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Lab 6: Molecular Biology | Molecular Cloning | Transformation (Genetics)

Molecular biology lab report

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ap bio darwin essay 1) Individuals begin to ponder what we term as evolution during the classical era of the Greeks and Romans. Anaximander developed theories on the progression of scaly, fishlike forms to molecular biology land forms. Empedocles believed createrurs literally fused together: for example if men fused their heads with cattle, then a new organism would form. Most of these combinations died but those that remained became new organisms. 2) One premise was that a population of organism, without any check, would grow exponentially. The reason that few population do in fact sustain exponential growth is explained be the second premise. This premise states that as resources dwindle, organisms compete with each other for those declining resources. Lastly, the third premise states that only suicide, a few survive. Thus, natural selection allows those few individuals with beneficial traits and characteristics to survive at lab report, a greater rate than organism without those traits. These organisms may eventually split off from a parent species and become their own species. 3) Carol von Linne believed that species were immutable, unchanging.

This concurred with the Biblical view that each type of organism resulted from divine creation. Lamarck’s theory came to be known as the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Lamarck believed that organisms emerged spontaneously from financial study inanimate matter and then evolved. This evolution was stimulated by molecular lab report, an organism’s need for a particular characteristic. Once that characteristic was acquired, it was developed through regular use and then passed on on television to offspring. Molecular Lab Report. Disuse of spanish food essay a body part or characteristic leads to its disappearance from the animal’s body. Molecular. 4) Wallace, while resting during a night of case study fever in the Spice Islands, remembered an essay written by Thomas Maltus. Maltus’s work stated that population grow geometrically but that the biology, food supply grows much more slowly.

Darwin, who began as a physician, joined the HMS Beagle as an informal naturalist. He collected samples of birds and upon tacitus essay, talking to molecular lab report an ornithologist, realized that each bird was a distinct species. Assisted Suicide Research Paper. He thought for a while that since the Galapogas were similar to the Cape Verde Islands, each should contain similar organisms. However, the molecular, organisms of the Galapogos were similar to South American species while the ones in argumentative Cape Verde were similar to African species. Molecular Biology Lab Report. Evolution had occurred.

5) Darwin delayed publication because he realized how radical his ideas would be. He wanted to gather more evidence before he published what may would view as challenge to tacitus essay the religious dogma of the day. 1) Bacteria are either eubacteria or archaebacteria. Eubacteria include cyanobacteria, some of the earliest living organisms. Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs and biology lab report carry out photosynthesis. An Essay On Television. They first occurred 3.5 billion years ago and contributed to the development of free oxygen in the atmosphere (helping makes organisms like humans possible). Eubacteria include bacterial pathogens such as the plague, cholera, and chlamidya. Some eubacteria are also chemoauthotrophs, which derive their energy from the breakdown chemical bonds.

Important chemoautotrophs are nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants. Biology. Archaebacteria are older and an essay evolved during a time when the earth was a much harsher place. Lab Report. As a result, they tend to live at the extremes. Thermophiles inhabit hot springs or the areas surrounding deep sea thermal vents. Halophiles inhabit highly salty areas, such as the Great Salt Lake. 2) Protists are a eclectic collection of taxa.

They include algae, which are mostly marine organisms. Argumentative Essays Shows. Kelp is a type of brown algae and molecular biology lab report can form massive underwater groves. Green algae comprises phytoplankton, which forms the assisted suicide, basis of most marine food chains. The Sarcodina include amoebas (which move by use of a psuedopod) and foraminifera (which secrete and reside in a calcium shell). Flagellates are protiststs that have a cellular tail and molecular biology lab report whip it to move along. An Essay. The flagellate Trypanasoma is responsible for sleeping sickness and lab report Giarda is responsible for suicide research, hiker’s diarrhea. 3) Plants likely arose from aquatic seaweeds, specifically green algae which might have been leafy in shape.

4) Perennial plants live for at least two years whereas annual plants complete their life cycle within one year. 5) Remaining upright (without the aid of buoyant water) is a problem as is the potential for desiccation (dehydration due to intense heat and molecular biology wind). -vascular cambrium: a ring of active cells just beneath the bark. Spanish. This is biology lab report where most of the growth in perennial plants occurs. On Television. -growth ring: an annual episode of growth marked by a ring of large and compact cells. It is preserved each year and serves as a useful record of a tree’s age. -sporophyte: a sporophyte is a plant that produces diploid (2n) spores and biology lab report is diploid. -gametophyte: a plant that is haploid (n) and produces gamates (sex cells) -lignin: a chemical compound found in wood that is a major component in the secondary cell walls of essays ring plant cells. Due to lignin’s strength, the plant can “stand” upright. -cuticle: a waxy layer that acts as an airtight sealant and helps reduce water loss from interior tissue. -apical meristem: located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots and provides primary growth (elongation of plant into soil and up into the air) -lateral meristem: provides secondary growth (increase in girth). Molecular Biology. In woody plants secondary growth is responsible for the gradual thickening of the roots and shoots formed from earlier plant tissue. -xylem: a water and mineral conducting tissue consisting of tracheids an dvessel elements. Both are dead at functional maturity.

Tracheids are long, thin cells that overall and are tapered at the ends. Vessel elements are wider, shorter, thinner walled, and less tapered. Water can flow freely through elements whereas in tracheids water must pass through pits. -phloem: carry food from photosynthetic leaves to the rest of the plant by active transport. On Television. Phloem consists of sieve tube members that facilitate the molecular biology, flow of fluid from one cell to the next. These are alive at functional maturity and are attached to companion cells (which support the member, which does not contain nuclei, ribosomes, or vacuoles). -stomata: tiny pores passing though the cuticle which allow for gas exchange between the plant and environmet.

7) Alternation of essays on family generations refers to the process of diploid and haploid individuals alternating with each other. A plant will be diploid some of the molecular lab report, time and haploid the rest. Before meiosis, a cell holds a full complement of paired chromosomes (2n) and meiosis results in gametes with half the chromosomes (n). Case Study. A sporophyte is a diploid plant while a gametophyte is a haploid plant. Gametophytes through mitosis. Gametophytes fuse to form a zygote which will become a sporophyte.

Spores (produced by sporophytes) 8) Bryophytes (mosses) lack vascular and transport tissue and thrive in dark and damp places. They also lack lignin and thus cannot support themselves. This is why they are found low to the ground clustererd in mats. Pteridophytes are ferns. Ferns have underground stems (rhizome) and biology lab report leaves that are aerial fronds that unfurl from coiled young leaves. Spores are produced on the underside of the frond (sporophyte individual). The spores then produce a gametophyte individual, which produces egg and sperm. Write An Essay On Television. These egg and sperm, following fertilization, grow directly into the rhizome and fronds of the young fern. Molecular Lab Report. The seed plants include gymnosperms and angiosperms. Write On Television. They have seeds (protective cases for young embryos) and pollen ( a hardy form of sperm) that is resistant to extreme temperatures and extremes of moisture. The seed consists of a seed coat, plant embryo, and a supply of nutrients.

Gymnosperms. 9) The cell walls of fungi are made of molecular biology chitin (a nitrogen containing polysaccharide) instead of cellulose. They do not have photosynthesis and tacitus essay do not photosynthesize. 10) Hyphae are structures that produce a feeding mat referred to as the biology, mycelium. The hyphae continue aboveground to form the reproductive structure known as the fruiting body. 11) Mycorrhizae is the name of symbiotic combinations of case fungi and roots. The root supplies sugars to the fungi while the fungi facilitates the molecular biology lab report, transfer of minerals from the soil to the roots. 12) Animals likely arose from protists. Animals probably arose from a choanoflagellate that lived in tacitus essay colonies. These flagellates were equipped with flagella and lab report thus were able to move on their own accord and were heterotrophs. They displayed some fundamental aspects of animals.

13) Parazoans are the simplest of assisted paper all animals and are sponges. Connected needlelike spicules provide support to a sessile body. They body surrounds an internal cavity lined by flagellated cells. Most parazoans are asymmetric whereas nearly all other animals display some sort of molecular biology lab report symmetry (such as the eumetozaoans). Platyhelminthes, rotifera, mollusca, annelida, nematode, arhtropoda, echinodermata, chordata are eumetazoans. 14) In protostomes, the first opening becomes the mouth while in deuterostomes the first opening becomes the anus. -porifera: sponges; pass through planktonic (unattached) stage of development; sessile; asymmetric; internal cavity lined by flagellated cells; have needle-like spicules for support. -cnidarians: have radial body symmetry and tacitus essay consist of jellyfish and hydra. Molecular Lab Report. They only have two cell layers and also have stinging cells.

There is no transport system because every cell is in contact with the environment. They have a gastrovascular cavity where extracellular digestion occurs. -platyhelminthes: compressed and ribbon like; some are free moving while others are parasitic and reside inside a host; planarians glide on cilia that cover their ventral surfaces; tapeworms are segmented. -mollusca: have a hard shell into which they can withdraw. Some (clams) have a pair of closing shells while others (snails) have a single shell. Some are predators with sucker-lined tentacles. Argumentative Essays Shows. These include squids and octopuses. annelids: includes earthworms, which are representative of the basic segmented body plan characteristic of the phylum. As they feed, they pass the soil through their bodies, digest the organic material, and leave the inorganic material behind as feces. Leeches are annelids as well. arthropoda: They are the biology lab report, largest group of animals, segmented, and are surrounded by spanish essay, an exoskeleton. The exoskeleton allows for movement because it is jointed and acts as a protective barrier.Trilobites occupied the Earth for nearly 300 million years then vanished. Arachnids (spiders, scorpions, etc) and crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, and shrimp) are also arthropods. The largest group of arthropods are the insects, most of which are winged. echinodermata: includes starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, and ancient crinoids. Molecular Biology Lab Report. They move along using sweeps of their arms or synchronized motion of tube feet.

Their embryology is similar to that of the on reality, chordates (they have bilateral symmetry during embryonic development) chordates: comprised mainly of lab report vertebrates (organisms with a back bone). A notochord runs down the long axis of vertebrates. The earliest vertebrates were jawless fishes such as ostracoderms. Fishes with jaws followed as did the ring, cartilaginous fishes and lab report bony fishes. The bony fishes are the largest single group of vertebrates. Amphibians were the first to employ limbs and were the first tetrapods.

Tetrapod means four footed but is understood to tacitus essay be a taxonomic term (snakes and whales are also tetrapods). 16) amnion = a thin membrane that encloses the biology lab report, embryo in watery amniotic fluid. cleiodic egg = a leathery shell (in reptiles and monotremes) or a brittle shell (in birds) that contains the amnion and on family the amniotic fluid. The egg also contains the chorion (which is used for molecular biology lab report, respiration) and the yolk sac (food for the growing embryo). placenta = specialized tissues along the inside wall of the female uterus connected to the fetus by an umbilical cord. The placenta passes nutrients and oxygen from the mothers blood to the fetus and fetal CO 2 to the mother for elimination. 17) A habitat is an organism’s ecological address (where it lives). Its niche is its ecological profession (the habitat is where it lives while the tacitus essay, niche is how it lives). A fundamental niche describes the full range of available resources that can be used (predators, temperature, humidity, living space, etc). The realized niche is the amount of resources that the organism actually uses. 1) Nilsson-Ehle crossed true breeding red and molecular biology lab report white wheat plants, producing intermediate colored plants.

These F1 plants were then crossed with each other, resulting in write an essay seven discrete varieties. These seven forms occurred at the same ratio through multiple crossings. This demonstrated that Mendalian genetics can produce “smooth” variation. Furthermore, the presence of polygenic traits (traits controlled by biology, multiple genes) can also account for “smooth” variation. Individual traits can be accounted for by discrete Mendalian genetics yet still produce “smooth” variation amongst a population. 2) A polygenic trait is one controlled by multiple genes whereas a monogenic trait is controlled by one gene. For example, height is a trait controlled by multiple genes whereas the color of flowers can be controlled by one gene. 3) A locus is a fixed position on a chromosome. A diploid organism has pairs of write an essay on television homologous. Each pair has corresponding loci. An organism may have one allele at each loci.

The alleles do not have to be the same. Biology Lab Report. (For example, a heterozygous individual has allele A on one chromosome and allele a on the other at the same locus). Essays On Family Ring. 4) A population is a group of interbreeding organisms of the same species that exist together in both time and space. A gene pool consists of all the alleles found in a population. 5) Lowercase p represents the frequency of the molecular biology, dominant allele in assisted research a population. Lowercase q represents the frequency of the recessive allele in the population. P-square represents the proportion of lab report individuals that are dominant homozygotes, q-square represents the proportion that are homozygote recessive, and 2pq represents the proportion that are heterozygotes. 6) A population is at equilibrium (according to the Hardy-Weinberg theory) if the allelic frequencies are not changing.

This means that the values of financial and analysis case p and q do not change from what they originally were. The values of p and q stay constant. 7) For a population to be at equilibrium it must be very large (more resistant to molecular lab report large changes in allelic frequency), random mating of individuals (there is no selection for certain alleles), there is no immigration/emigration (no loss or gain of alleles), natural selection is not occurring (frequencies are not increasing or decreasing), mutation is not occurring at assisted research paper, a high rate (new alleles not being introduced). Certain population may be small, rarely is mating random (mates seek the best members of the opposite biology, sex), rarely does immigration not occur in an ecological sense (influx of exotic species, climatic events cause individuals to move, etc) and natural selection often is essays on family occurring (though it may not be drastic). 8) w 2 = 0.16 so w = 0.4 so W = 0.6. so 2pq = 0.48 (proportion of heterozygote individuals) 9) Heterozygote advantage refers to molecular a situation in which natural selection maintains genetic variation by favoring heterozygote individuals. For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, children heterozygous for the sickle cell allele sometimes display the negative effects associated with sickle cell disease but are at a better advantage overall because the abnormal blood cells are harder for the malaria parasite to write on television penetrate.

Those who are homozygous for the allele suffer too much from sickle cell disease for it to biology lab report be an overall benefit while those who do not have the allele are at essay, a considerable disadvantage. Therefore, natural selection favors the heterozygotes in this case. 10) Microevolution refers to the change of molecular biology allelic frequencies within a population (such as the presence of peppered moths or the presence of tacitus essay heterozygote carriers of the sickle cell allele). Microevolution can occur relatively quickly, in just a few generations. Macroevolution refers to the large scale changes that lead to the origin of higher taxa (orders, families, phyla). These new taxa come about molecular biology, as the result of the write an essay, accumulation of molecular lab report many small changes.

Thus, microevolution [can lead to] leads to macroevolution. 11) The evolution of the English moth is food essay a form of directional selection. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the population of the moths was centered around a “mean” of white color but the “mean” shifted and molecular was now centered at black (the allelic frequencies drastically changed). 12) Genetic drift is change in the gene pool due to chance. If a new allele is introduced into a large population, the shows, new allele will take a very long time (many generations) to spread into a large proportion of lab report individuals because there is a large gene pool that it must alter. In a small population, the gene pool is small (if an allele cannonballs into the pool, a larger proportion of individuals feel the impact). 13) Both forms of change in the gene pool are random. However, the two are different.

Bottlenecks occur when a population is under pressure and its size is reduced. Planning. Therefore, changes in allele frequency are more drastic and affect the reduced population more. The founder effect occurs when a population is not under pressure but derives from a few individuals and therefore there is little genetic variability in ensuing generations. 14) For gene flow to lab report occur, there must be an exchange of fertile individuals or gametes. This is study would occur more easily between two populations that overlap in time and space. It is biology harder for individuals to migrate to an isolated island or for gametes to be carries to an isolated island. 15) The Hardy-Weinberg principle allows us to calculate what would happen if natural selection were not occurring and planning case then compare what does happen in biology the real world. The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to calculate allelic frequencies and thus examine the genetic basis for evolution because speciation begins when the allelic frequencies of two populations begin to diverge.

1) Chromosomes are paired and each individual receives one from the father and one from the mother (within the pair). During meiosis, segments of the homologous chromosomes at the same loci (location along the chromosomes) “swap”. Even though the genes at the exchanged sites may be similar, different alleles may be present on each chromosome resulting in more genetic variation. In diploid organisms, sex results in an enormous variety of potential offspring. Assisted Research Paper. Because there are millions of molecular lab report sperm that have undergone meiosis and millions of ova that have undergone meiosis (and thus variation has increased), the resulting embryo is unique. Write On Television. Even bacteria exchange circular pieces of DNA known as plasmids, thus increasing the genetic variation among a population that reproduces through binary fission.

2) DeVries, a Dutch botanist, who worked with evening primroses passed by a field and saw of biology lab report form of primrose that was new to him. Spanish. After experimenting with primroses and other organisms, DeVries observed that new varieties seemed to molecular lab report occur spontaneously through mutation (he referred to these varieties as mutants). DeVries expounded the theory that new species arose suddenly due to large mutations. Through research, it has been proven that mutations are the ultimate source of variation. 3) A point mutation is one or a few alterations in the base-coding sequence of the food, gene’s DNA, thus producing a new allele of the gene. Point mutations consist of insertions, deletions, or substitutions.

Even small changes in molecular lab report the nucleotide bases can change the and analysis case, amino acid being coded for molecular, and thus the entire shape of a protein. In sickle cell anemia, one of the amino acids (there are 574) comprising hemoglobin results in the formation of an abnormal hemoglobin molecule. -During meiosis, unequal crossing over occurs, resulting in on television a chromosome with repeated segments coding for the same genetic material. The chromosome with the duplicated segments can accumulate mutations in one of the genes and still have a functional segment of DNA left. The segment of molecular lab report DNA coding for hemoglobin has enough material to suicide research code for six units but only four are present in an individual at any given time. The other two can be called upon when physiological conditions change. This phenomenon arose from gene duplication millions of years ago. -Within chromosomes, sections can be flipped around within their chromosomes (inversion). Pieces of chromosomes can get transplanted to molecular other chromosomes (translocation). At times, inversions can be beneficial. Among fruit flies, certain inversions become common in essays colder climates and decrease in warmer climates and confer advantages to flies living in colder areas.

Polyploid can also occur. Polyploidy is the presence of multiple sets (more than two) of chromosomes (4n, 8n, etc) . Polyploidy solves the “problem” of crossing over for molecular biology, chromosomes with gene duplications and is a major factor in plant evolution. A polyploid plant’s “haploid” 2n gametes can fertilize with other 2n gametes and form a 4n plant (a tetraploid). Assisted Suicide. 4) Homeotic genes (Hox genes) are master genes that control other genes responsible for biology, the formation of body parts. Major changes between animal phyla are correlated with duplications in essays on family Hox genes or in an increase in the number of Hox genes (changing the way and order in which body parts form or adding new segments altogether). Hox genes are tuned on and off repeatedly during embryonic development, responding to the changing chemical and anatomical conditions within the embryo. They can also control individual genes that are downstream.

5) Mutations introduce necessary variation. Usually, they have negative effects because they disrupt a fine tuned system that has evolved over millions of biology years. However, for large scale change to occur, major genes must often change as well. Evolution depends upon mutation. Sex is important from an assisted paper evolutionary standpoint because it introduces variation as well. Through meiosis, each sperm or egg cell is molecular biology lab report different. Paper. Sex allos for these to combine and produce an individual whose genetic blueprint is unique and who may harbor genes that could prove useful in the future (in terms of a population). Explain the molecular, difference between abiotic and biotic factors. 1)Abiotic: Physical non living factors like Climatic conditions and habitat harshness. Biotic: Factors due to competition between and predation among living organisms.

2)Define biological fitness. Argumentative On Reality Television. What role does fitness play in selection? Fitness is relative reproductive success of individuals, within a population,in leaving offspring in the next generation (contributing to the gene pool). Offspring of fitter species are selected for survival.Fitness is the relative ability to survive and reproduce. 3) Compare and contrast natural and artificial selection. Give examples of each. Weeding out of organisms by biology lab report, biological processes without deliberate or directed human intervention. Weeding out of organisms by humans for humans. Example Brown snails are rare in tacitus essay Meadows but are common in Beech woodlands.

Green snails are rare in Beech woodlands and common in green meadows. Biology Lab Report. Example Dairy farmer breeds cows which give high volume milk and hold back on those with low production. White water snakes on the islands of Lake Erie. The banded snakes are easily lost to predation. Oil content in corn was artificially divided by selecting only high oil content yielding corn and other successively lower in kernel oil. 4. Describe the various patterns, or types, of natural selection. Give examples for each.

Directional Selection: When one genotype (and the resulting phenotype) replaces another. For example, in industrial England, the allele for argumentative essays television, white colored moths declined and the allele for black colored moths increased as white colored moths were selected againts (because the trees became black with soot). The black moth genotype/phenotype replaced the. Disruptive selection: Disruptive selection increases the molecular biology, extreme genotypes/phenotypes in a resulting population. For example, in an area of light colored and very dark soil, organisms which are at tacitus essay, the extremes of the population will be selected for whereas organisms in the middle (gray organisms, for example) will be selected against. Molecular Biology. Sexual Selection: Males with more prominent characteristics are more attractive to females. Since more attractive males contribute most to the gene pool, less attractive males (males with small horns for example) are selected against. Male peacocks with the most brilliant displays are more likely to contribute to the gene pool. 5)Define sexual selection and describe how it relates to sexual dimorphism.

Members of one sex mostly males have greater physical powers or flashy ornamentation enjoy better success in attracting a mate and thereby benefit from reproductive success. This form of selection is called sexual selection. Secondary sexual characteristics exhibited by either males or females ,like male lions have mane and financial study adult male sea lions are larger in size. Males and females differ morphologically and exhibit different secondary sexual characteristics a condition referred to as sexual dimorphism. 6. Biology. What are the advantages and disadvantages, from an spanish evolutionary standpoint, of sex? Advantages:Larger,stronger males with elaborate features fare better breed more often and pass on their secondary sexual characteristics.Secondary sexual characteristics are health certificates which ensure that the best characteristics are passed on to the next generation. Sex allows for more shuffling of allele combinations, which means there is a better chance that beneficial allele combinations can arise.

The spread of a mutation within a population is also slower because a mutated allele is often paired with a healthy allele (in offspring) that may negate the effect of the molecular, mutated allele. Sex allows for much more genetic variability, which means that natural selection has a more diverse gene pool to work with. Disdvantage:secondary sexual characteristics sometimes may make the next generation of species more. Prominently visible and hence vulnerable to assisted suicide predators (for example, the male peacock's display attracts predators as well as mates). Sex also involves considerable expendature of energy and time, whereas asexual organisms can easily reproduce by budding or mitosis. Sexual reproduction also takes more time (the process of meisosis itself is longer than mitosis).

A sexually reproducing population often canot reproduce as quickly as an asexually reproducing population. Chapter 6 Questions for Kardong. 1. What areas of science provide evidence for the occurrence of evolution? Fossil science paleontology ,comparative anatomy,comparative embryology and vestigial and Atatvistic structures. 2. Biology. For the above fields, describe what that evidence is, and how it supports the idea of write evolution through natural selection. 3. Fossil science paleontology: Fossils clearly indicate that species were not created separately but ,simple bacteria evolved first and then eukaryotes then multicelluar organisms. Biology Lab Report. - comparative anatomy: Different species exhibit basic underlying similarities. Argumentative Shows. -comparative embryology: mammal embryos have gill slits, illustrating that mammals can be traced back to amphibians and molecular biology lab report other marine organisms which evolved through natural selection to meet the tacitus essay, needs of living on biology lab report land. -vestigial structures: humans have a coccyx bone, a remanant of a tail. This provides a link to write an essay reptiles and other organisms that had tails (showing our common descent) -atavistic structures: the molecular lab report, reappearance of ancestral traits allows us to peer into our ancestry and provides clues as to which organisms we are related to. 4. Define the following and give examples: a. Homologous structures: Same features that can be traced back to a common ancestor. b. Spanish Essay. Example: Birds wings and mole’s arms can be traced back to common ancestor(reptiles). c. Biology Lab Report. Analogous structures: Structures which perform same function but cannot be taced back to a common ancestor. d. Example wings of Bats and essays bees are used to fly but cannot be traced back to a common ancestor. e. Molecular Biology. Homoplastic structures: Structures look alike but may not be homologous or analogous. f. Example: Wings of financial case study insects which look like leaves. g. Vestigial structures: Rudimentary structures which remain form the past. h. Biology Lab Report. Example: Hip and assisted suicide research hindlimb bones of whales (the appendinx in biology lab report humans). i. Atavistic structures: Are throwbacks, return of structures typical of ancestors.

Example: Additional toes in essays on family ring modern horses. Biology. j. Founder effect: Phenomenon in write an essay which rare traits are common in new and isolated locations. k. Example: Polydactyly is common among the Amish because the original families who immigrate to the US had unusually high rates of polydactyly (and the associated allele) l. Biogenetic law: Early events of embryonic development retain clues to evolutionary events. m. Example: Gill slits in molecular lab report embryonic development of tacitus essay mammals reinforce evolutionary connection to earlier organisms (such as amphibians) n. Molecular. Preservationism: Embryos maintain earlier evolutionary non functional organ Example:Gills in mammals birds and essays on family ring reptiles. o. Biogeographic realms: Land is divided into 6 biogeographic realms. Lab Report. p. Example: Australian realm with 20 mamalian and 7 endemic families. q. Center of origin: Region where a species is localized is called as center of origin. Financial Planning And Analysis Case. r. Example:Black birds have center of origin in Nearctic and Neotropic realms. s. Neodarwinian evolution: Advances in evidence and biological changes 150 years after Darwin,with clear understanding of genes,DNA and natural selection. This is the modern theory of evolution. t. Phylogenetic trees: Branching systems of hypothesized relations and sequences in evolution.

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Introduction to Performance Testing – LoadRunner Training Tutorial Part 1. Today, we are starting the ‘Performance testing with LoadRunner’ tutorial series. Biology Lab Report. This is the write an essay, first tutorial in biology a three-part HP LoadRunner training series. In the first two tutorials, we will introduce you to performance testing and in the last tutorial we will share ‘Load Testing with LoadRunner video tutorials ‘. Performance testing has proved itself to spanish essay, be crucial for the success of a business. Not only biology lab report, does a poor performing site face financial.

losses, it also could lead to legal repercussions at times. No one wants to put up with a slow performing, unreliable site when purchasing, taking tests online, bill paying, etc. With the internet being so widely available, the food essay, alternates are immense. It is easier to lose clientele than gain them, and performance is a key game changer. Therefore, performance testing is molecular no longer a name sake checkpoint before going live.

It is spanish essay indeed a comprehensive and detailed stage that would determine whether the performance of molecular a site or an application meets the tacitus essay, needs. The purpose of this test is to understand the performance of an molecular application under load, particularly for users. What You Will Learn: Load testing is assisted suicide research a type of performance test where the application is tested for its performance on normal and peak usage. Performance of an application is biology lab report checked with respect to its response to the user request and its ability to respond consistently within an spanish food accepted tolerance on different user loads. The key considerations are: What is the biology lab report, max load the application is spanish able to hold before the application starts behaving unexpectedly? How much data the molecular lab report, Database able to handle before system slows or the crash is observed?

Are there any network related issues to be addressed? Stress testing is used to find the ways to break the system. The test also provides the write an essay, range of lab report maximum load the system can hold. Generally, stress testing has an incremental approach where the load is increased gradually. Tacitus Essay. The test is started with a load for which the application has already been tested. Lab Report. Then, more load is added slowly to stress the system. Write An Essay On Television. The point at which we start seeing servers not responding to the requests is considered the biology, breaking point. During this test, the functionality of the application is tested under a heavy load. On the back-end, the functionality might be running complex queries, handling data, etc. The following questions are to tacitus essay, be addressed: What is the max load a system can sustain before it breaks down?

How is the system break down? Is the system able to molecular biology lab report, recover once it’s crashed? In how many ways system can break and spanish which are the weak node while handling the unexpected load? Volume testing is to verify that the molecular biology, performance of the application is not affected by the volume of data that is being handled by the application. In order to execute a Volume Test, a huge volume of data is entered into the database.

This test can be incremental or a steady test. In the incremental test, volume of data is increased gradually. Generally, with the application usage, the database size grows, and it is essays on reality shows necessary to test the application against a heavy database. A good example of this could be a website of a new school or a college having small amounts of data to biology lab report, store initially, but after 5-10 years, the data stores in argumentative shows the database of the website is much more. The most common recommendation of this test is the tuning of DB queries which access the database for data. In some cases, the response of molecular biology lab report DB queries is high for a big database, so it needs to be rewritten in spanish food a different way or the index, joints etc need to be included. = Is the application capable of meeting business volume under both normal and peak load conditions? Capacity testing is generally done for future prospects. Capacity testing addresses the following: Will the application be able to support the future load?

Is the environment capable of molecular biology lab report standing for the upcoming increased load? What are the tacitus essay, additional resources required to make the environment capable enough? Capacity testing is used to determine how many users and/or transactions a given web application will support and still meet performance. During this testing, resources such as processor capacity, network bandwidth, memory usage, disk capacity, etc. are considered and altered to meet the goal. Online Banking is a perfect example of where capacity testing could play a major role. Reliability Testing or Recovery Testing – is to molecular biology lab report, verify whether or not the application is able to essays on family ring, return back to its normal state after a failure or abnormal behavior and molecular how long does it take for it to do so (in other words, time estimation). If an online trading site experiences a failure where the users are not able to buy/sell shares at a certain point of the day (peak hours) but are able to write, do so after an hour or two, we can say the application is reliable or recovered from the molecular, abnormal behavior. In addition to essays television shows, the above sub-forms of biology performance testing, there are other fundamental tests that are prominent: How is the write an essay, new version of the application performing when compared to previous ones? Is any performance degradation observed in any area in the new version?

What area should developers focus on in order to address performance issues in the new version of the biology lab report, application? Determines whether the component is responsible for the performance issue. Determines whether the component is doing what is expected and component optimization has been done. Determines whether the application will able to perform well enough over a certain period of time. Looks for any potential reasons that could slow the system down. Uses a third party tool and/or vendor integration and to determine if there is any possibility that the financial planning and analysis case, interaction makes the application slower. How does Functional Testing differ from Performance Testing? Identification of components for testing. In an molecular biology lab report ideal scenario, all components should be performance tested.

However, due to time other business constraints, that may not be possible. Hence, the identification of components for testing happens to financial and analysis study, be one of the biology, most important tasks in load testing. The following components must be included in performance testing: #1. Functional business critical features. Components that have a Customer Service Level Agreement or those having complex business logic (and are critical for essays on family ring the business’s success) should be included. Example: Checkout and Payment for an E-commerce site like eBay. #2.

Components that process high volumes of data. Components, especially background jobs are to be included for sure. Example: Upload and download feature on a file sharing website. #3. Components which are commonly used. A component that is frequently used by end-users like jobs scheduled multiple times in a day, etc. Example: Login and lab report Logout. #4. Components interfacing with one or more application systems. In a system involving multiple applications that interact with one another, all the interface components must be deemed as critical for a performance test. Example: E-commerce sites interface with online banking sites for payments, which is an write an essay on television external third party application.

This should definitely be part of Perf testing. Sure, you could have a million computers set up with a million different credentials and all of them could login at once and monitor the performance. Molecular. However, it’s not practical and even if we do that, we still need some sort of monitoring infrastructure. The best way this situation is handled is through – virtual user (VU). For all our tests, the VU behaves just the way a real user would. For the creation of as many VUs as you would require and to simulate real time conditions, performance testing tools are employed.

Not only essay, that, Perf testing also tests for the peak load usage, breakdown point, long term usage, etc. To enable all with limited resources fast and to obtain reliable results, tools are often used for this process. There are a variety of tools available in the market- licensed, free wares and open sourced. The tool selection depends on budget, technology used, purpose of testing, nature of the applications, performance goals being validated, infrastructure, etc. HP Load Runner captures majority of the market due to: Versatility – can be used on windows as well as web based applications. It also works for biology lab report many kinds of technologies. Test Results – It provides in-depth insights that can be used for tacitus essay tuning the lab report, application.

Easy Integrations – works with diagnostics tool like HP Sitescope and HP Diagnostic. Analysis utility provides a variety of features which help in depth analysis. Robust Reports – LoadRunner has a good reporting engine and provides a variety of reporting formats. Comes with an Enterprise package too. The down side is its license cost. It is a little bit on the expensive side – which is why other open source or affordable license tools that are specific to a technology, protocol and essays on family with limited analysis and reporting capabilities have emerged in the market. Still, the molecular biology lab report, HP LoadRunner is a clear winner. Future in Performance Testing Career. Performance testing is easy to learn but need lots of dedication to an essay, master it. It’s like a math problem where you have to build your concept.

Once the biology, concept is through, it can be applied to tacitus essay, most of the tools irrespective of the scripting language being different, straight forward logic not being applicable, look and molecular lab report feel of the tool being different, etc. – the approach to financial planning and analysis, Perf testing is almost always the same. I would highly recommend learning this hot and booming technology to enhance your skills. Mastering PT could be just what you are looking for to move ahead in your software testing career. In this article we have covered most of the information required to build a base to molecular lab report, move ahead and understand Performance testing. In the spanish food essay, next article, we will apply these concepts and understand the key activities of Performance testing . LoadRunner is going to biology lab report, be our vehicle in the journey, but the destination we want to suicide research paper, reach is biology lab report understanding everything about performance testing. About the Author: Chetan Kaushal is helping us for this ‘Performance testing with LoadRunner’ tutorial series. He has over 6 years of experience working on performance testing projects using HP LoadRunner and Performance Center tools. In the meantime, if you have any questions related to performance testing, load testing, or LoadRunner please ask them in the comments below. Thank you so much for assisted suicide paper this great article. It really informative. Keep up the molecular biology, good work :)

Can you please add tutorial of research paper Jmeter. Nice article to know the funda of performance testing. Many Thanks for sharing this articles. Can you please add tutorial for selenium Jmeter. can u pls add tutorials for selemium jmeter. Thanks for this article. Biology Lab Report. Good information shred for performance testing basics. Along with Load runner can you please share tutorial for performance testing tool – Cloud test. when we will grt its second tutorial ? After 2 3 days ihave to suicide, work on load runner.so pls post it soon :( Great Documentation on the Performance testing terms (statements) .. :) Now, the lab report, question which always arrives in my mind about performance testing is – What is the financial planning and analysis case, actually time to do (start) performance testing ? As we know the performance testing deals with load, stress, Volume testing…., so is that mean we should do performance testing at molecular biology the end of development process, or if not……. then what is the relevant way to begin with performance testing in Software Project ? Kindly elaborate your points on above issue.

Thanks for such a informative articles on spanish, performance testing. How to decide the application performance is good or poor? Suppose there is molecular application take 1 hr to send the tacitus essay, 1GB file to database,So how to decide its performance? I would like to pursue my software testing career ahead into performance testing. what are the job opportunities available in this respect to performance testing. Thanx Vijay for biology lab report this greate intresting article……..thanx again… Thanks everybody for food essay appreciating the article and work. @Kiran, @Udara- We will definitely consider your request.

Thanks. @Sachin-Previously when Performance testing was not given so much importance so it was done at the end and whatever were the biology lab report, minimum changes required to tacitus essay, tune the application after the molecular, performance testing were considered . But now industry is very much aware of need of Performance testing. So the culture is now to have “Built to Performance” application where performance of application is checked from time to essays ring, time. Developers check the performance of their code in unit testing through profilers. And when a functionality is ready to test, Performance team starts their performance testing and biology give feedback to Dev team so that they can fix the performance issues along with the release of next functionality. Assisted Research. So with each release Dev team keep adding functionality and molecular biology lab report tuning the application in essays shows their integration phase. You have tremendously educate me about performance testing. Thanks. @ Ankit – Video tutorials will be on Monday. when can we get the biology lab report, next part of tutorial and practical session? Thank you and please also help us on Selenium…:)

Thanks In Advance. It’s great article for the Beginner’s. I would be expecting more practical example’s, apporach , and solution to the error’s which we encountered while creating Load Script’s and essays Performance Test. Hope you full fill my expectation. Great article!! Can u please provide tutorials for JMeter… Thanks a lot Sir ! Firstly you understan dmy Question very much exact.

and the lab report, answer is great along with the Software Development Track. Below are two bullet points i would like to mention (for answering you) – 1. Suicide Research. PM (Product Manger) should decide the Performance limits. and if your Application (software) full fill the limits than the Performance is as Expected. In your example first you should know what is the expected behaviour (expected speed) and then you can say it is Good or Poor. 2. Performance Testing has Load testing, Stress Testing, Volume Testing… (you can see in tutorial above). So if all this Testing Results are Good (Actual Result = Expected Result) then the performance is Good and if not you can guess it. Your nots are Welcome ! Excellent article to molecular, understand the need of Performance Testing. Thanks. Excellent material. Looking forward to the tutorials which I expect to cover not merely basics. Thanks,Really helpful material.

Please tell me how to write performance testing test cases manually. Thanks for assisted paper article. Thanks for your efforts Chetan Kaushal. i am the molecular biology lab report, old reader of this blog can we start same tutorial for on reality shows Jmeter I am interested in Jmeter because of open source, any help from your side will be helpful. I am very thank full to you that u understand me, what is molecular biology performance testing exactly…thanks alot my blassings are with you…. Thankq so much for providing very useful information :-) Thanks for this Article. This is a nice Documentation on the Performance testing terms and statements. Looking forward to your next article. Thanks! Amazing artical on Performance Testing. Good Work Thank you so much.

I just want to know that theoritically the article was best and can we have practise of this at home…I mean to say is it essential that we should work in a corporate for getting full hands on experience of load runner. We can learn it from suicide here but where can we practise these steps any link from molecular biology lab report where we can download. Can some please tell me what problems they have faced doing perf testing and how it was resolved. hello sir,actually i am a begginer for load runner and i know all the basics.but i want to learn loadrunner scripting using c.and i search everywhere.so can anyone please help me to how to start the spanish food essay, scripting part. It was a wonderful article about Performance Testing. Was very interesting to go through …and was helpful as well. Thank you so much for taking the interest in creating such pages.. I’ve one query about automation testing.

Is there any open source automation testing tool available that support flex based applications? Need your thoughts on it. I am a manual testing professional with 5 yrs.of experience. Molecular Lab Report. I want to switch to on family, automation industry now. Could I please request you to help me which automation tool I should go into.

I have knowledge of qtp and have done 1 small project of mobile application as well. Molecular Lab Report. I have done functional testing of web services using SOAP UI but not fully into the tool. I am befazzled about which one I should go in? Which tool/technology will help me in career growth? I thought to prepare loadrunner by myself, hence explored your site and found it very useful n informative.

Could you pl.suggest will these tutorials of loadrunner be enough to enter in performance testing automation or to clear interview? Will you cover any project to spanish, make us understand practically how to start performance testing using loadrunner? Is there any programming language or scripting lang.required to learn loadrunner? I am not able to molecular, take any decision in regardence of qtp, selenium, loadrunner, mobile testing, soap ui…please help me.Looking forward for your suggestions, I hope you won’t disappoint me. Essay. Thanks n Best Regards! I wanted to learn testingtools. Molecular Biology. .can you pls help me out for complete course soft copy. ..materials which u have…

I am middle class family.i can’t pay money…I am providing my contact e mail ids…pls share d video tutorials to my mail id.. Mob:8099174104 email:kvrsrikanth6@gmail.com. Tacitus Essay. ..waiting. Highly informative. Thanks for sharing. Good and molecular biology basic required information provided. Good for beginers.

This article is very helpfull to me. I have two year experiance on PHP development, But now I want to switch into testing field.Currently I am not working anywhere. Essays. I dont have any idea about automation testing. Will you please help me to make my carrer in software testing. I need to molecular, test a software for argumentative essays on reality shows performance which will have lot of molecular biology servers in it with proper IP Address, does any of the performance testing tools support creating virtual servers as many as needed for testing.

Good 1 to a fresher whoz going 2 start the career of performance testing. I want to thank for the information, it really helpful to know a bit of what is performance testing? . I have one year experience in Manual Testing with background of B.E (ECE), As I am planning to learn Loadrunner,but i don’t have any programming or scripting language so far..Is that create any conflict to learn loadrunner..or do i need to know any programming language to learn..please advise i will decide my career based on your kind reply. It is good article for beginner in performance Testing. I want to learn how the performance is tested using load runner or any other testing tool. If any one is having notes or any study material please forward it to my mail id. It is really great one for write on television beginner. Nice article and i can kick start my PT prep. ) Please let me know you can train on load runner advanced topics onsite? Thank you so much now my eyes are opened i will start my career in performance testing as a load runner … Hi Vijay sir, this article is really helpful for beginners . I am planing to switch my carrier in performance testing and I am having an 1.7 years of experience in manual testing . Can you please guide that this much of experience is sufficient for switching into performance testing. Sir please guide me. Hi Chetan Kaushal, i liked your article.I want to learn LR correlation topic and molecular lab report analysis part in depth.. Are you providing any online training /instuite on this.if not,can you please suggest any websites where i can learn this indepth.

Great Article sir!! I am 54 years old and have bachelor degree in electrical engineering. Food. I have been thinking for a long to switch my career in IT. I explored a field of my interest and Load Runner seems me good to get into it. Biology Lab Report. I download the tutorials from HP site and also got installed Load runner 12.0. The problem I am facing is connecting with the web tour application server. Essays Television. The HP has a comment if the file is not saved in default the biology lab report, web application connection will not be possible. I have not understood it if the load runner has been installed on my machine and appears in my all programs button how this can be not in default files. Can you please help me to argumentative essays shows, get it installed properly so that I could also take advantage of your lectures to learn it with practice? Thanks for this article. is there any material on lab report, performance testing metrics and spanish they are read or understood from the performance standpoint.

Under what condition we would be in a position stating the code base is good for production. Entry and exit criteria checklist. Very Informative and useful article. It’s Very Useful Article. I have over 2.5 years exp in molecular biology performance testing using load runner and currently working as a Java dev from past 1.3 yrs. Total exp:2.5+1.3 yrs. Which is an essay on television a better carrier option Perftesting or Java Dev. Load Runner is just a tool to implement Performance testing.

Learning just Load Runner will not take you any where. Molecular Lab Report. You need to read and assisted research know about Performance testing, HTTP concepts, World Wide Web Concepts, Network concepts and molecular lab report general concpets on how web applications work. Having a fair understanding of all these concepts is on television more essential than knowing load runner. Lab Report. Once you know these concepts, you can use any of the many load testing tools and tacitus essay then learn how to implement these concepts in a particular tool. And to learn / practise load runner, you dont need the webtours application that HP provides.

As long as you have network connectivity on your application, you can practise script creating on biology lab report, any of the food essay, applications available online. Ofcourse, you cannot execute load tests on those applications, if you do they may sue you. One of the best internet application to practise Load Runner is http://www.demo.opencart.com. Again, learn the concepts first then tools. Learning just load runner without the basic foundation in Performance testing is like learning to molecular, user movie cameras when what you want to actually do is Movie Direction.. Camera is assisted suicide just a tool… story, screenplay, direction is the content, underlying foundation… !!

Thank you very much the molecular lab report, article is very informative :) Thanks for the good info.Can you please let us know if we want to become master in performance testing in load runner what should I do. As of now I just have vugen knowledge of writing scripts and running but very minimal knowledge in on family ring analysis. Thanks for your Information.Can you please suggest best traning institute for learning performnace Testing Tool. Hello Lavanya, recently I have learned performance testing online at itelearn.

Really this article is very impressive. Keep it up . Download FREE eBooks, Videos and Best Software Testing Articles..

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A length of wire and its extension Essay. An Investigation into the relationship between the forces applied to a length of molecular wire and its extension. Aim: To investigate the relationship between the tacitus essay extension [e] of molecular lab report a length of write copper wire and the force [f] applied to molecular biology lab report the wire, to do this I intend to use Hooks law the spanish essay linear modulus is known as stress/strain, also known as Young#8217;s modulus [E]. I hypothesise tat as we increase the amount of force applied to the wire, so its extension will increase. As this was what I found in previous experiments involving Hooks law. Molecular? Diagram: I will use Young#8217;s modulus as it links the two factors that we wish to tacitus essay investigate in that to find a value for Youngs modulus you need to find two values, stress and strain E = Stress where; stress = Force [f] also;- Strain = extension [e] Strain Cross sectional area [a] original length [l] As we can see from above stress is calculated using force and lab report cross sectional area there for involving force as we require, this will be my input variable and will be the value subject to change. Strain involves extension and original length therefore also bringing in extension, as I required this would be the argumentative variable that I will measure. The other variables involved, original length and cross sectional area will have to be maintained as constants as these are active variables I young#8217;s modulus. This is a specific form of Hooke#8217;s law of elasticity.

The units of biology Young#8217;s modulus in the English system are pounds per square inch, and in the metric system newtons per square metre (N/m2). The value of Young#8217;s modulus for aluminum is about 1. 0 107 psi, or 7. 0 1010 N/m2. The value for steel is about three times greater, which means that it takes three times as much force to stretch a steel bar the same amount as a similarly shaped aluminum bar. Young#8217;s modulus is meaningful only in the range in which the stress is tacitus essay proportional to the strain, and the material returns to its original dimensions when the external force is removed. As stresses increase, Young#8217;s modulus may no longer remain constant but decrease, or the material may either flow, undergoing permanent deformation, or finally break. Molecular Biology Lab Report? _ To a greater or lesser extent, most solid materials exhibit elastic behaviour, but there is a limit to the magnitude of the force and assisted research the accompanying deformation within which elastic recovery is possible for molecular biology lab report any given material. This limit, called the financial study elastic limit, is the maximum stress or force per unit area within a solid material that can arise before the onset of permanent deformation.

Stresses beyond the biology lab report elastic limit cause a material to yield or flow. For such materials the elastic limit marks the end of elastic behaviour and the beginning of suicide plastic behaviour. For most brittle materials, stresses beyond the elastic limit result in fracture with almost no plastic deformation. _. I hypothesize that as i incears the lab report load applied, and therefore the force[f] the extewnsion of the wire [e] will also increase. i predict that the relationship between the two will be proportional. I have decided upon this outcome due to my background reaserch into essays ring the matter. I found that when streching metals a modulus applies called youngs modulus, this tells us that when streching a wire we get a graph of stress against strain where stress is equall to load/crossectional area therefore incorporating load and molecular biology strain is spanish food equal to extension/original length. Advanced Physics by molecular biology, tom duncan states that tensile strain is directly proportional to tensile stress during elastic deformation. On Reality Shows? This statment is known as hookes law The outcome graph looks like this:- we can see a proportional relationship between the two variables at the beggining of the graph due to the constant gradient, a6t piont b we can see the graident is molecular constantly changing. here youngs modulus no longer applies because the material has passed its elastic limit. i think that me graph of oad/extension will be very simular provided the other factors involved remain constant, these are cross sectional area and original length. To do this i intend to take multiple readings of the crosssectional area of the wire throughout the experiment to essays on reality shows find an avrage as i know that the wire will become thinner as i strech it, as i descoverd in my preliminary tests. Molecular? Also i i will keep a constant original length this is fairly straiht forward an easy to achive. i have decided upon a lenght of 2. 5m for the wire because a longer wire is easier to strech as i found in my preliminary investigation and i have also decided to use a thin wire of 0. 5 mm in and analysis case study diameter as this will also make the wire easier to lab report strech, by doing this i can cary out the experiment using lighter loads and therefore make it safer, it also of tacitus essay high importance to wear saftey gogles while carying out the experiment to protect the eyes when the wire breaks. The extension will be of a small figure and there fore the measuring equipment will have to be able to biology lab report measure small amounts e. g. Planning And Analysis Case? a millimetre quite accurately. I have decided after carrying out some preliminary work that it would be best suited if I were to increase the load applied to the wire and therefore the force [f] in molecular lab report amounts of 100g, as we tried the experiment using 50g weights but it proved difficult to suspend so many from the suicide wire but the 100g weights were still accurate enough.

We will continue to add the weights to the wire until breaking point which we found to be around 1700g which required 17 100g weights to be applied, and around 17 results taken of molecular lab report which this would be repeated multiple times. I also found that the extension varied from 0. 25 mm to 3cm and therefore needed an suicide research measuring device that was accurate to molecular biology lab report a 1/4 of a millimetre but could measure up to 3 centimeters for this I found vernieer callipers to be the best suited. These allowed an exterrmly accurate measurement as small as 0.25mm and allowed us to measue lenghts as large as 10cm this was far larger than the tacitus essay required amount. To carry out the experiment i would use the biology apparatus in a way shwn in the above diagram (fig 1). this method was the best for tacitus essay me to biology lab report use as it was implamentable as we had all the required equipment to hand, Although i did find some other methods in my research that would provide a more accurate set of results. i found it to be more accurate because the experiment was suspended from the celing and essays on reality the wire was entrly vertical. Unfortunatly this method was unimplamentable due to lab report lack of an essay equipment, i found the main reason why my method was less accurate was because the force was applied by biology lab report, the weight to the wire in a vertical irection but the majoraty of the food essay wire ran horizontaly along the desk therefore the force as not properly tranfered through all the wire this was shown in my perliminary results because we set up another pointer near the weight and measued extension here it showed that the extension was far greater near the molecular weight than near the clamp where we were measuring it. i also found that other factors infuencing my results were #8216;necking and creeping#8217;. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 4 October 2017.

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Running head: WHAT IS ART ? Understanding Art : Eight Forms of Art Abstract This paper will define art using internet and resource tools. Given eight types of art define and write an essay on television, give one example and elaborate. 1. Painting 2. Molecular Lab Report! Sculpture 3. Architecture 4. Photography 5. Printmaking. Armanda Walton Pop Culture and the Arts Paper University of financial planning and analysis Phoenix Art is the process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way to affect the senses or emotions. It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations, and modes of expression, including music, literature, film. Visual Arts Alina Lopez ARTS /230CA October 20, 2014 Milinda Jaffe-Bork Defining Visual Arts Trying to biology lab report imagine the on family ring world without art is like trying to lab report imagine the world without air. Most people don’t realize how much they rely on food essay the importance of art in their everyday life . Visual arts consist. One: Women in Art The role of women in the Art is molecular biology lab report complex because artists were affected both by an essay, the art and biology lab report, stories of the past and argumentative essays on reality television shows, the women that they saw around them every day. The influence of the various roles of woman produced some of the greatest art . Women had a different role in ancient Greek. Evaluate the Role of molecular Intuition in Different Areas of Knowledge.

Evaluate the role of spanish essay intuition in different areas of knowledge. An ancient Greek statue was about to be purchased by molecular biology, a museum. It underwent basic checks to ensure it was genuine, and after fourteen months of on television investigation, the museum staff concluded its authenticity, and the artifact was bought. Plato Vs. The Arts The philosopher Plato can be faulted as disliking the arts . Biology! When thinking of this well known philosopher one might consider his views on art to assisted suicide research be intriguing. Plato as a philosopher takes things much further then the average person when viewing artwork. This could be that Plato. and social roles are important dimensions that are at times challenging to face.

Social roles have always been a fundamental part of society and molecular biology, yet as time goes on, it seems to be increasingly difficult to understand. As discussed in class, in the medieval period, people were assigned roles based on family.

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Kellogg Video Essay: Practice Here. Why do you think MBAs are so sought after by employers? Why are they able to command the salaries they do? The answer is that employers are looking for the best and the brightest to take on molecular lab report leadership roles within their organizations. Write An Essay On Television? A lot of lab report, people assume that companies recruit MBAs for their intelligence combined with two years of practical training. Argumentative On Reality? While that’s partly true, the reality is molecular lab report that MBAs aren’t the on family, ‘smartest’ people out biology lab report there in absolute (there are a myriad of tacitus essay, grad and PhD students out lab report there that far surpass the average MBA in raw intelligence). Beyond that, anybody could buy a bunch of business textbooks online and argumentative television shows acquire a lot of the knowledge one would otherwise obtain in the MBA classroom. I said that employers are looking for the best and the brightest but actually they are looking for an elusive combination of lab report, best and brightest. The bright part you can learn but the best part tends to be something intrinsic to the individual herself. In that sense an MBA can round out someone with natural potential but an MBA can never transform someone without it. Bright (smart with practical business training) + Best (a natural leader: friendly, charming, persuasive, a self-assured public speaker with the soft skills essential for food, a manager) = MBA.

Kellogg (like every other school) cares about personality, communication style, and the likability of applicants. I call this ‘ presenting well ‘ (and that doesn’t mean being a PowerPoint ninja). Most schools screen for molecular biology, this during their interview process. Essays? But if you think about molecular it, that’s a very inefficient strategy because the Adcom doesn’t really have a sense of what percentage of the food, candidates it invites to interview will present well until they walk through the door. By that time the Adcom is stuck choosing the molecular biology, incoming class from the spanish essay, pool it interviewed. Maybe 80% will present well, maybe only 30% will. Molecular Lab Report? Kellogg wants to tacitus essay, interview a cohort of applicants in which 100% present well. That’s why Kellogg is molecular lab report pre-screening applicants via the video essay. On Family? NYU Stern does the same thing via their Personal Expression Essay.

Chicago Booth and MIT Sloan do it via their optional multimedia essays. In the video essays, Kellogg isn’t looking for the best orators – students will have time to hone their communication and presentation skills in molecular biology Kellogg’s courses and clubs. Likewise, they are not looking for any particular opinion or response. They just want to assisted, see what you, the unpolished candidate, look like in a spontaneous situation. As such, the your main job is to be yourself – to relax, feel comfortable, and communicate naturally as they would if they were talking to a friend. The flip side of that is that if you memorize answers and recite them verbatim you’ll come off as very robotic. I had a candidate one year that wrote out, word for word, and then memorized answers to every question the molecular, Adcom could possibly put to him during an interview. He sent me a video of himself ‘interviewing’ and I was shocked by how bizarrely he came across: He didn’t make any of the assisted suicide, natural pauses in his spoken language that people do when they are answering a spontaneous question. He spoke rapidly and molecular biology incessantly in a bizarre monotone with no facial expression or hand gesturing to and analysis case study, punctuate what he was saying. Molecular Lab Report? That’s because he wasn’t thinking about what he was saying, he was reciting what he had already memorized. Write On Television? No amount of coaching from me was able to molecular, ‘undo’ the damage and it resulted in some deeply painful rejections from top five business schools.

He thought that he could outsmart the system but ultimately he shot himself in the foot. Here’s what Kellogg’s Adcom tells us about their video essay: The Video Essays provide applicants with an additional opportunity to demonstrate what they will bring to our vibrant Kellogg community – in an interactive way. Each applicant will complete two short video essay questions. The questions are designed to bring to argumentative television, life the person we have learned about on paper. Biology Lab Report? After submitting a completed application, each applicant will be asked to complete two Video Essay Questions.

One will be about the candidate’s interest in Kellogg and the other will be a “getting to know you” type of question. Here’s what you need to know about Kellogg’s video essay: After you submit your application to Kellogg, the video essay will become available to you in spanish essay your Kellogg applicant dashboard. You have one week after the application deadline to complete the video essay. If you submit in Round 1 you need to lab report, complete the essay by October 2nd, if you submit in Round 2 you need to submit by January 18th. There are two video essay responses you will give, one axed on your interest in Kellogg while the financial planning, other will be more axed around you.

Before you give your actual response you’ll have up to biology lab report, 10 practice questions to get comfortable with the spanish, video interface. When you give your official video responses you’ll have 20 seconds to think about the question and molecular biology then one minute to respond to it. II Common Kellogg Video Essay Questions. This year Kellogg has decided to share the first question with applicants ahead of time. The Kellogg question is: What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and why is tacitus essay this program right for you?

This is the typical Career Goals/Why MBA? question condensed down into biology lab report, a one-minute format. Most applicants will take the time to prepare the question prior to their video interview. Here is tacitus essay how you might structure that response. Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an biology example or two of the type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to essays on family ring, interview for. Biology Lab Report? Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in assisted suicide research paper with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them.

Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about molecular Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is where you really want to bring the spanish essay, charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. Kellogg’s second video essay question will be axed around you. Typically it’s either a personal question, a behavioral question or an opinion-based question. In section III (below) you have an opportunity to practice giving answers using a video interview software and 30 questions from previous years.

III Practice giving a Kellogg Video Essay: Record Playback. The problem with video (and watching yourself on video) is that it is almost always a traumatic process. People tend to be overly self-critical so if you do record yourself practicing for Kellogg’s video interview don’t allow the process to undermine your self-confidence. Avoid becoming preoccupied with small, inconsequential issues such as hand-gestures or body language, because that may potentially sabotage your ability to just naturally be yourself. The goal of practicing should be to improve your ability to think and speak spontaneously. So here’s the cool part! You can click on the record button below and biology lab report an interactive video recorder will open and allow you can record, play back and re-record video of yourself answering Kellogg’s questions. Your browser doesn't support Adobe Flash, sorry. Please install Adobe Flash plugin. Food? Get Flash Player. I’ve hidden the Kellogg questions behind spoiler tabs so you don’t accidentally read all of them at first glance.

There are 2 questions in biology lab report every section. Take some time to actually practice looking at a question for essays on family, the first time, giving yourself 20 seconds to prepare an answer, and then another 60 seconds to answer. Then go back and watch the video of yourself. What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and biology why is this program right for you? Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in television with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience?

For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for molecular, your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and planning case study how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about molecular Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is where you really want to bring the assisted, charm and your excitement at the prospect of molecular biology lab report, being a part of the argumentative on reality television, Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute.

2. Tell us about how you overcame an biology obstacle. 4. If you could keep one of your personal strengths, possibly losing one or more of the essays on family, others, which would you choose? 6. What kind of a team player are you? 8. Molecular Biology? When you leave your job for on reality, b-school, what will your teammates miss most about you? 10. Molecular Lab Report? Tell us about argumentative television someone you admire, and molecular why. 2. Write An Essay On Television? Tell me about biology lab report a time that you disagreed with a colleague and how did you handle it? 4. Tell us about a time when your idea was challenged. 6. Tell us about a time when you were on a team and there was disagreement among team members.

What did you do? 8. Tell us about a time when you were pleasantly surprised by a work situation. 10. Please describe a creative solution that you have come up with for a problem. 2. If you were going to donate $1M to the university, how would you want it spent? 4. Tell us, in your view, one downside for business due to essays on reality television shows, globalization. 6. Molecular? Discuss your thoughts about the following statement: “Business leaders are the world’s new role models and they are failing.” IV Kellogg Video Essay Tips on Lighting, Clothing Location Selection. You can use a couple of floor lights and perhaps a clamp or desk light to achieve this lighting set-up. You’ll need two key lights and one fill light.

The key lights are placed about 2-3 feet away from you at about a 35 degree angle from your nose. The key lights help eliminate any shadows (they literally fill in every crevice in your face from both the tacitus essay, left and molecular biology lab report the right). Suicide? The fill light should be placed behind you, angled towards the top of your head. The fill light helps to molecular, differentiate the top of essays ring, your head and shoulders from the background. Without it people look more two-dimensional on film. Biology? I use 100 watt equivalent florescent bulbs and Rosco Tough White #3026 diffusion paper $6/sheet ( you can purchase it at BH by clicking here ). That said, the diffusion paper is more for shooting high def video with a high quality camera (it might not make any difference if you’re just filming with a webcam). Kellogg Video Essay: Background Location. Whatever background or location you choose, I’d advise you to stay away from windows altogether because it can cause overexposure and other lighting problems. Notice how the right side of this person’s face is essay lit up and the left side is in shadow? That’s because of the window behind him. If you decide to molecular biology, film at home or in the office, look for a small space without a lot going on in the background.

The first two slides in the presentation below illustrate what you don’t want – a wide angle view of the entire office. Look for a corner or small space with a limited amount wall hangings and other decorations in view. I recently saw this video which was created by write on television, a student applying to NYU Stern . The picture is from the video. The living room is too ‘busy’ with flowers, furniture, lots of biology lab report, pictures and stenciling on the wall. The shot is from too far away – ideally you want just your head and shoulders visible. Finally the candidate’s shirt looks disheveled – I feel like he just ate a turkey dinner and argumentative television had to undo a few buttons :/

I’d highly suggest buying a roll of biology lab report, Savage Seamless Background Paper for $10 here . You’re going to need 53? x 12 yards (no more and no less). Write An Essay On Television? Personally I use Thunder Gray for my videos but you can buy whatever color you like. Keep in mind that red, yellow and orange might cause you to look sort of red, yellow or orange yourself. If you want to play it safe go for any shade of molecular, gray, blue, purple or beige. Below you’ll find examples of some of the colors Savage offers. Spanish Food? If you want to achieve the molecular biology, effect on an essay on television the left hand side, you’ll need a light behind your chair pointing at molecular the paper which will create a gradient effect and also remove the tacitus essay, shadow your head casts on the paper. So you’ll have to add a fourth light to your three-point lighting set-up or a second light to lab report, your ring light set-up. The right hand version is ring done with just lighting pointed at molecular lab report the subject and creates a much flatter background effect. Either is fine.

In general you want to financial planning and analysis study, avoid black and white because they are such saturated colors they tend to dominate a scene. If you’re using a color background then you want to wear neutral colors (gray, beige). If you are using a gray, white, black or beige background then you can wear a color that looks good on you. Molecular Biology Lab Report? The idea is to have one focal color in the shot (either the background or your top/shirt). Ideally just your head and shoulders should be visible in the shot so both men and women are going to want to choose a shirt or top that pretty much comes all the way up to tacitus essay, your neck or collar bone.

The video essay is supposed to assess how well you’ll fit in biology lab report the Kellogg community – so think about what you might wear to class at Kellogg….probably something nice but casual right? You don’t want to look like Donald Trump in spanish essay your video – you want to look smart, friendly and laid back. Guys : Wear a solid-colored, rounded-neck, t-shirt or wear a solid-colored button down shirt (light gray looks good on molecular biology everyone). Tacitus Essay? While a t-shirt might seem too casual to molecular biology, wear to an interview, on camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. I’d ditch the suit jacket and tie because honestly there won’t be enough of it in the shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix.

Ladies : Here are some things to essays on family ring, avoid based on my own trials and errors filming professional videos. Wearing a scoop or deep v-neck tends to give viewers the impression that something is missing (i.e. you’ll look strangely naked) when the shot is only of your head and molecular lab report shoulders. Thin and flimsy materials don’t look great on camera so avoid silk, polyester and anything that lacks shape or clings to your body. Tacitus Essay? I’d avoid wearing a suit jacket because honestly there won’t be enough of it in a head and shoulders shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix. What will look great is molecular lab report anything with a high, rounded neckline – one that comes up to your collarbone or neck.

You’ll look great in a rounded-neck, solid colored t-shirt. While that might seem too casual to wear to an interview, on camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. Suicide? Cashmere is another material that always looks good on video because it’s a thick and has a matte finish. A solid-colored button down shirt would also be a good choice. Would I recommend Leah? Oh yes, without a doubt. She truly helped me in ways I could not imagine, and I am so excited to be going to business school this fall.

Leah's creativity is molecular unmatched which is exemplified with the stupendous work she did on tacitus essay my Chicago Booth Essays. Her work ethic and willingness to spend as much as time it takes to get the biology, right answer is incredible. I finally had multiple offers from top schools (Kellogg, LBS, Booth) while I was waitlisted at HBS.