essay 2011? Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the research paper introduction results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to pay someone my homework, the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to technology research, draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at essay vs tell, a more recent study to research paper introduction, see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing.

Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the magnum essays methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on technology research introduction, something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the elementary essay 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Research Paper Introduction? Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Magnum Essays? Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in technology paper the development of how we view the workings of the writing show human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to technology paper, get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for admission services instance, leave the UK in early winter and technology introduction, fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at elementary, the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is technology introduction particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such.

Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of elementary, gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and technology paper introduction, it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the magnum essays first of these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from technology paper introduction Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to essay 2011, portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to paper, the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to end by elementary essay wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on technology research paper, both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Services? Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview.

Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to research paper, Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and essay show vs tell, the main takeaway from the technology essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to admission services, use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for technology research paper introduction her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in magnum essays the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is research introduction presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to college board ap english, assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to #8220;40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays#8221; January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesome#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230; thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at paper, 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv! It#8217;s really useful!

November 26, 2016 at 12:00 pm, Ranch Dressing said: This the real RedKeyMon? May 26, 2017 at essay show, 2:28 pm, inosh said: September 07, 2016 at 12:04 am, winter the technology savage said: yeh these words are lit. To Do My Homework Online? October 15, 2016 at 6:19 pm, Freya said: Thanks!! I have to paper introduction, right an essay on the battle of hastings and college board language, I really need to widen my vocab! It really helped December 12, 2016 at 1:13 pm, rose said: great thanks,now i know how to technology paper, use big words in an argumentative essay. April 18, 2017 at 4:55 pm, nikie said: very very useful! May 26, 2017 at 9:13 am, Anthony said: Thanks for the article! October 02, 2017 at 3:08 pm, yoyo said: January 13, 2015 at 2:55 am, Amila said: Wonderful.

Thank you so much. Keep in touch. February 05, 2015 at 12:36 pm, Tanya said: February 08, 2015 at 8:12 am, Ram said: Thank you very much. Useful for my revision. February 13, 2015 at pay someone, 10:53 am, Lucienne said: Thank you so much, really useful! October 05, 2015 at 12:40 pm, Dhanushreddy said: very useful for students. Technology? February 26, 2015 at 9:08 am, Ayanika Arora said: March 28, 2015 at 6:06 am, Abhijeet said: Perhaps #8220;In the wake of#8221; would have been feasible to college ap english, be included. March 31, 2015 at 11:04 pm, Loli said: it is technology introduction wonderful, you#8217;ve helped so much. May 03, 2015 at 10:44 pm, Rihards said: Wouldn#8217;t do as great without this! May 04, 2015 at magnum essays, 1:47 pm, Dan said: Thanks so much, this is technology paper really going to help my essay.

I#8217;m already a good writer, all I needed was a good source of words, and this was it. Elementary? I will recommend this website to my friends and I definitely will be checking what other information you guys have. Thanks! May 06, 2015 at 3:08 pm, Danny said: Thank you for your help. My essay will be great! May 08, 2015 at 8:51 pm, Oxford Student said: Thank you, for your excellent choice of words oxford is very hard on you as it is one of the top schools so I appreciate these words. Technology Paper Introduction? May 16, 2015 at elementary essay, 5:31 am, Aleena said: These words are quite knowledgeable to paper introduction, me because when I was writing an essay my phrases are so absurd to put it another way these words make my essay beautiful. Thank you for providing such words.

May 19, 2015 at 4:50 pm, juules said: ostensibly appears? tautologies seem to essay services, be a thing in the english language. May 25, 2015 at 8:56 am, gimhan savinda said: This was great, thanks a lot for these meaningful words. Hopefully I can face my exam in good perfect manner. Thanks a lot for the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about black#8217;s writing .also,his romantic way in nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at technology paper introduction, 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and writing show, the ideas you express are poorly connected.

For example, #8216;As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to research paper introduction, remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly they are not a series of points that are additive. They are causally related, i.e. Magnum Essays? one is a consequence of the other. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: #8216;Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the technology research introduction Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Consequently he foregrounded the importance of improving the essay writing vs tell relationship between humankind and introduction, nature.#8217; You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at essay, 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: You are correct. I have taught writing for research introduction 40-plus years, and I find many of magnum essays, these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, #8220;In order to#8221; can simply to be #8220;To.#8221; June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it.

June 05, 2015 at technology research introduction, 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I#8217;m having my O-level English in magnum essays about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I#8217;m sure i can score an A now #128512; June 07, 2015 at 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for including the tips above. June 09, 2015 at 8:40 pm, Suus said: These words will really help me doing my English writing exam well tomorrow! #128578; June 21, 2015 at technology introduction, 11:52 am, Ali Zorab said: Such great tips, indeed. Admission Essay? July 02, 2015 at 6:38 pm, Tim said: You did a wonderful job. Keep it up.

Tim Saudi Arabia. July 03, 2015 at 10:34 pm, maimunahm said: I am writing my thesis and technology research introduction, it really helps me with it, thanks a lot. August 30, 2015 at 4:26 pm, aron said: April 23, 2017 at 9:49 am, Matorankle said: September 02, 2015 at magnum essays, 3:37 pm, Anonymous said: Thank you for providing me with these phrases! They will certainly help me with my English paper. September 10, 2015 at 3:31 am, Sarah said: what a great help in teaching children in writing essay#8230;#8230; September 16, 2015 at introduction, 8:04 am, josphat lowoi said: Good work..I greatly appreciate. September 21, 2015 at 2:45 pm, David said: September 23, 2015 at 1:04 am, haripriya said: Thanks a lot! It was very helpful for my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at my homework online, 4:47 pm, Joanna said: This is helpful!

Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for technology the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to help express the thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for example, #8220;Jacob states that teachers need to consider the learning abilities of all students#8221; or #8220;Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the essay services writing skills of ESL learners#8221;. Paper? It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, #8220;so-and-so states that#8230;#8221; October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. said: This article was wonderful. College Board Ap English Essays? Furthermore, I don#8217;t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an amazing article and I recommend it to anyone looking to give their essay an elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at technology research paper introduction, 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys.

October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included #8220;in fact#8221; October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and admission services, takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in paper introduction your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don#8217;ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of #8220;Please, no more#8221; paraphrased of course. Some of board language, these are inescapable and technology paper introduction, are useful tools, but please use in admission essay services moderation. Technology Research? If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the use of language in admission services literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of technology research paper introduction, note, and what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success.

December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an pay someone my homework admonition to #8220;please use your own words,#8221; or something to that effect. As I like to technology research introduction, joke, #8220;Cliches should be avoided like the plague.#8221; October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at magnum essays, 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. Technology Paper Introduction? im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous impact..in my result. November 12, 2015 at essay writing show vs tell, 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great#8230; thanks for the A grade. November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for technology introduction this helpful article.

One question though: The example given for phrase 12 #8220;Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after #8220;X#8221;, but isn#8217;t a serial comma incorrect in a series of my homework, two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at paper, 1:13 am, Joey said: I don#8217;t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points#8230; does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at magnum essays, 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the technology research paper use of cliches. Board Language Essays? Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. #8220;To put it another way#8221; and #8220;Another key thing to remember#8221;) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of #8220;In conclusion#8221; to research paper, introduce the conclusion. Elementary Essay? My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the technology paper only one who feels this way. Language? To quote the paper introduction Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,#8217; and #8216;to sum up.#8217; These phrases can be. usefuleven welcomein oral presentations. Board Language? But. Research Introduction? readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is about to end.

You#8217;ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.#8221; If your readers cannot figure out that from admission reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to technology research paper, it. Essay Services? December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified #8220;for college-level writing#8230; and above.#8221; Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, #8220;In conclusion#8221; can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at 10:43 am, Jeff B. Technology Research Introduction? said: * Assuming, of course, that my #8220;comment above#8221; is actually posted after it undergoes #8220;moderation.#8221; Otherwise my note makes no sense#8230; December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info. I will use these words in content of my site in order to hbs mba questions 2011, get best rankings. December 09, 2015 at 8:48 pm, khalid Benameur said: really these are benificial words to use and Iam going to use them.

December 10, 2015 at 1:51 pm, cp8 said: This is easily the go-to site when I write essays. Thank you! August 05, 2017 at 10:48 pm, abdo raheem said: January 04, 2016 at 2:41 pm, panthe veroski said: Thank you, it#8217;s so useful! January 19, 2016 at technology research, 8:33 pm, BOB said: really good, I loved it! Would really help in essay 2011 my test. January 19, 2016 at 8:34 pm, daddyshrekked said: Fantastic, wouldn#8217;t do that well without it. January 28, 2016 at 12:52 pm, yahya said: it is very helpful idea because i have exam thxn. January 31, 2016 at 3:24 am, Alex Joseph said: THANK YOU so much!! January 31, 2016 at paper introduction, 4:08 am, Jass said: Yes, it really works in my essay writing. Thanks, and the best thing is I am finding some more useful vocab words from other#8217;s replies.:) November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: Oke i kno now veri muchh.

February 04, 2016 at 3:54 pm, James said: Wow, this is really something valuable to me! I will have to jolt down all this and use them in essay 2011 my academic writing tmr. February 05, 2016 at technology research paper introduction, 6:26 am, hanna said: AMAZING. VERY USEFUL. Elementary? THANK YOU SO MUCH. February 10, 2016 at 9:37 am, Shruthi said: Not useful#8230;I want idioms and phrases please. February 12, 2016 at 9:45 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is worth bearing in mind that examiners often consider idioms risky, as when over-used (or mis-used) they can place a candidate at a disadvantage. Technology Introduction? You are absolutely correct, however, that learning idioms is vital to acquiring fluency in any language you might enjoy our article on some of the more bizarre idioms in writing the English language! Best of technology paper, luck in college board ap english language essays your studies, February 17, 2016 at research paper, 2:58 pm, reyan said: Thanks it came in magnum essays handy.

February 20, 2016 at 5:20 pm, Unknown said: I think this might help me to improve my essays. Technology Introduction? Thanks to whoever gave such great words#128522; February 28, 2016 at essay, 6:04 pm, Divya said: In all probability I find this this things very helpful which would surely enhance my essay. February 29, 2016 at 1:28 am, Tanya Roy said: this phases helped me in 10th board icsc examination#8230;.. Research Introduction? thanks a lot #128512; February 29, 2016 at 2:39 am, shubham said: I think this might help me to to do online, improve my essays. Research? Thanks to hbs mba questions, whoever gave such great words#128522; March 03, 2016 at research, 7:30 pm, Abhishek Mandge said: Its really useful for essay services me. Introduction? March 07, 2016 at 11:33 am, ashrin said: March 14, 2016 at 2:03 pm, Lekesh said: Thanks a lot#8230;.Helped me very much !! Really thanks for admission making this!!

April 13, 2016 at 3:20 pm, Jiya Goyal said: thanks a lot#8230;,helped me very much!! April 21, 2016 at 3:30 am, Juanaye goodall said: This words are really going to help me in my graded essay tomorrow. April 23, 2016 at technology paper, 1:29 pm, lyricist chaani said: it was really very usefull for college board ap english me . so i am alluding to other students to use above lines. April 29, 2016 at technology research paper, 1:12 pm, Vape Naysh V/ said: tanks m8 ( ?° ?? ?°) May 01, 2016 at 12:07 pm, Asuna Yuuki said: Very useful for essay writing. Thanks a lot.

May 04, 2016 at 3:58 am, SJAll said: Quentin Crisp, upon essays, being asked to paper, give advice to magnum essays, aspiring writers replied: #8220;Never read. Technology? This is very important. if you read books in order to improve your writing style, you will find yourself trying to write literature, instead of saying what you really mean. It#8217;s very important not to get caught up trying to write better American prose. Don#8217;t do any such thing. Just try to ap english language, think, Am I saying what I mean? Have I pared away, have I taken away all the research introduction words except the ones that say what I mean. And then your writing will be fine. You have the admission essay most wonderful writers in America, really great stylists, people like Damon Runyon, and there#8217;s no floweriness, no literary effect, in the work of Damon Runyon, he is as neat as he can possibly be.

One of his stories begins #8216;Some parties who do not wish him well have put Maury in research paper introduction some quicklime.#8217; March 23, 2017 at 5:39 pm, Dr. To Do My Homework Online? Jim Loving said: Excellent advice. Technology Research Paper? Many writing students would do well to read Zinsser#8217;s book #8220;On Writing Well.#8221; He emphasizes clarity in writing, and no one does it better. May 04, 2016 at 1:43 pm, angielski said: Very useful to have it in one place. Essay Writing Show? Thanks ! May 10, 2016 at technology research introduction, 7:57 pm, Cheese said: Hello Oxford Royale community, Thank you for this extremely helpful guide on pay someone online, improving flow using phrases. This has helped me improve, overall, as I have now taken these tips to my heart. Thanks an technology awful lot, May 11, 2016 at essay show vs tell, 9:17 pm, Khirod Maharana said: I greatly appreciate thankful#8230; May 12, 2016 at 12:11 am, Inderpreet said: thnk u for the amazing words#8230; May 26, 2016 at technology research paper introduction, 11:11 pm, Georgia Kathleen said: This is really helpful, I#8217;ve been looking to expand and vary the words I use during English exams. Thanks!

May 29, 2016 at 5:17 am, Noosh said: i was going to use conventionally but i have already used it so i had to use significantly #128512; June 02, 2016 at 2:24 am, jo sladky said: this is so helpful, thanks. June 02, 2016 at 11:50 am, irisha said: truly very helpful#8230;thanksss loadsss. June 02, 2016 at 2:37 pm, Kannan.P said: Could you please add more pharse. Thanks.

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Internet Encyclopedia of paper Philosophy. Marcus Tullius Cicero was born on January 3, 106 B.C.E. and was murdered on December 7, 43 B.C.E. His life coincided with the decline and fall of the Roman Republic, and he was an important actor in many of the significant political events of his time, and his writings are now a valuable source of information to us about those events. He was, among other things, an magnum essays orator, lawyer, politician, and technology introduction philosopher. Making sense of his writings and understanding his philosophy requires us to keep that in mind. He placed politics above philosophical study; the ap english, latter was valuable in its own right but was even more valuable as the means to more effective political action. The only periods of his life in which he wrote philosophical works were the times he was forcibly prevented from taking part in politics. While Cicero is currently not considered an exceptional thinker, largely on the (incorrect) grounds that his philosophy is derivative and research introduction unoriginal, in essay show vs tell previous centuries he was considered one of the technology research, great philosophers of the ancient era, and essay 2011 he was widely read well into the 19th century. Probably the most notable example of his influence is St.

Augustine's claim that it was Cicero's Hortensius (an exhortation to philosophy, the text of which is unfortunately lost) that turned him away from his sinful life and towards philosophy and ultimately to God. Research Introduction. Augustine later adopted Cicero's definition of a commonwealth and used it in his argument that Christianity was not responsible for the destruction of admission Rome by the barbarians. Cicero's political career was a remarkable one. At the time, high political offices in Rome, though technically achieved by winning elections, were almost exclusively controlled by a group of wealthy aristocratic families that had held them for many generations. Cicero's family, though aristocratic, was not one of them, nor did it have great wealth. But Cicero had a great deal of political ambition; at a very young age he chose as his motto the same one Achilles was said to have had: to always be the best and overtop the technology paper, rest.

Lacking the advantages of a proper ancestry, there were essentially only two career options open to him. One was a military career, since military success was thought to result from exceptional personal qualities and could lead to popularity and therefore political opportunity (as was the case much later for American presidents Ulysses S. Grant and Dwight D. Services. Eisenhower). Cicero, however, was no soldier. He hated war, and served in the military only very briefly as a young man. Instead, Cicero chose a career in the law. To prepare for this career, he studied jurisprudence, rhetoric, and philosophy. Technology Research Paper Introduction. When he felt he was ready, he began taking part in legal cases. A career in essay questions 2011 the law could lead to technology paper political success for essay, several reasons, all of which are still relevant today. First, a lawyer would gain a great deal of experience in making speeches.

Second, he (there were no female lawyers in Rome) could also gain exposure and popularity from high-profile cases. Finally, a successful lawyer would build up a network of political connections, which is important now but was even more important in Cicero's time, when political competition was not conducted along party lines or on the basis of ideology, but instead was based on loose, shifting networks of personal friendships and commitments. Research Paper. Cicero proved to be an excellent orator and lawyer, and a shrewd politician. He was elected to each of the magnum essays, principle Roman offices (quaestor, aedile, praetor, and consul) on his first try and at the earliest age at technology research paper which he was legally allowed to run for them. Having held office made him a member of the admission essay services, Roman Senate. This body had no formal authority -- it could only offer advice -- but its advice was almost always followed. He was, as can be imagined, very proud of his successes. (Though this is not the place for a long discussion of research introduction Roman government, it should be noted that the Roman republic was not a democracy. It was really more of an oligarchy than anything else, with a few men wielding almost all economic and hbs mba essay questions 2011 political power).

During his term as consul (the highest Roman office) in 63 B.C.E. he was responsible for unraveling and exposing the conspiracy of Catiline, which aimed at taking over the Roman state by force, and five of the conspirators were put to death without trial on Cicero's orders. Technology Research Introduction. Cicero was proud of board language essays this too, claiming that he had singlehandedly saved the commonwealth; many of his contemporaries and many later commentators have suggested that he exaggerated the technology introduction, magnitude of his success. Board Ap English Language Essays. But there can be little doubt that Cicero enjoyed widespread popularity at technology paper this time - though his policy regarding the Catilinarian conspirators had also made him enemies, and the executions without trial gave them an opening. The next few years were very turbulent, and in 60 B.C.E. Julius Caesar, Pompey, and magnum essays Crassus (often referred to today as the First Triumvirate) combined their resources and took control of Roman politics. Recognizing his popularity and talents, they made several attempts to get Cicero to join them, but Cicero hesitated and eventually refused, preferring to remain loyal to the Senate and the idea of the Republic. This left him open to attacks by his enemies, and in January of 58 B.C.E. one of them, the tribune Clodius (a follower of research Caesar's), proposed a law to be applied retroactively stating that anyone who killed a Roman citizen without trial would be stripped of their citizenship and forced into exile.

This proposal led to rioting and physical attacks on Cicero, who fled the city. The law passed. Cicero was forbidden to live within 500 miles of Italy, and all his property was confiscated. This exile, during which Cicero could not take part in politics, provided the time for his first period of sustained philosophical study as an adult. After roughly a year and a half of exile, the political conditions changed, his property was restored to him, and he was allowed to return to Rome, which he did to great popular approval, claiming that the Republic was restored with him. This was also treated by many as an absurd exaggeration. Cicero owed a debt to the triumvirate for ending his exile (and for not killing him), and for essay, the next eight years he repaid that debt as a lawyer. Because he still could not engage in politics, he also had time to continue his studies of philosophy, and research introduction between 55 and 51 he wrote On the Orator , On the magnum essays, Republic , and On the Laws . The triumvirate, inherently unstable, collapsed with the technology paper, death of Crassus and in 49 B.C.E. Caesar crossed the Rubicon River, entering Italy with his army and igniting a civil war between himself and Pompey (Caesar's own account of this war still survives). Cicero was on Pompey's side, though halfheartedly. Pay Someone To Do Online. He felt that at technology this point the question was not whether Rome would be a republic or an empire but whether Pompey or Caesar would be Emperor, and he believed that it would make little difference, for it would be a disaster in either case.

Caesar and his forces won in 48 B.C.E., and Caesar became the first Roman emperor. He gave Cicero a pardon and admission allowed him to research paper return to Rome in July of 47 B.C.E., but Cicero was forced to stay out of politics. Most of the rest of his life was devoted to studying and writing about essay, philosophy, and he produced the rest of his philosophical writings during this time. Caesar was murdered by research paper introduction, a group of senators on the Ides of March in 44 B.C.E. Cicero was a witness to the murder, though he was not a part of the conspiracy. The murder led to another power struggle in which Mark Antony (of Antony and Cleopatra fame), Marcus Lepidus, and Octavian (later called Augustus) were the key players.

It also gave Cicero, who still hoped that the Republic could be restored, the opportunity for what is considered his finest hour as a politician. With Caesar dead, the Senate once again mattered, and it was to the Senate that Cicero made the series of speeches known as the Philippics (named after the speeches the Greek orator Demosthenes made to rouse the Athenians to fight Philip of Macedon). Elementary Essay. These speeches called for the Senate to aid Octavian in overcoming Antony (Cicero believed that Octavian, still a teenager, would prove to be a useful tool who could be discarded by the Senate once his purpose was served). However, Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian were able to come to terms and agreed to share power. Each of them had enemies that he wanted eliminated, and as part of the power-sharing deal each got to eliminate those enemies. Antony put not only Cicero but also his son, his brother, and his nephew on the list of those to be killed (the Philippics are not very nice to him at introduction all, especially the Second Philippic ). Though Octavian owed his success in part to Cicero, he chose not to extend his protection to Cicero and his family. Cicero, his brother, and his nephew tried somewhat belatedly to flee Italy. His brother and nephew turned aside to collect more money for the trip, and were killed. Cicero kept going. Plutarch describes the end of Cicero's life: Cicero heard [his pursuers] coming and ordered his servants to writing show set the paper introduction, litter [in which he was being carried] down where they were.

He…looked steadfastly at his murderers. He was all covered in dust; his hair was long and disordered, and his face was pinched and wasted with his anxieties - so that most of those who stood by covered their faces while Herennius was killing him. His throat was cut as he stretched his neck out essay from the litter….By Antony's orders Herennius cut off his head and paper his hands. Antony then had Cicero's head and hands nailed to the speaker's podium in the Senate as a warning to others. Cicero's son, also named Marcus, who was in Greece at this time, was not executed.

He became consul in 30 B.C.E. under Octavian, who had defeated Antony after the board, Second Triumvirate collapsed. Technology Paper. As consul, the elementary essay, younger Marcus got to announce Antony's suicide to research paper introduction the Senate. It is unfortunate that we have no record of this speech. While Cicero is magnum essays currently not considered an exceptional thinker, largely on the (incorrect) grounds that his philosophy is technology introduction derivative and unoriginal, in essay vs tell previous centuries he was considered one of the great philosophers of the ancient era, and he was widely read well into the 19th century. Probably the most notable example of technology research paper introduction his influence is St. Augustine's claim that it was Cicero's Hortensius (an exhortation to philosophy, the services, text of which is unfortunately lost) that turned him away from his sinful life and towards philosophy and ultimately to God. Augustine later adopted Cicero's definition of a commonwealth and used it in paper his argument that Christianity was not responsible for the destruction of questions Rome by the barbarians. Further discussion of Cicero's influence on later philosophers can be found in MacKendrick, Chapter 20 and Appendix. Cicero subordinated philosophy to politics, so it should not surprise us to discover that his philosophy had a political purpose: the defense, and if possible the improvement, of the Roman Republic.

The politicians of his time, he believed, were corrupt and no longer possessed the virtuous character that had been the main attribute of Romans in the earlier days of Roman history. This loss of virtue was, he believed, the technology paper, cause of the Republic's difficulties. He hoped that the leaders of Rome, especially in the Senate, would listen to his pleas to renew the Republic. This could only essay happen if the Roman elite chose to improve their characters and place commitments to individual virtue and social stability ahead of their desires for fame, wealth, and power. Having done this, the elite would enact legislation that would force others to technology research adhere to similar standards, and the Republic would flourish once again. Magnum Essays. Whether this belief shows an admirable commitment to the principles of virtue and nobility or a blindness to the nature of the exceedingly turbulent and violent politics of his time, or perhaps both, is impossible to say with certainty. Cicero, therefore, tried to use philosophy to technology paper bring about his political goals. Like most intellectual endeavors in Cicero's time, philosophy was an activity in which Greece (and especially Athens) still held the lead. The Romans were more interested in practical matters of law, governance, and military strategy than they were in philosophy and art (many of Cicero's writings include justifications for pay someone my homework, his study of philosophy and research arguments that it ought to be taken seriously).

But for Cicero to really use philosophy effectively, he needed to board ap english language essays make it accessible to a Roman audience. He did this in research paper part by translating Greek works into Latin, including inventing Latin words where none seemed suitable for board language, Greek concepts (including the Latin words which give us the English words morals, property, individual, science, image, and appetite), and in part by drawing on and idealizing Roman history to provide examples of appropriate conduct and to illustrate the arguments of philosophy. He also summarized in Latin many of the beliefs of the primary Greek philosophical schools of the time (and he is the source of much of our knowledge about research, these schools). These included the Academic Skeptics, Peripatetics, Stoics, and Epicureans. Cicero was well acquainted with all these schools, and college ap english language had teachers in technology introduction each of essay writing vs tell them at different times of his life. But he professed allegiance throughout his life to the Academy. 4. Cicero and the Academic Skeptics. In Cicero's time there were in fact two schools claiming to be descended from the First Academy, established by Plato. Cicero studied briefly in both the Old Academy and the New Academy; the differences between the two need not concern us. What they shared was their basic commitment to skepticism: a belief that human beings cannot be certain in their knowledge about the world, and therefore no philosophy can be said to be true. The Academic Skeptics offered little in the way of positive argument themselves; they mostly criticized the arguments of others.

This can be annoying, but it requires real mental abilities, including the ability to paper see all sides of an issue and to understand and college board language essays accept that any belief, no matter how cherished, is only provisional and paper introduction subject to change later if a better argument presents itself. Essay Vs Tell. It is the approach which underlies the modern scientific method, though the Academics did not use it in that way. Even something like evolution, for which there is mountains of evidence and seemingly no resonable alternative, is paper treated as a theory subject to change if needed rather than an eternal truth. And it is this approach which Cicero embraced. This is not surprising if we consider again why he was interested in philosophy in elementary the first place. As a lawyer, he would need to see as many sides of an argument as possible in order to technology paper introduction argue his clients' cases effectively. College Board Ap English Language. He would have to introduction marshal all the available evidence in a methodical way, so as to make the strongest possible case, and he would have to admission essay services accept that he might at any time have to deal with new evidence or new issues, forcing him to totally reconsider his strategies.

As a politician, he would need a similar grasp of the technology research, issues and a similar degree of to do my homework online flexibility in order to speak and to act effectively. A lawyer or politician who fanatically sticks to a particular point of view and cannot change is not likely to be successful. Adopting the teachings of the Academy also allowed Cicero to technology pick and choose whatever he wanted from the other philosophical schools, and he claims to do this at various points in his writings. Finally, his allegiance to the Academy helps to explain his use of the dialogue form: it enables Cicero to show vs tell put a number of technology introduction arguments in the mouths of others without having to endorse any particular position himself. However, Cicero did not consistently write as a member of the Academy. Skepticism can, if taken to extremes, lead to complete inaction (if we can't be certain of the correctness of our decisions or of magnum essays our actions, why do anything at all?) which was incompatible with Cicero's commitment to political activity. Even if it isn't taken that far, it can still be dangerous.

It may not be a problem if trained, knowledgeable philosophers are skeptical about things like whether the gods exist or whether the technology introduction, laws are just. But if people in magnum essays general are skeptical about these things, they may end up behaving lawlessly and immorally (see Aristophanes' Clouds for a portrayal of this). Paper Introduction. Thus, while Cicero is willing to magnum essays accept Academic Skepticism in some areas, he is technology research introduction not willing to do so when it comes to ethics and politics. For doctrines in these areas, he turns to the Stoics and Peripatetics. 5. Cicero and Stoicism and Peripateticism. Cicero believed that these two schools taught essentially the same things, and that the difference between them was whether virtue was the questions, only thing human beings should pursue or whether it was merely the best thing to be pursued. According to the first view, things like money and research paper introduction health have no value; according to the second, they have value but nowhere near enough to college ap english essays justify turning away from virtue to attain them. This was a difference with little practical consequence, so far as Cicero was concerned, and there is no need to take it up here. Since, according to the teachings of the Academy, Cicero was free to accept any argument that he found convincing, he could readily make use of Stoic teachings, and he did so particularly when discussing politics and technology research ethics. In the essay, Laws , for technology research, example, he explicitly says that he is setting aside his skepticism, for it is dangerous if people do not believe unhesitatingly in elementary the sanctity of the laws and of justice.

Thus he will rely on Stoicism instead. He puts forth Stoic doctrines not dogmatically, as absolutely and always true, but as the best set of research introduction beliefs so far developed. We ought to adhere to them because our lives, both individually and collectively, will be better if we do. It is essentially Stoic ethical teachings that Cicero urges the Roman elite to adopt. Stoicism as Cicero understood it held that the gods existed and loved human beings. Both during and elementary essay after a person's life, the gods rewarded or punished human beings according to their conduct in life. The gods had also provided human beings with the gift of research paper introduction reason. Since humans have this in common with the gods, but animals share our love of pleasure, the Stoics argued, as Socrates had, that the best, most virtuous, and hbs mba essay questions 2011 most divine life was one lived according to reason, not according to the search for pleasure. Technology Research Paper. This did not mean that humans had to shun pleasure, only that it must be enjoyed in the right way. For example, it was fine to enjoy sex, but not with another man's wife. It was fine to enjoy wine, but not to the point of shameful drunkenness.

Finally, the Stoics believed that human beings were all meant to follow natural law, which arises from reason. The natural law is magnum essays also the source of all properly made human laws and communities. Because human beings share reason and the natural law, humanity as a whole can be thought of technology as a kind of community, and admission essay because each of us is part of research paper a group of human beings with shared human laws, each of us is also part of a political community. This being the case, we have duties to each of these communities, and the Stoics recognized an obligation to take part in politics (so far as is possible) in order to discharge those duties. The Stoic enters politics not for public approval, wealth, or power (which are meaningless) but in order to improve the communities of which they are a part.

If politics is painful, as it would often prove to hbs mba questions be for Cicero, that's not important. What matters is that the virtuous life requires it. For the technology introduction, Epicurean philosophy Cicero had only disdain throughout most of his life, though his best friend Atticus was an Epicurean. This disdain leads him to seriously misrepresent its teachings as being based on the shameless pursuit of base pleasures, such as food, sex, and wine (the modern day equivalent being sex, drugs, and rock'n'roll). However, this is elementary essay not what Epicurus, who founded the school, or his later followers actually taught. Epicurus did claim that nature teaches us that pleasure is the only human good, and that life should therefore be guided by the pursuit of pleasure. But he meant by pleasure the absence of technology research introduction pain, including the pain caused by desires for wealth, fame, or power. Elementary Essay. This did not mean living life as one long Bacchanalia. Instead it meant withdrawing from politics and research introduction public life and living quietly with friends, engaged in the study of philosophy, which provided the highest pleasure possible (think of a monastery without the Bible and the rigorous discipline). Writing Show Vs Tell. The notion that the life of technology research paper philosophy is the elementary, most pleasant life, of course, also comes from introduction, Socrates.

Epicureans were also publicly atheists. Their atheism was based on a theory of atomism, which they were the first to propose. Everything in the universe, they argued, was made up of essay questions 2011 atoms, including the heavenly bodies; the gods did not exist. This knowledge was not a cause of despair but a cause of joy, they believed, since one of the greatest human pains is the pain caused by technology paper, the fear of admission death and what lies beyond it. According to technology the Epicureans, death simply meant the end of sensation, as one's atoms came apart. Thus there was no reason to fear it, because there was no divine judgment or afterlife.

The best known Epicurean is show vs tell Lucretius, a contemporary of Cicero's at Rome who Cicero may have known personally. Technology Paper Introduction. Lucretius' On the Nature of Things , available online, sets out Epicurean teachings. It is easy to see why Cicero, a man deeply involved in politics and the pursuit of glory, would find any doctrine that advocated the 2011, rejection of public life repulsive. It is also easy to see why someone concerned with the reform of paper character and conduct would reject public atheism, since fear of divine punishment often prevents people from acting immorally. During his forced exile from politics at pay someone the end of paper his life, however, some of his letters claim that he has gone over to Epicureanism, presumably for the reasons he hated it previously. No longer able to take part in public life, the best he could hope for was the cultivation of private life and the pleasures that it had to offer. Since Cicero abandoned this idea as soon as the opportunity to return to admission essay public life arose, there is no reason to take his professed conversion seriously - unless we wish to see in it an example of changing his beliefs to reflect changing circumstances, and thus an paper example of his commitment to the Academy. Cicero's written work can be sorted into three categories. None can be said to essay represent the technology research paper, true Cicero, and all of Cicero's work, we must remember, has a political purpose. This does not make it worthless as philosophy, but it should make us cautious about proclaiming anything in particular to be what Cicero really thought. Also, as an Academic skeptic, Cicero felt free to hbs mba change his mind about something when a better position presented itself, and technology introduction this makes it even more difficult to bring his writing together into a coherent whole.

The first category of magnum essays Cicero's work is his philosophic writings, many of which were patterned after Plato's or Aristotle's dialogues. These writings, in chronological order, include On Invention , On the Orator , On the Republic , On the Laws , Brutus , Stoic Paradoxes , The Orator , Consolation , Hortensius , Academics , On Ends , Tusculan Disputations , On the research paper, Nature of the hbs mba essay 2011, Gods , On Divination , On Fate , On Old Age , On Friendship , Topics , On Glory , and On Duties . Unfortunately, several of them have been lost almost entirely ( Hortensius , on the value of philosophy, the Consolation , which Cicero wrote to technology research paper introduction himself on the death of elementary essay his beloved daughter Tullia in order to overcome his grief, and On Glory , almost totally lost) and several of the others are available only in fragmentary condition (notably the Laws , which Cicero may never have finished, and the Republic , fragments of which were only discovered in 1820 in the Vatican). Technology Paper. These will be discussed in hbs mba essay more detail below. While each of them is technology research paper introduction dedicated and addressed to a particular individual or two, they were intended to be read by a wide audience, and even at the end of his life Cicero never gave up entirely on magnum essays the hope that the Republic and technology introduction his influence would be restored. Hence these are not purely philosophical writings, but were designed with a political purpose in college board language essays mind, and we are entitled to wonder whether Cicero is being entirely candid in the opinions that he expresses. Also, the dialogue form is useful for an author who wishes to express a number of opinions without having to endorse one. Technology Research Paper. As we have seen, Cicero's skepticism would have made this an especially attractive style.

We should not assume too quickly that a particular character speaks for Cicero. Essay Writing. Instead we should assume that, unless he explicitly says otherwise, Cicero wanted all the viewpoints presented to technology research paper be considered seriously, even if some or all of them have weaknesses. The second category is the speeches Cicero made as a lawyer and as a Senator, about 60 of which remain. Pay Someone Online. These speeches provide many insights into Roman cultural, political, social, and intellectual life, as well as glimpses of technology paper Cicero's philosophy. Many of them also describe the corruption and immorality of the Roman elite. However, they have to be taken with a grain of salt, because Cicero was writing and delivering them in order to achieve some legal outcome and/or political goal and by his own admission was not above saying misleading or inaccurate things if he thought they would be effective. In addition, the speeches that we have are not verbatim recordings of services what Cicero actually said, but are versions that he polished later for publication (the modern American analogy would be to the Congressional Record , which allows members of Congress the opportunity to revise the text of their speeches before they are published in the Record ). In some cases (such as the Second Philippic ) the speech was never delivered at all, but was merely published in paper written form, again with some political goal in mind. Finally, roughly 900 letters to and from (mostly from) Cicero have been preserved. Most of them were addressed to board essays his close friend Atticus or his brother Quintius, but some correspondence to technology and from some other Romans including famous Romans such as Caesar has also been preserved. Essay Show Vs Tell. The letters often make an interesting contrast to the philosophic dialogues, as they deal for the most part not with lofty philosophical matters but with the mundane calculations, compromises, flatteries, and manipulations that were part of politics in Rome and which would be familiar to any politician today. It is important to be cautious in drawing conclusions from them about Cicero's true beliefs since they rely on an understanding between the sender and recipient not available to others, because they are often not the result of full reflection or an attempt at complete clarity and precision (after all, a friend can be counted on to know what you mean), and because many of them, like the speeches, were written with a political purpose in mind that may make them less than fully truthful and straightforward.

Space does not allow us to discuss Cicero's speeches and technology paper introduction letters. The serious student of Cicero, however, will not want to ignore them. What follows is essay writing show a brief summary of the main points each of Cicero's philosophical works. Written while Cicero was still a teenager, it is research paper a handbook on oratory. Cicero later dismissed it and argued that his other oratorical works had superceded it. A lengthy treatise, in the form of a dialogue, on the ideal orator. While it is full of detail which can be tedious to those who are not deeply interested in the theory of rhetoric, it also contains useful discussions of the nature of and the relationships among law, philosophy, and rhetoric. Cicero places rhetoric above both law and philosophy, arguing that the ideal orator would have mastered both law and philosophy (including natural philosophy) and would add eloquence besides. He argues that in the old days philosophy and college board language essays rhetoric were taught together, and that it is unfortunate that they have now been separated.

The best orator would also be the best human being, who would understand the correct way to live, act upon it by taking a leading role in politics, and instruct others in it through speeches, through the example of his life, and through making good laws. This dialogue is, unfortunately, in an extremely mutilated condition. It describes the ideal commonwealth, such as might be brought about by technology research introduction, the orator described in On the Orator . In doing so it tries to provide philosophical underpinnings for existing Roman institutions and to demonstrate that until the 20th century (the dialogue is board language essays set in 129 B.C.E.) Roman history has been essentially the increasing perfection of the research introduction, Republic, which is now superior to hbs mba essay 2011 any other government because it is a mixed government. By this Cicero means that it combines elements of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy in the right balance; the contemporary reader may well disagree. But even this government can be destroyed and technology research is being destroyed by the moral decay of the aristocracy. Thus Cicero describes the importance of an active life of virtue, the foundations of community, including the community of services all human beings, the role of the statesman, and the concept of research paper natural law. It also includes the famous Dream of Scipio. This dialogue is also badly mutilated, and may never have been finished. In it Cicero lays out the laws that would be followed in the ideal commonwealth described in essay writing show On the Republic . Finding the source of law and technology paper justice, he says, requires explaining what nature has given to humans; what a quantity of wonderful things the human mind embraces; for hbs mba essay questions 2011, the sake of performing and fulfilling what function we are born and brought into the world; what serves to unite people; and what natural bond there is between them. Philosophy teaches us that by nature human beings have reason, that reason enables us to discover the principles of justice, and that justice gives us law.

Therefore any valid law is rooted in nature, and any law not rooted in technology introduction nature (such as a law made by essay show vs tell, a tyrant) is no law at all. Paper. The gods also share in reason, and because of this they can be said to be part of a community with humanity. They care for us, and punish and reward us as appropriate. Much of what remains of board this dialogue is devoted to religious law. This dialogue too is in a mutilated condition. It is a history of oratory in Greece and Rome, listing hundreds of introduction orators and their distinguishing characteristics, weaknesses as well as strengths. There is also some discussion of oratory in the abstract. Cicero says that the admission essay, orator must instruct his listener, give him pleasure, [and] stir his emotions, and, as in On the Orator , that the true orator needs to have instruction in philosophy, history, and law. Such a person will have the tools necessary to become a leader of the commonwealth. This dialogue is less inclined to the argument that the orator must be a good man; for example, Cicero says that orators must be allowed to distort history [i.e. lie] in research order to pay someone to do my homework give more point to their narrative. Not a dialogue; Cicero lays out six Stoic principles (called paradoxes) which the average listener would not be likely to agree with and tries to make them both understandable and persuasive to such a listener.

It is, he says, an exercise in turning the technology research introduction, specialized jargon of the Stoics into writing vs tell plain speech for his own amusement (which obviously does not require Cicero to actually agree with any of the Stoic beliefs). The beliefs discussed are as follows: moral worth is the technology paper, only good; virtue is sufficient for happiness; all sins and virtues are equal; every fool is insane; only the wise man is really free; only the wise man is really rich. These topics are largely taken up again in the Tusculan Disputations . MacKendrick argues strenuously that this work is far more than an idle amusement, and that it showcases Cicero's rhetorical skills as well as being an attack on his enemies. Written in the form of a letter on the topic of the perfect orator, it includes a defense of Cicero's own oratorical style (Cicero was never known for writing show, his modesty). It emphasizes that the technology introduction, orator must be able to prove things to the audience, please them, and sway their emotions. It also includes the board ap english language, famous quote To be ignorant of what occurred before you were born is to remain always a child.

This text is research lost except for fragments cited by other authors. Cicero wrote it to questions diminish his grief over the death of his daughter Tullia through the use of philosophy. From his letters we know that it was not entirely successful. his text is heavily fragmented and we can determine little more than its broad outline. It is written in order to praise philosophy, which alone can bring true happiness through the technology introduction, development of reason and the overcoming of passions. In antiquity it was widely read and very popular; it was instrumental in questions converting St. Augustine to Christianity. The positions of the various philosophical schools on epistemology (how we can perceive and understand the world) and the possibility of knowing truth are set out and refuted by the participants in this dialogue (of which we have different parts of technology paper two editions).

Cicero also incorporates a detailed history of the development of these schools following the death of Socrates (diagrammed nicely in MacKendrick; see below). College Board Ap English Language. The nature of Cicero's own skepticism can be found in technology paper this work; the reader is left to choose the argument that is most persuasive. A dialogue which sets out the case, pro and con, of the several philosophic schools on the question of the end or purpose (what Aristotle called the telos) of human life. For Cicero, and arguably for ancient philosophy generally, this was the most important question: What is the end , the final and show ultimate aim, which gives the standard for all principles of right living and of good conduct? Today many are inclined to believe that an answer to this question, if an answer exists at all, must be found in religion, but Cicero held that it was a question for philosophy, and this text was meant to popularize among the Romans the various answers that were being offered at the time. As with Academics , the reader must decide which case is most persuasive. Another attempt to popularize philosophy at Rome and demonstrate that the Romans and their language had the research paper introduction, potential to achieve the very highest levels of philosophy. The first book presents the argument that death is an evil; this argument is then refuted. The second book presents and essay questions refutes the argument that pain is an evil. The third book argues that the wise man will not suffer from anxiety and fear.

In the fourth book Cicero demonstrates that the wise man does not suffer from excessive joy or lust. Technology Paper Introduction. And in ap english language the fifth and final book Cicero argues that virtue, found through philosophy, is sufficient for a happy life. These positions are all compatible with Stoicism. This dialogue, along with the next two, was intended by Cicero to technology paper form a trilogy on religious questions. It offers desciptions of literally dozens of varieties of essay writing show religion. Emphasis is research paper especially placed on the Epicurean view (the gods exist but are indifferent about human beings), which is essay writing show vs tell described and then refuted, and the Stoic view (the gods govern the technology paper introduction, world, love human beings, and after death reward the good and punish the bad), which is similarly stated and services refuted. At the end of the technology research, dialogue the characters have not reached agreement. Essay Services. This is introduction perhaps the dialogue that best illustrates Cicero's skeptical method. This dialogue too, according to Cicero, is meant to board set out arguments both for and against a topic, in this case the validity of divination (predicting the future through methods such as astrology, reading animal entrails, watching the flight of birds, etc.) without asserting that either side is correct. The case for the validity of divination is presented in the first book and then crushed in the second (in which Cicero himself is the main speaker). While Cicero explicitly says that he reserves judgment, it is technology hard to conclude that Cicero approved of essays divination, which he saw as drawing on superstition rather than religion.

Religion was useful because it helped to control human behavior and could be used as a tool for public policy; and in this context divination could be useful too (as when an unwise political decision was prevented by the announcement that the omens were unfavorable). The text is introduction fragmented. Essay Show. The topic discussed is whether or not human beings can be said to have free will, so much of the book deals with theories of causation and technology the meaning of truth and falsehood. Cicero apparently rejects the idea that fate determines all our actions and argues that human beings, to a significant extent, have free will. In this dialogue, we learn that the show, sufferings of old age do not affect everyone equally but in fact are dependent on character; old men of technology introduction good character continue to enjoy life, though in admission services different ways than in their youth, while men of bad character have new miseries added to their previous ones. Nothing is more natural than to age and die, and if we are to live in accordance with nature (a Stoic teaching) we should face death calmly. If one has lived well, there are many pleasant memories to enjoy, as well as prestige and the intellectual pleasures that are highest of all. This dialogue describes the nature of true friendship, which is paper possible only between good men, who are virtuous and follow nature. This friendship is based on virtue, and while it offers material advantages it does not aim at college essays them or even seek them. The dialogue goes on to describe the bonds of friendship among lesser men, which are stronger the more closely they are related but which exist even in technology introduction more distant relationships. The conclusion is reached that all human beings are bonded together, along with the gods, in a community made up of the cosmos as a whole and elementary based on technology paper introduction shared reason.

There is, however, awareness of the fact that in the real world friendship can be a difficult thing to maintain due to political pressures and adversity. It also includes the assertion that Cato was better than Socrates because he is praised for pay someone, deeds, not words, which is perhaps the technology paper introduction, center of Cicero's personal philosophy (recall that he only essay writing show vs tell wrote about philosophy, rhetoric and research introduction so on when political participation was denied to him by force), as well as the elementary, claim that love is not compatible with fear - a claim that Machiavelli found significant enough to explicitly reject in technology research The Prince . A toolkit for orators on the science of argument, touching on the law, rhetoric, and philosophy, and setting out the various kinds of arguments available to the orator, rules of logic, and the kinds of questions he may find himself facing. It has similarities to Aristotle's Topics and college essays part of his Rhetoric . Written in the form of a letter to his son Marcus, then in his late teens and studying philosophy in research introduction Athens (though, we can gather from the essay show, letters, not studying it all that seriously), but intended from the start to reach a wider audience. Cicero addresses the research paper introduction, topic of duty (including both the final purpose of life, which defines our duties, and the way in which duties should be performed), and says that he will follow the Stoics in this area, but only as his judgment requires. More explicitly, the letter discusses how to determine what is honorable, and which of two honorable things is more honorable; how to board ap english essays determine what is expedient and technology research introduction how to pay someone to do judge between two expedient things; and what to do when the honorable and the expedient seem to technology research paper conflict.

Cicero asserts that they can only seem to conflict; in reality they never do, and if they seem to elementary it simply shows that we do not understand the situation properly. The honorable action is the expedient and vice-versa. The bonds among all human beings are described, and young Marcus is urged to follow nature and wisdom, along with whatever political activity might still be possible, rather than seeking pleasure and indolence. On Duties , written at the end of Cicero's life, in his own name, for the use of his son, pulls together a wide range of material, and introduction is probably the hbs mba questions 2011, best starting place for someone wanting to get acquainted with Cicero's philosophic works.

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robbins lionel essay Robbins as Innovator: the technology paper introduction Contribution of An Essay on the Nature and Significance of magnum essays Economic Science. Robert F. Mulligan. Western Carolina University. Lionel Robbins's An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science made at least three important contributions: (1) constructing a more modern, focused, and general definition of economics, which continues to inform the technology research introduction best contemporary practice, (2) exploring the legitimacy of, and relationship between, empirical and a priori analyses in economics, and (3) demonstrating the elementary fallacy of interpersonal utility comparisons, laying the groundwork for Hayek's subsequent critique of the mirage of social justice. Robbins's definition of economics proposed in the Essay , the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between end and scarce means which have alternative uses, is so perfectly-phrased as to seem unremarkable today. Definitions proposed by Robbins's teachers and contemporaries such as those of Edwin Cannan , Hugh Dalton, Gustav Cassel , and Alfred Marshall, were singularly limited by modern standards, and unsatisfactory to technology paper introduction Robbins. Though we might take his definition for granted, it represented a great, and board ap english language far from obvious, leap forward in the discipline's self-concept. Robbins's view of economic methodology was somewhat schizophrenic - he insisted on the complementarity of empirical and a priori analyses, but his main preoccupation seems to have been to preserve the acceptance of a priori argument. Introduction! One of his justifications of the a priori was that it would sometimes be subject to empirical verification, but he also insisted it was valuable in questions itself and was especially necessary to address certain questions which do not lend themselves to empirical applications. Robbins proposed a fundamental distinction between judgments of value and judgments of fact.

Ideally economics should aim at being value-free al la Mises , but the conventional assumptions underlying quantitative economic data, especially aggregate data, call for implicitly evaluating facts according to arbitrary measurement, convention, and inarticulate and unarticulated interpretation. Technology Introduction! Far from eschewing quantitative empiricism, Robbins merely required extensive interpretive analysis of the underlying assumptions which are generally taken for granted. Pay Someone To Do My Homework! He also felt qualitative laws could generally hold a higher level of abstraction than the quantitative laws of statistical analysis, which would tend to be probabilistic rather than absolute. His position was so roundly criticized and misinterpreted he was led to extensively revise his chapter on research paper methodology for the second edition. Robbins was an important precursor of Hayek in establishing the impossibility of interpersonal utility comparisons. He lucidly exposits the simple and intuitively appealing basis for socialist economics and social engineering, and proceeds to show the difficulties it leads to. Since utility measures can only be ordinal, they cannot be transferred across individuals in any consistent manner.

Without intertemporal utility comparisons, welfare economics is reduced to the very restrictive appeal to magnum essays strong Pareto efficiency. Attempts by Kaldor , Hicks, and paper Scitovsky to formulate more flexible welfare criteria were doomed from the outset. Robbins's position anticipated certain features of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem. 2. Defining Economics. The kernel of both the Essay , and the 1930-32 lectures on which Robbins based the magnum essays Essay , is his definition of economics as the research paper science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between end and scarce means which have alternative uses. This is a definition no economist would find remarkable today, and it seems too narrow only in light of a specifically Misesian critique involving the treatment of entrepreneurship and uncertainty ( Kirzner 2000:19).

It was pathbreaking in its time. Definitions then current in English universities included Marshall (1890): Political Economy or Economics is a study of hbs mba questions mankind in the ordinary business of life. It examines that part of technology research paper introduction individual social action which is most closely connected with the attainment with the use of material requisites of my homework well-being. In Marshall's view, not all human action aims at material well-being, and thus not all human action can have economic significance. Clearly, even the act of going to worship services or an art gallery, which aim at spiritual well-being, are now understood to have economic significance, both because of the paper opportunity cost in pay someone to do terms of wealth accumulation forgone, and because of the broader view now taken of the aims of economic behavior.

Pigou's (1920) view was even narrower, in that, the range of enquiry becomes restricted to that part of social welfare that can be brought directly or indirectly into relation with the measuring rod of money. To Cannan , the technology paper introduction most influential on him of Robbins' teachers, the online aim of political economy or Economics is the explanation of the general causes on which the material welfare of technology research human beings depend. Robbins found these welfare definitions unsatisfactory partly because they circumscribe the discipline to examinations of some behavior while arbitrarily excluding others. Robbins saw through the prevailing superficiality of focusing on what is done externally, and elementary saw that what was interesting from an economic perspective, is the internal valuation which motivates external action. Kirzner (2000:17) restates Robbins definition: Robbins identified the perspective of the technology research economist as that which focuses on the allocative aspect of human behavior. Because man desires many goals, and because he possesses only limited resources with which to achieve these goals, it is services necessary for him to research paper introduction economize, that is, to apportion his scarce means among his multiple ends in such a way as to reflect faithfully his own ranking of the importance of these ends. Earlier definitions had held that it was possible to identify certain acts and activities as being economic.

Robbins, however, saw this adjective not as describing specific kinds of activity, but as identifying a particular point of view from which actions (and their social consequences) could be examined. To Robbins, economics is magnum essays a science, suggesting the discipline can arrive at technology introduction, perfectly rigorous knowledge through a priori reasoning. Elementary Essay! Empirical investigation can suggest new directions for a priori theorizing, identify new problems, and uncover information specific to certain times, places, and actors in the past. Furthermore, the less universal information uncovered by statistical methods remains rigorous in a probabilistic sense. Economics does not study certain activities in technology paper preference to others, it studies the pay someone to do online relationships manifested in any activities between freely-chosen end and the means chosen for their attainment. The need for actors to economize comes from the relative scarcity of means with relation to desired ends. If a means has no alternative uses, there is no need for the economizing response, since no choice is possible or required. Kirzner's (2000:19) Misesian critique notes Robbins failed to identify the role of the entrepreneur in the economy. The economic “decision presumes the prior awareness by the decision maker of both the means at technology research introduction, his disposal and his preference ranking among relevant (already identified) ends. My Homework! For Mises the research paper introduction notion of human action itself includes the agent’s determination of the writing vs tell facts of the ends-means framework relevant to paper introduction his action.” Few modern economists would go beyond Robbins in defining the discipline.

3. Quantitative Methodology. Robbins insisted on the complementarity of empirical and a priori analyses, but his main preoccupation seems to have been to preserve the acceptance of a priori argument. Magnum Essays! One of his justifications of the a priori was that it would sometimes be subject to technology research introduction empirical verification, but he also insisted it was valuable in itself and was especially necessary to address certain questions which do not lend themselves to empirical applications. His analysis of the income elasticity of work effort was an a priori one, and one of his conclusions was that there was no way to to do my homework measure the value of this elasticity a priori. Estimates could only be made through examining observed data. Robbins proposed a fundamental distinction between judgments of value and technology research introduction judgments of to do fact. Ideally economics should aim at being value-free al la Mises , but the conventional assumptions underlying quantitative economic data, especially aggregate data, call for implicitly evaluating facts according to arbitrary measurement, convention, and inarticulate and unarticulated interpretation. Technology Paper Introduction! Far from eschewing quantitative empiricism, Robbins merely required extensive interpretive analysis of the underlying assumptions which are generally taken for granted. He also felt qualitative laws could generally hold a higher level of abstraction than the quantitative laws of statistical analysis, which would tend to be probabilistic rather than absolute.

His position was so roundly criticized and misinterpreted he was led to extensively revise his chapter on college ap english essays methodology for technology the second edition. 4. The Critique of Welfare Economics. Robbins was an important precursor of Hayek in establishing the impossibility of interpersonal utility comparisons. To Do My Homework Online! The emerging view in welfare economics, particularly developed by Edgeworth and Cannan , was that the law of diminishing marginal utility guaranteed that income redistribution would necessarily result in higher aggregate welfare. If everyone has monotonically decreasing marginal utility in income, and research introduction if these utility functions are sufficiently generic to justify the hbs mba questions assumption of a representative agent, then high-income individuals will be farther down the marginal utility function than low-income individuals. Forced redistribution of wealth results in a relatively small loss of social welfare to the rich, for whom diminishing returns to consumption have already become critical. Redistribution of this wealth among the poor results in a relatively high gain in their total welfare per dollar redistributed, because their relatively low consumption expenditures prevent them from advancing as far in technology paper introduction the direction of lowered marginal utility as the rich have already. Robbins would have none of this. One part of his critique was that valuation is unobservable, and thus the social welfare argument could never be verified empirically, just as it cannot be supported a priori.

Since utility measures can only essay, be ordinal, they cannot be transferred across individuals in any consistent manner. Utility is research paper introduction subjective because it is a form of value. Without interpersonal utility comparisons, welfare economics is reduced to the very restrictive appeal to strong Pareto efficiency. Subsequent attempts by Kaldor , Hicks, and Scitovsky to formulate more flexible welfare criteria were doomed from the outset. Kaldor -Hicks efficiency, also known as potential Pareto efficiency, requires that parties made better off must be made sufficiently better off to enable them to compensate the parties made worse off. If the compensation is required and the parties made worse off do accept it, Kaldor -Hicks efficiency reduces to Pareto efficiency. As long as the exchange is voluntary and magnum essays there are no external costs, there would be no need for government coercion.

Robbins's position anticipated certain features of technology introduction Arrow's Impossibility Theorem (1963). Applied to social welfare functions, Robbins argued that these functions, hypothetically defined by the vote of each individual, violated Arrow's non-dictatorship, unrestricted domain, monotonicity , and non-imposition criteria. Arrow completed the theorem by adding the independence of irrelevant alternatives criterion. Robbins contributed the most definitive modern definition of the discipline. Although limited by his overly restrictive assumptions on information, his definition represented a great leap forward in the profession's self-understanding. The major limitation of Robbins' definition is the implicit assumption that ends, means, and essay their relationships are known in advance with final certainty. Research! This leaves no role open for magnum essays entrepreneurial experimentation, and assumes knowledge which is only discoverable through entrepreneurial alertness and inquiry. He articulated a methodological vision where a priori and research paper empirical investigation would be complementary, and much of his own career included achievements in admission both forms of technology research endeavor. His choice of magnum essays both deductive and research introduction inductive logic can be seen as an application of his definition of economics. Since the elementary means available are limited, economics can uncover more about the real world by employing both means. Although one type of inquiry may be more productive at the margin for certain applications, this is not a general condition, so both modes of procedure will always be valid.

Robbins' critique of interpersonal welfare comparisons also follows from technology research, his definition. Elementary! In light of his definition of economics, the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between end and scarce means which have alternative uses, Robbins viewed external attempts to transfer or redistribute the burden of scarcity as unjustified by economic theory and unjustifiable given the scope of the discipline. Since economics does not chose ends for individuals, socially desired ends could not have any primacy in his schema and could only be justified by an appeal to individual, freely-chosen ends. Arrow, Kenneth. 1950. A Difficulty in the Concept of Social Welfare. Journal of Political Economy 58(4): 328–346. Bye, Raymond T. 1939. The Scope and technology paper Definition of Economics. Journal of Political Economy . Essay! 47(5): 623-647. Cannan , Edwin.

1888. Elementary Political Economy . Cannan , Edwin. 1914. Wealth . Cassel , Gustav. 1918 [1927]. The Theory of Social Economy . New York: Augustus M. Kelley. Howson , Susan. Technology Paper Introduction! 2004.

The Origin of Lionel Robbins's Essay on admission services the Nature and Significance of paper Economic Science. History of Political Economy 36(3): 413-443. Kirzner , Israel M. Essay Writing Show! 2000. Human Nature and the Character of Economic Science: the Historical Background of the paper introduction Misesian Perspective. Harvard Review of essay Philosophy 8:14-23. Little, I.M.D. 1950 [1957]. A Critique of Welfare Economics (2nd ed .) London: Oxford University Press. Marshall, Alfred. 1890. Technology Research Paper! Principles of magnum essays Economics . Pigou , Arthur Cecil.

1920. Technology Research! The Economics of Welfare .

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Build multiple virtualizations LPAR on IBM pSeries p595 and p570 hardware including VIOS servers and VIO Clients. Involved in paper new system deployment across multiple different tiers architectures design. Plan and design for DMZ production server from the vendor location to the NYC data center location into new hardware. And participate in the migration cutover Installed and configured several HACMP productions, staging clusters servers across 4 different tiers environments. Migrating 2 different HACMP cluster to magnum essays, VIO clusters and technology research, update the version of the HACMP to 5.4. Moving and migrate all available 12 p570 LPAR From standard dedicated hardware resources DLPAR to DLPAR Virtualization enabled Frames. building on each Frame 2 VIOS servers to manage the Frame Hardware resources.(Network and Storage) Migrate all existing dedicated LPAR servers to virtualized micro partitioning LPAR Build several new Virtual VIOS servers and Virtual VIOC client Build several new Virtual VIOC client clusters with HACMP V5.3 and using IPAT IP Aliasing, 2 nodes and essay 2011, 3 nodes active/active active/passive with Persistent IP on each resource group. Manage and configured all new SAN storage configuration to the managed VIOS Server and mapping these Storage LUNS to the VIOC from the VIOS servers. Conduct HACMP Failover testing using different type of technology paper introduction, failover testing , on oracle database clusters node and magnum essays, applications node. Install and configured the new NIM server for technology research paper, the Customer Work with oracle DBA'S on tuning and performance.

Install and configuring customer application such as ESP, TSM, Tivoli monitoring agents, Dimension agents, TDPO, and SRM. Troubleshooting networks issues such as NIS, NFS, DNS, and Routing. Daily Server admin work, security, users. Participate on the on call support rotation. Building New Servers Standard LPAR Using AIX ver 5.2 and 5.3 and essay 2011, IBM Hardware p5 systems p570 and p4 p690, to IBM Existing Customers in the ODCS department. Building New Micro portioning Virtualization VIOS Server ver 1.3 and VIOC Client with AIX 5.3 on IBM p5 Hardware p570 and p595. Building and technology paper, configuring new VIOS server and new VIO Clients with boot from SAN. College Ap English Language Essays? (Each Frames 4 VIOS server 2 managing SAN storage (primary and technology research paper introduction, backup) and other 2 Managing SEA network connectivity(primary and secondary)) Lead a project of Converting 32 HACMP Cluster (64 nodes) with AIX 5.3 and essay, p5 IBM Hardware, From Dedicated LPAR to HACMP Micro partitioning Virtualization LPAR.

Build New Proof of Concept LAB for the HACMP LPAR'S Conversions from Fixed LPAR to VIO LPAR. Manage and test the VIO Conversion Project for the Proof of Concept which I did perform successfully. Moving the HACMP FIXED Standard cluster LPAR to become micro partitioning virtualization HACMP LPAR. For the First Time in IBM since Virtualization was released. Prepare the Proof of Concept documentations and procedure documents Present the Conversion Proof of Concept to the Higher Management and demonstrate the conversion procedure in front of the management.

Train staff of 15 SA's on these conversion procedures. Work on decommissioning 75 LPAR'S for IBM Customers after the introduction conversion. Pay Someone To Do? Prepare standard Server Decommission procedures. Doing Server Migration From an existing p4 LPAR to p5 LPAR using disk cloning to reduce outage time and using NIM server using nimadm command for reducing the outage period to the minimum. Troubleshooting and daily system support to different systems with different AIX level and versions on different platform. Upgrading the current AIX LPARS From V 52ML6/8/9 to AIX Version 5.3ML4 using the alt_disk_install method to research paper, reduce the outage time.

And upgraded through the NIM server. Migrating IBM pSeries Power4 hardware (650 and 690) LPAR to IBM pSeries Power5 Hardware (p570) using the essay mksysb image restored through TSM Server to NIM Server. Upgrade the technology introduction IBM pSeries Hardware Firmware (microcode) to latest Firmware released.. College Essays? Work on SAN Storage Configuration for the VIOS Server using the MPIO SDD Device drivers. Manage Install, Configured and research introduction, troubleshoot HACMP on the VIOC Virtualization Server using different Cluster Topologies, mostly Cluster with 2 nodes. Configuring, installing and updating p4 and hbs mba questions 2011, p5 HMC's including adding new or moving Frames between HMC's Upgrade the p5 HMC microcode and HMC code level. Participate in hot pager 24/7 on technology paper introduction call rotation. Worked as UNIX system administrator in the ODCS infrastructure environment, responsible building and managing different IBM customer new LPAR server with AIX UNIX O/S on essay services eServer latest Power 5 Machine p570 and Power 4 p650 and p690 LPARS Server Worked in technology research paper Building LPARs using Power 5 HMC'S and board essays, P4 HMC and remote connection to the HMC using WEBSM Application Working in building SAN volume groups and Logical Volumes and their Application File Systems Installing and configuring different application on the customer new and existing server such as WEBSHERE, WEBLOGIC, Oracle, DB2, HACMP, TSM, HTTP, LDAP C++ COMPIELER AND JAVA Application. Worked in research database cluster migration with 2 TB SAN Storage from P4 p650 machine to P5 p570 with new AIX newly installed on all the P570 nodes participating on the same cluster. migrate all the users ids and their home directories to the new nodes using SFTP, SCP, moved the oracles users and oracles cron job file to the new server, exports the SAN volume Group from the old p650 nodes and magnum essays, import them to paper, the new p570 nodes configuring the new HACMP on the new nodes and test the failover adapter fail over, hardware failover, application failover. Worked in installing AIX in new P5 p570 and my homework online, p650 LPAR systems for introduction, different IBM internal and pay someone to do my homework, external customer Maintaining and managing all the assigned customer servers, such as troubleshooting performance issues, adding space to file systems, swap page, adding new resources to the LPAR (CuoD) adding removing users , Participate in research introduction update the Microcode eServer Machines Frames P5 p570 , p690, and p690 to elementary essay, the latest Microcode release Installing the new release Security APARS and eFixes to all customer Server managed by me Participate on Hotpager rotation 24/7 in call support Worked on technology paper Replication database server migration from old p4 p650 server to newly installed P5 p570 Server. By cloning the old system AIX mksysbimg and restore it in the new Machine using NIM installation methods, updating the AIX ML level to the required by the new p570 machine and adding the p570 hardware devices driver to essay, the mksysbimg to insure the system boots.

Participate in SAN shark 2105 ESS Model 800 microcode managing SAN connectivity for the entire customer server in research introduction the target shark by deactivating and re activating all the Fibers Adapters. Involve in essay 2011 several conference calls and meeting for planning for several projects. Working on QA all new built servers LPAR before they are turned to the customers Configuring all TSM Client on the servers and test the TSM Server connection to the client and test the backup and monitoring all daily TSM backup. Provided UNIX infrastructure, operations and support for IBM RS6000 (7026-M80) servers running IBM AIX 4.3.3 performed installation, periodic maintenance update and introduction, applied APAR fixes. Worked as Unix Administrator in IT infrastructure environment providing Server Administration, application administration and automation solutions to support Business Objectives. Responsible for elementary, the performance and tuning of AIX systems, applying upgrade to technology paper introduction, AIX from version 4.3 to essay writing vs tell, 5.1. Paper? Maintained availability, increased capacity Performance of the production machines by upgrading their hardware (disks, CPU, memory, IO board, cooling unit, motherboard etc) firmware. Server Maintenance is one of pay someone to do my homework, my duties is to ensure are all servers synchronized. Configured backup/archive polices using Tivoli Storage Manager Backup utility and mksysb images of paper, root volume group to meet data requirement and disaster recovery readiness. Configured volume groups and logical volumes for the file system growth needs using Logical Volume Manager (LVM) commands.

Responsible for all architecture and technologies used in Tivoli's internal and external presences. Setup and hbs mba 2011, maintained NFS, NIS network, configured DNS and LDAP Server Configured Setup Sendmail 8.11 in IBM to setup messaging and mail masquerading for system and application layer utilities to communicate with internal and research paper introduction, external customers. Installed and configured Symantec ESM security tools for the intrusion detection and vulnerability management. Essay? Configured rule for system security, maintenance updates and system failure alerts. Technology Paper? Worked in the project of essay vs tell, configuring NIS Servers (Master and Slave) and NIS clients and maintained system and custom configuration files in NIS maps. Maintained Internet DNS environment by configuring primary and secondary Domain Name Servers and technology research, DNS clients. Perform security audits of critical corporate database and my homework online, disaster recovery procedures. Performed administrative tasks such as system startup/shutdown, Backup Strategy, Printing, Documentation, User Management, Security, Network management, dumb terminals and devices carried out. IBM AIX 4.3.3, 5.1 (RS/6000) HP-UX, Solaris 2.6, Tivoli Storage Manager, Korn Shell, IS, NFS, DNS, LDAP Server, and HACMP Software.

Enterprise System Management (ESM): BMC Patrol implementation. Hardware: SUN Enterprise Server, SUN-SPARC Stations, IBM RISC/6000, Compaq Proliant. Solaris (2.x), IBM-AIX (4.2), Digital-UNIX, Windows-NT (4.0). enterprise system servers (more than 750 Server) with distributed platforms UNIX (Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, and UnixWare), NT and paper introduction, VMS. Design, develop and implementation the knowledge modules by college board essays using PSL for Dow Jones Co. proprietary application performance monitoring (Factiva, WSJ.com, pagination, Customer Service…). BMC-Patrol Base load preparation.

BMC-Patrol installation, Configuration and Administration. Test the product on different development environment and migration to production environment. Test and customize new knowledge modules to monitor an technology research introduction, application specific environment and migration to production environment. Rules and escalation procedures for command center staff monitoring BMC-Patrol for mission critical application. •BMC-Patrol training for command centers staff members. IBM RISC/6000, HP/9000 D-Class (D-370) Series. AIX (3.2, 4.x), HP-UX (10). Installation Configuration of admission essay services, IBM (4.2) on IBM RISC/6000, installation configuration of HP-UX (10.0) on HP/9000 D-370 Series System. Systems Administration: User/Group Management, Design implementation of System security policies for AIX (3.2, 4.2) HP-UX (10). Technology Research Paper? Design implementation of systems backup recovery policies.

System Disaster recovery planning. Systems Administration by using AIX-SMIT HP-UX DAM. Configured Volume groups and Logical Volume Manager (LVM) commands. System administration for UNIBOL programming environment on IBM RISC/6000. The project is writing consisting of 2 phase:

Phase 1 related to the SAN (EMC Symmetrix DMX 800/1000/2000)Storage Environment: with the new EMC PowerPath software version 4.4.x.x released by EMC. The IT department of the Bank decide to upgrade the currently installed EMC PowerPath software version 3.x.x.x with the paper new release on all their IBM pSeries Machine p690, p670 and p595 Running AIX version 5.1.x.x and 5.2.x.x and install the latest HBA microcode Phase 2 AIX OS Migration From 5.1.x.x to 5.2.0.5.: Most of the services LPAR pSeries p690 and p670 running AIX version 5.1.x.x and they bank want to migrate these LPAR to AIX 5.2.0.5 as the highest level the Bank application currently support. The IT department management looking for migration methods to do this migration in technology paper introduction a way that minimize the pay someone to do outage time or in no outage time. Worked in EMC PowerPath software upgrade from version 3.x.x.x to introduction, new released version 4.4.2.2. Upgrade all the HBA FC adapter microcode to the latest microcode released by IBM. Currently working in AIX OS migration From AIX 5.1.x.x to the highest AIX 5.2.0.5 using alt_disk_install and nimadm command to reduce the elementary essay outage by creating an research, alt_disk (alt_rootvg) and perform the migration on the alt_rootvg disk with the system is up and running using the NIM Server to push the migration from the NIM server to college ap english essays, the Client using the nimadm command . the only outage occurring is during the paper system reboot From the new migrated rootvg disk for test and hbs mba questions 2011, validation. As an AIX system administrator worked closely with the application team to support them on OS issues they may encountered. Doctorate in Computer Science.

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Essay On Man - Poem by Alexander Pope. The First Epistle. To low ambition, and the pride of Kings. Let us (since Life can little more supply. Than just to technology research look about hbs mba 2011, us and to die) Expatiate(2) free o'er all this scene of Man; A mighty maze! but not without a plan; A Wild, where weeds and technology introduction, flow'rs promiscuous shoot,

Or Garden, tempting with forbidden fruit. Together let us beat this ample field, Try what the essay open, what the introduction covert yield; The latent tracts(3), the giddy heights explore. Of all who blindly creep, or sightless soar; Eye Nature's walks, shoot Folly as it flies, And catch the essay questions 2011 Manners living as they rise; Laugh where we must, be candid where we can; But vindicate(4) the ways of God to research paper introduction Man. 1. Magnum Essays. Say first, of God above, or Man below, What can we reason, but from what we know?

Of Man what see we, but his station here, From which to reason, or to technology introduction which refer? Thro' worlds unnumber'd tho' the God be known, 'Tis ours to trace him only in our own. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on to do my homework, worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, What vary'd being peoples ev'ry star,

May tell why Heav'n has made us as we are. But of this frame the bearings, and the ties, The strong connections, nice dependencies, Gradations just, has thy pervading soul. Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the introduction great chain, that draws all to agree, And drawn supports, upheld by God, or thee? Why form'd so weak, so little, and so blind! First, if thou canst, the harder reason guess,

Why form'd no weaker, blinder, and no less! Ask of thy mother earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade? Or ask of essay writing vs tell yonder argent fields(5) above, Why JOVE'S Satellites are less than JOVE?(6) Of Systems possible, if 'tis confest. That Wisdom infinite must form the introduction best, Where all must full or not coherent be, And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the scale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such rank as Man;

And all the writing show question (wrangle e'er so long) Is only this, if God has plac'd him wrong? Respecting Man, whatever wrong we call, Nay, must be right, as relative to all. In human works, tho' labour'd on with pain, A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain; In God's, one single can its end produce; Yet serves to second too some other use. So Man, who here seems principal alone, Perhaps acts second to some sphere unknown, Touches some wheel, or verges to some goal;

'Tis but a part we see, and not a whole. When the research paper introduction proud steed shall know why Man restrains. His fiery course, or drives him o'er the plains; When the dull Ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's God:(7) Then shall Man's pride and hbs mba 2011, dullness comprehend. His actions', passions', being's, use and end; Why doing, suff'ring, check'd, impell'd; and why. This hour a slave, the next a deity.

Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in paper introduction, fault; Say rather, Man's as perfect as he ought; His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. If to essay questions 2011 be perfect in a certain sphere, What matter, soon or late, or here or there? The blest today is as completely so, As who began a thousand years ago.

All but the page prescrib'd, their present state; From brutes what men, from men what spirits know: Or who could suffer Being here below? The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy Reason, would he skip and technology introduction, play? Pleas'd to admission services the last, he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to technology research introduction shed his blood.

Oh blindness to the future! kindly giv'n, That each may fill the circle mark'd by Heav'n; Who sees with equal eye, as God of services all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and research introduction, now a world. Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar; Wait the pay someone to do my homework great teacher Death, and God adore! What future bliss, he gives not thee to know,

But gives that Hope to be thy blessing now. Hope springs eternal in paper introduction, the human breast: Man never Is, but always To be blest: The soul, uneasy and confin'd from home, Rests and pay someone my homework, expatiates in a life to come. Lo! the poor Indian, whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind;

His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the technology paper introduction solar walk, or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n, Behind the my homework online cloud-topt hill, an technology research introduction, humbler heav'n; Some safer world in essay writing vs tell, depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in the watry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To Be, contents his natural desire,

He asks no Angel's wing, no Seraph's(8) fire; But thinks, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Weigh thy Opinion against Providence; Call Imperfection what thou fancy'st such, Say, here he gives too little, there too much; Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust,(9) Yet cry, If Man's unhappy, God's unjust; If Man alone ingross not Heav'n's high care, Alone made perfect here, immortal there: Snatch from technology paper his hand the balance(10) and the rod,

Re-judge his justice, be the college board language essays GOD of GOD! In Pride, in reas'ning Pride, our error lies; All quit their sphere, and rush into technology introduction the skies. Pride still is aiming at the blest abodes, Men would be Angels, Angels would be Gods. Aspiring to be Gods, if Angels fell, Aspiring to be Angels, Men rebel;

And who but wishes to invert the admission essay laws. Of ORDER, sins against th' Eternal Cause. Earth for whose use? Pride answers, Tis for technology, mine: For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb, and spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Annual for essay questions, me, the grape, the introduction rose renew. The juice nectareous, and admission essay services, the balmy dew;

For me, the mine a thousand treasures brings; For me, health gushes from a thousand springs; Seas roll to waft me, suns to light me rise; My foot-stool earth, my canopy the skies. But errs not Nature from this gracious end, From burning suns when livid deaths descend, When earthquakes swallow, or when tempests sweep. Towns to one grave, whole nations to the deep?

No ('tis reply'd) the first Almighty Cause. Acts not by partial, but by gen'ral laws; Th' exceptions few; some change since all began, And what created perfect? -- Why then Man? If the great end be human Happiness, Then Nature deviates; and can Man do less? As much that end a constant course requires. Of show'rs and sun-shine, as of Man's desires; As much eternal springs and technology paper, cloudless skies, As Men for ever temp'rate, calm, and wise.

If plagues or earthquakes break not Heav'n's design, Why then a Borgia,(11) or a Catiline?(12) Who knows but he, whose hand the light'ning forms, Who heaves old Ocean, and who wings the storms, Pours fierce Ambition in a Caesar's(13) mind,

Or turns young Ammon(14) loose to college board scourge mankind? From pride, from research paper pride, our very reas'ning springs; Account for moral as for nat'ral things: Why charge we Heav'n in those, in magnum essays, these acquit? In both, to reason right is to submit. Better for Us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there all harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind;

That never passion discompos'd the mind: But ALL subsists by technology research paper introduction, elemental strife; and Passions are the admission essay elements of Life. The gen'ral ORDER, since the whole began, Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. And little less than Angel,(15) would be more; Now looking downwards, just as griev'd appears. To want the strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Made for his use all creatures if he call, Say what their use, had he the pow'rs of all? Nature to introduction these, without profusion kind,

The proper organs, proper pow'rs assign'd; Each seeming want compensated of course, Here with degrees of admission essay services swiftness, there of force; All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to technology paper add, and nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in essay writing, its own; Is Heav'n unkind to technology paper introduction Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? The bliss of magnum essays Man (could Pride that blessing find) Is not to act or think beyond mankind;

No pow'rs of body or of soul to share, But what his nature and his state can bear. Why has not Man a microscopic eye? For this plain reason, Man is not a Fly. Say what the technology paper use, were finer optics giv'n, T' inspect a mite,(16) not comprehend the heav'n? Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o'er, To smart and agonize at ev'ry pore? Or quick effluvia(17) darting thro' the brain, Die of a rose in writing, aromatic pain? If nature thunder'd in his op'ning ears,

And stunn'd him with the music of the spheres, How would he wish that Heav'n had left him still. The whisp'ring Zephyr,(18) and the purling rill?(19) Who finds not Providence all good and wise, Alike in technology paper, what it gives, and what denies? The scale of sensual, mental pow'rs ascends: Mark how it mounts, to hbs mba questions 2011 Man's imperial race, From the green myriads in the people grass: What modes of sight betwixt each wide extreme, The mole's dim curtain, and technology introduction, the lynx's beam: Of smell, the headlong lioness between,

And hound sagacious(20) on the tainted(21) green: Of hearing, from the life that fills the flood,(22) To that which warbles thro' the vernal(23) wood: The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and magnum essays, lives along the line:

In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew:(24) How Instinct varies in research paper, the grov'ling swine, Compar'd, half-reas'ning elephant, with thine: 'Twixt that, and vs tell, Reason, what a nice barrier; For ever sep'rate, yet for ever near! Remembrance and Reflection how ally'd; What thin partitions Sense from Thought divide: And Middle natures,(25) how they long to join,

Yet never pass th' insuperable line! Without this just gradation, could they be. Subjected these to those, or all to thee? The pow'rs of all subdu'd by thee alone, Is not thy Reason all these pow'rs in one? All matter quick, and bursting into birth. Above, how high progressive life may go!

Around, how wide! how deep extend below! Vast chain of being, which from technology research paper introduction God began, Natures ethereal,(26) human, angel, man. Beast, bird, fish, insect! what no eye can see, No glass can reach! from essay writing Infinite to thee, From thee to Nothing! -- On superior pow'rs. Were we to technology research paper press, inferior might on ours: Or in pay someone online, the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destoy'd:

From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. And if each system in gradation roll, Alike essential to th' amazing whole; The least confusion but in one, not all. That system only, but the whole must fall. Let Earth unbalanc'd from her orbit fly, Planets and Suns run lawless thro' the sky, Let ruling Angels from their spheres be hurl'd, Being on being wreck'd, and world on world, Heav'n's whole foundations to their centre nod,

And Nature tremble to the throne of research God: All this dread ORDER break -- for whom? for hbs mba questions, thee? Vile worm! -- oh, Madness, Pride, Impiety! Or hand to toil, aspir'd to be the head? What if the technology research introduction head, the eye, or ear repin'd(27) To serve mere engines to hbs mba essay questions the ruling Mind?

Just as absurd, to mourn the tasks or pains. The great directing MIND of technology introduction ALL ordains. All are but parts of one stupendous whole, Whose body, Nature is, and hbs mba essay, God the soul; That, chang'd thro' all, and introduction, yet in all the same, Great in the earth, as in th' ethereal frame, Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze,

Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees, Lives thro' all life, extends thro' all extent, Spreads undivided, operates unspent, Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal parts, As full, as perfect, in a hair as heart; As full, as perfect, in vile Man that mourns, As the rapt Seraph that adores and burns; To him no high, no low, no great, no small; He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all. Our proper bliss depends on pay someone my homework online, what we blame.

Know thy own point: This kind, this due degree. Of blindness, weakness, Heav'n bestows on thee. Submit -- In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: Safe in the hand of technology research one disposing Pow'r, Or in writing vs tell, the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is research, but Art, unknown to thee; All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not see; All Discord, Harmony, not understood; All partial Evil, universal Good: And, spite of Pride, in services, erring Reason's spite,

One truth is clear, Whatever IS, is RIGHT. to study himself. The proper study of Mankind is Man. Plac'd on research, this isthmus of my homework online a middle state,(28) A being darkly wise, and rudely great:

With too much knowledge for the Sceptic side, With too much weakness for technology paper, the Stoic's pride, He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest, In doubt to deem himself a God, or Beast; In doubt his Mind or Body to elementary essay prefer, Born but to die, and reas'ning but to err; Alike in ignorance, his reason such, Whether he thinks too little, or too much:

Chaos of Thought and technology paper, Passion, all confus'd; Still by himself abus'd, or disabus'd; Created half to rise, and half to elementary essay fall; Great lord of technology introduction all things, yet a prey to essay all; Sole judge of technology paper introduction Truth, in online, endless Error hurl'd: The glory, jest, and riddle of the technology research paper introduction world! 4[explain or defend] 5[silvery fields, i.e., the heavens] 6[the planet Jupiter]

7[ancient Egyptians sometimes worshipped oxen] 8[the highest level of angels] 10[the balance used to weigh justice] 11[Caesar Borgia (1476-1507) who used any cruelty to achieve his ends] 12[Lucious Sergius Catilina (108-62 B.C.) who was a traitor to Rome] 13[Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) who was thought to board ap english language essays be overly ambitious Roman] 14[Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.)] 15[Psalm 8:5--Thou hast made him [man] a little lower than the angels. ] 17[vapors which were believed to research pass odors to the brain] 18[the West Wind] 20[able to pick up a scent]

21[having the odor of an animal] 24[honey was thought to have medicinal properties] 25[Animals slightly below humans on the chain of being] 28[i.e., on the chain of being between angels and college ap english language essays, animals] Comments about Essay On Man by Alexander Pope. This is one of the profoundest poems I have ever read or hope to introduction read. (Report) Reply. Compliments of the day to you. I am Miss nenita fred I am single,23yrs.However How are you? hope you are fine and in perfect condition of magnum essays health.I went through your profile and i read it and took intersest in it, if you don't mind i will like to know you much better, although i came online to introduction look for elementary essay, a true and technology research introduction, loving man that is ready for a true, honest and loving relationship and will be able to take good care of me if you are the kind of man am talking about then send me a mail now on my private email (nenita_4life77@yahoo.co.uk) included, so that i will tell you all about myself and a picture of myself.looking forward to hear from you, thanks and God bless. Read this poem in other languages.

This poem has not been translated into any other language yet.