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Scientifically I could never be made to understand (yet have I taken some pains) what a note in music is; or how one note should differ from another. Much less in voices can I distinguish a soprano from a tenor. Argumentative? Only sometimes the thorough-bass I contrive to guess at, from its being supereminently harsh and disagreeable. I tremble, however, for my misapplication of the simplest terms of that which I disclaim. While I profess my ignorance, I scarce know what to say I am ignorant of. I hate, perhaps, by misnomers. Sostenuto and adagio stand in bibliography, the like relation of child be banned essay, obscurity to me; and Sol, Fa, Mi, Re , is as conjuring as Baralipton. It is hard to a annotated, stand alone in to instruct, an age like this, (constituted to the quick and critical perception of all harmonious combinations, I verily believe, beyond all preceding ages, since Jubal stumbled upon the gamut), to remain, as it were, singly unimpressible to bibliography, the magic influences of an art, which is said to have such an especial stroke at soothing, elevating, and work essay, refining the passions. Yet, rather than break the candid current of need to buy, my confessions, I must avow to child in india essay, you, that I have received a great deal more pain than pleasure from this so cried-up faculty.
I am constitutionally susceptible of noises. A carpenter#39;s hammer, in a warm summer noon, will fret me into more than midsummer madness. But those unconnected, unset sounds are nothing to the measured malice of music. Need Bibliography? The ear is passive to those single strokes; willingly enduring stripes while it hath no task to con. To music it cannot be passive. Labour Essay? It will strive—mine at least will—#39;spite of its inaptitude, to thrid the maze; like an unskilled eye painfully poring upon hieroglyphics.
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rapt above earth, And possess joys not promised at my birth. But when this master of the spell, not content to have laid his soul prostrate, goes on, in his power, to inflict more bliss than lies in to buy a annotated, her capacity to receive—impatient to social admission, overcome her #34;earthly#34; with his #34;heavenly#34;—still pouring in, for protracted hours, fresh waves and fresh from the sea of sound, or from that inexhausted German ocean, above which, in triumphant progress, dolphin-seated, ride those Arions Haydn and Mozart , with their attendant Tritons, Bach, Beethoven , and a countless tribe, whom to attempt to reckon up would but plunge me again in the deeps—I stagger under the need a annotated, weight of harmony, reeling to essay, and fro at my wits#39; end; clouds, as of bibliography, frankincense, oppress me— priests, altars, censers, dazzle before me—the genius of his religion hath me in her toils—a shadowy triple tiara invests the brow of my friend, late so naked, so ingenuous—he is Pope—and by powerpoint to instruct, him sits, like as in the anomaly of dreams, a she-Pope too—tri-coroneted like himself!—I am converted, and yet a Protestant; at once malleus hereticorum , and myself grand heresiarch: or three heresies centre in my person: I am Marcion, Ebion, and Cerinthus— Gog and Magog—what not?—till the coming in of the friendly supper-tray dissipates the figment, and a draught of true Lutheran beer (in which chiefly my friend shows himself no bigot) at once reconciles me to the rationalities of a purer faith; and restores to me the genuine unterrifying aspects of my pleasant-countenanced host and need to buy a annotated bibliography, hostess. * I have been there, and still would go; #39;Tis like a little heaven below. — Dr. Watts. More Classic Essays by Charles Lamb. #34;It was an immigration, old deserted place, yet not so long deserted but that traces of the splendour of past inmates were everywhere apparent.#34; Grace Before Meat. #34;The plainest diet seems the a annotated bibliography, fittest to be preceded by the grace.#34; A Few Words on Christmas. #34;Let us not meet to abuse the example of a, world, but to make it better by our individual example.#34; London. #34;The very deformities of London, which give distaste to others, from habit do not displease me.#34; New Year#39;s Eve. Need To Buy Bibliography? #34;A pun is not bound by the laws which limit nicer wit. Dr Jekyll And Mr Notes? It is a pistol let off at the ear; not a feather to tickle the intellect.#34;
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essay on seafaring [Published in Seafaring in need to buy a annotated the Contemporary Pacific Islands , edited by Richard Feinberg. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1995.] Rotuma is one of the more isolated islands in western Polynesia. It is essay located at 12? 30'S, 177?E, some 465 km northwest of to buy bibliography Cikobia, the northernmost island in the Fiji group (Woodhall 1987). It is a similar distance south of Tuvalu and west of Futuna, its closest neighbor to the east.
The nearest islands to the west are in Vanuatu, eight hundred kilometers distant. Legends suggest that Rotuma had intermittent contacts with Samoa, Tonga, Futuna and Fiji (Churchward 1939) prior to admission, European intrusion. To Buy A Annotated Bibliography! Other evidence indicates that Rotumans sailed to Tikopia (Bennett 1831, Firth 1961), Anuta (R. Admission Essay! Feinberg, personal communication), Kosrae (J. To Buy! Tobin, personal communication) and possibly even to Raiatea in work essay the Society Islands (Anonymous 1938). Nevertheless, the degree to which Rotumans were accomplished seafarers when first contacted by Europeans at the end of the eighteenth century is problematic.
Based on data collected by early European visitors, it does not seem that seafaring in precontact Rotuma was as significant as in many other Polynesian societies (e.g., Nukumanu, see Feinberg this volume; for Sikiana see Donner this volume). Following European intrusion, however, Rotumans developed a seafaring tradition as crew members aboard European ships. Rotuman men eagerly signed aboard visiting vessels, soon acquiring a reputation for reliability and competence that made them favorites of European ship captains. As a result, a significant portion of Rotuman men gained extensive experience at sea. This had, and continues to have, a distinct effect on the culture and economy of the a annotated island. Persuasive Essay Illegal! Sailors have been a major source of a annotated bibliography information about the outside world, thereby introducing and legitimating cultural changes, and have contributed considerably to a standard of living that is persuasive extraordinarily high for an isolated Pacific island. Since we are dealing with a heritage transformed from an need bibliography earlier, precontact formation to one that has been shaped by European seafaring traditions, it is necessary to approach our subject historically. I begin by and mr hyde notes, presenting background information on Rotuma and its environs, then I describe seafaring technology and traditions shortly after contact.
Finally, I provide an account of Rotuman engagement on European vessels and its effects on Rotuman culture. The island of Rotuma is of volcanic origin, comprising a total land mass of need to buy a annotated forty-three square kilometers and rising to a height of approximately two hundred meters.  It is work surrounded by need to buy, a fringing coral reef that attains a maximum width of 1.5 kilometers on the extreme east end of the island and narrows to only a few meters off the west end. Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde Notes! A number of offshore islands and islets, formed by volcanic cones, are distributed around the main island. The largest of these, the island of Uea, off the northwest end of the mainland, consists of seventy-three hectares; it was inhabited until the 1930s. Two other islands off the west end of the mainland, Hatana and Hafliua, are much smaller but are important sources of edible birds and birds' eggs. These islands lay several kilometers away and require journeys across open sea. Several islets, ranging in size from twenty-three hectares to only a few square meters, are situated within the fringing reef. The larger ones are used as coconut plantations and grazing preserves for domestic animals.
They can be reached by walking across the reef at low tide, or by canoe, punt, and launch when the tide is high. Rotuma's dominant inshore submarine feature is an extensive sand and coral bank extending eight kilometers to the west and northwest of the island, with the detached Whale Bank Reef off its western end ( see Figure 6.1 ). Whale Bank Reef is approximately 5 by 1.6 kilometers, with an average depth of seventeen to eighteen fathoms. Need To Buy Bibliography! A current, setting west-southwest at speeds of less than one knot, occurs most of the year (Fisheries Division n.d.:3). Rainfall on the island averages 3,550 millimeters per year with no rainless months, although dry periods of up to three months occasionally occur (Woodhall 1987:1). The soil is very fertile, giving Rotuma a reputation for growing coconuts and dr jekyll hyde notes, other produce of exceptional size and a annotated bibliography, quality. From April to December the prevailing winds blow consistently from the southeast. From December through April, winds are variable, sometimes blowing hard from the northwest. Hurricanes, which strike the island occasionally, usually occur during the latter period.
The island's resident population is approximately twenty-seven hundred individuals, but over six thousand Rotumans now live in Fiji, which has political jurisdiction over powerpoint presentation writing Rotuma, and perhaps an need to buy bibliography additional one thousand to two thousand Rotumans live in persuasive Australia, New Zealand, North America and Europe. Rotuman Seamanship at Contact and in the Early Nineteenth Century. Rotuma was discovered in 1791 by Captain Edward Edwards in HMS Pandora while he was searching for the Bounty mutineers. To Buy Bibliography! Edwards remarked on the great number of social paddling canoes coming out to meet his vessel. He wrote that although Rotumans knew of Tonga (the Friendly Islands), their canoes were not so delicately formed nor so well finished as at need to buy bibliography the Friendly Islands, but more resemble those of the Duke of York's, the Duke of Clarence's and the Navigators' Islands (Thompson 1915:65). The next recorded visit, in 1797, was by Commander Wilson in the missionary ship Duff . Wilson reported that several canoes, containing from dr jekyll essay, three to seven persons each, greeted his vessel. He commented, Their single canoes (for we saw no double ones) were nearly the same in all respects as at the Friendly Islands, being of the same shape, sewed together on need to buy a annotated, the inside, and decorated in the same manner seemed not so neat and well finished (Wilson 1799:292). In the persuasive essay illegal immigration next two decades, a great many whaling ships stopped at Rotuma for provisions. Sailors found the island and its gentle people attractive, and more than a few deserted there.
Nevertheless, René Lesson, writing about his visit during 1824, commented that lack of contact with other islands and visiting European ships had left the island intact. He remarked that Rotumans welcomed Europeans who settled on bibliography, the island with extraordinary eagerness (Lesson 1838-9:415). Lesson opined that the islanders must be skilled fishermen because of the huge nets they used, which he estimated at more than forty feet long. He made the social admission following remarks about Rotuman canoes: The canoes (vaka) used by need a annotated, these islanders have a roughly carved outrigger. They are enclosed and pointed fore and aft, and driven by persuasive with, oval paddles which are also carved without much taste. We saw only one small double canoe (aoe) which came in to buy a annotated the evening. The mast was notched and set up on a piece of wood which linked the social admission essay two canoes. It held up a sail of very coarse matting.
The canoes were covered by a platform which prevented sea water from getting into the hull and which supported a shelter consisting of an need bibliography awning of flexible branches. On the dr jekyll essay notes whole, it was a poorly designed vessel, and long-distance navigation was probably undertaken in larger canoes (Lesson 1838-9:431, translated from the French by Ella Wiswell). The first European to write about Rotuman navigational knowledge was Peter Dillon, in 1827. He reported that Rotumans knew of several islands in their neighborhood, including the islands of to buy a annotated Vythuboo [Vaitupu] and Newy [Nui], in what is now Tuvalu. He stated that Vaitupu abounded with white shells much in demand on Rotuma and example of a persuasive argumentative, that Rotumans made frequent voyages there for the purpose of obtaining them. Dillon speculated that it was on such voyages that Rotuman sailors got lost at sea and drifted to such places as the Feejees, Tucopia, and the Navigators' Islands (Dillon 1829:103). He mentioned that natives from both Vaitupu and Nui were present on Rotuma, expecting to sail for home in a few weeks.
He was unable to obtain information concerning wind, weather, and tides from his informantsNtwo renegade sailorsNbut assumed that westerly winds prevailed at to buy a annotated certain times of the year, enabling Rotumans to illegal, sail to Tonga and the Navigators' Isles. He based his assumption on the fact that he met a Rotuman in need to buy a annotated Tonga whom he returned home (Dillon 1829:103-104). Robert Jarman arrived on Rotuma in 1832 aboard the whaler Japan . Powerpoint Writing To Instruct! His account suggests that although Rotumans built large double canoes they were not especially capable seamen: In many huts we observed canoes of immense size and length, or more properly double canoes, about eight feet apart, and secured together by upright and cross pieces strongly bound with lashings made of the cocoa-nut husk. I should suppose these canoes capable of carrying from one hundred and fifty to two hundred men; and need to buy bibliography, are from sixty to ninety feet in length. Writing! I was led to enquire for what purpose the natives had constructed them, apparently so unwieldy and useless, as they must have cost them with the tools they possess, such infinite time and labor. They are formed of a single tree of immense size, hollowed out, and partly decked over from the stem aft. Curiosity or a spirit of enterprise seems to have prompted them. Soon after the island was discovered, the natives were puzzled to ascertain how a ship could come there. Consultations were held by the chiefs, and bibliography, it occurred to them, that there must be something in the horizon, through which the ship entered; therefore it was resolved to fit out many canoes, and send them in search, as the social work only method of discovering it.
Many were accordingly sent to sea upon this strange expedition, and so soon as they lost sight of their native land, were driven by the wind to the neighbouring islands; many undoubtedly perished, some reached the Fejee Islands, and others were driven as far to the westward as Santa Cruz, where their descendants are still living with the inhabitants. Since Mr. Emery [an English deserter who took up residence ca. 1827] has resided among them, many have put to sea, and no trace of them have [sic] ever been discovered (Jarman 1838:183-184) George Cheever, who kept a log of the whaling ship Emerald, which visited Rotuma in 1835, also reported that Rotuman canoes were rough concerns, displaying little in the way of ornamentation.
He mentioned one large double canoe, about need to buy a annotated bibliography, 100 feet long, which was presumably the largest on the island (Cheever 1834-1835). A more elaborate early description of Rotuman canoes is provided by Edward Lucatt, who was there in 1841. He wrote: The native canoes are of peculiar construction. They have no trees high enough of the proper wood to form the main body of the canoe, like the New Zealanders; they are therefore built out of several pieces, which are sewed together with a sort of twine, of their own manufacture, made from the husks of the cocoa-nut. They are deep and narrow, somewhat angularly formed; the thwarts for the pullers to sit upon are made fast to the gunwales, and, to prevent the canoe from capsizing, they have an outrigger attached. They are unsightly-looking things, wanting altogether the lightness and grace of a New Zealand canoe; their paddles, too, are clumsy and social work admission essay, heavy, and lack the symmetry and need bibliography, grace of the New Zealanders. There are several large double canoes on the Island, connected together by a strong platform; and in former times, when the population of the country exceeded the means of support, or it was feared that it would do so, oracles were consulted, and at admission their instigation a party would start off in one of these canoes in search of fresh land: sometimes failing in their object, they would find their way back again in bibliography a most miserable plight; but the result of the generality of such expeditions was never known.
Of late years, there have been no adventures of the labour should be banned essay kind, and these ship-canoes from their long disuse are fast falling to need to buy bibliography, decay; there are seventeen or eighteen of them upon the Island, carefully built over to protect them from the weather. These ship-canoes are no two of the same length; the longer one will be from eighty to ninety feet, while the smaller, answering the purpose of an work outrigger, would not exceed fifty or sixty feet: each canoe has from four to five feet beam, but they have no floor; and, looked at separately, without their stem and stern pieces, they would be taken for troughs. A Annotated! They are kept about six feet asunder by cross beams lashed and otherwise made fast to the gunwales of both canoes; the beams are planked over, which furnishes a deck of from fourteen to sixteen feet in breadth. Both canoes are entirely covered in, and there are small hatchways with sliding covers. When a party has determined upon an exploring expedition, they build a house upon the main deck and stow their provisions, c. in the holds of the canoes. Their sails are made of a species of rush marled together: in form they resemble the New Zealanders, being when set like an inverted triangle (Lucatt 1851:177-178). C.F.
Wood, visiting Rotuma on a yachting cruise some 30 years later, confirmed the disuse into which double canoes had fallen. He reported seeing large double canoes, similar to those he had seen in should be banned essay Fiji and Tonga, lying in sheds on the beach. To Buy! He was told that no one then alive, nor their fathers before them, had ever seen those canoes in the water. No one knew how to manage them at sea, nor did anyone have knowledge of sail making (Wood 1875:15). An old chief told Wood that in the past such canoes would sail off, loaded with men, never to persuasive essay works cited, be heard of need again. Wood commented that he knew of canoes from dr jekyll essay notes, Rotuma landing on the northern coast of Vanua Levu, where half-breed descendants could be found. He claimed that Rotumans regularly sailed to Tonga to obtain Cypraea ovula, a white shell used to decorate chiefs' canoes and houses. They did not buy these from the natives of Tonga, Wood wrote, but they themselves fished for them on outlying reefs (Wood 1875:25-26). To Buy! 
Writing some years later, William Allen reported that canoe building once took up a great deal of the men's time.  He suggested that double canoes took many years to build, as many as eight or ten (Allen 1895). During his visit in 1896, however, J. Stanley Gardiner found inquiries into oceangoing voyaging to be futile. Gardiner wrote that the double canoe was already forgotten and that canoe sailing was a lost art, though the Rotuman language possessed all the terms necessary for it. He also mentioned finding a steer oar belonging to a canoe he estimated to have been sixty feet in length (Gardiner 1898:459). Gardiner further reported that the names of stars are as a rule fanciful now, but Marafu [the paramount chief] pointed me out some named according to example of a, the different islands (Gardiner 1898:407).  Rotuman Canoes in Detail. The most extensive information recorded about Rotuman canoes is contained in Gardiner's account and the field notes of Bishop Museum ethnologist Gordon MacGregor, who visited Rotuma in 1932. Gardiner reported that at the time of need to buy bibliography his visit two kinds of canoes were being made: a big one used for fish-driving, called tafaga [ taf'aga ], and a small one used inside the reef, called tavane [ täväne ].  Taf'aga varied from twenty-five to thirty-five feet in length, took from eight to twelve paddlers, and could carry up to twenty people. Regarding canoe construction, Gardiner wrote: A suitable tree is selected, cut down, and roughly shaped.
It is then properly allowed to work admission essay, lie for a few months, after which it is dragged down to to buy a annotated, the hanua noho (village) which is going to build it. It is then hollowed out to work admission, the desired shape, the ends being left solid and the walls up to 2 inches thick. Need To Buy Bibliography! In the centre the social essay sides would not be strong enough to bear the need strain, and so are removed, fresh planks being fitted into their place. These are fixed by work admission essay, sinnet, holes for the lashings being bored through the planks; wedges are then driven in between from the inside to make the whole watertight. The sinnet makes the holes watertight, but pieces of sponge from the reef are driven in to ensure it. There is to buy a distinct bow and stern, the example of a persuasive former sharp and pointed up, the a annotated latter blunter and curved downwards. The first three feet of the deck at each end is covered. Child Labour Be Banned Essay! The breadth along the need to buy bibliography whole centre is about the labour should essay same: 1 1/2-2 feet.
The side towards the outrigger, or sama, is slightly straighter [figure 6.2 C] than the other. The outrigger is about 5 feet or rather less away; it is not quite half as long as the whole canoe. It lies usually on the right, or starboard side, and consists of a post of a annotated bibliography light wood slightly pointed at one end. This is supported by two hard wood beams, driven into it, lashed across the canoe itself; the bend at right angles, which is labour should necessary, is cut out, but can be, and to buy a annotated bibliography, was, frequently induced in the growth of the example persuasive timber. Another beam runs just above the bend between these; to it rods of hard wood are lashed, previously driven into to buy a annotated the post underneath [figure 6.2B].
A platform is essay illegal immigration generally made to take the paddles and carry the nets between the canoe and the outrigger; the paddle blade is of an oval form, 2 feet long by about 6 inches broad. The bailer is of the regular type, of need to buy a annotated bibliography one piece of wood with handle in the centre, and dr jekyll hyde notes, shaped to need a annotated, fit the canoe. The launch of child labour essay one of a annotated these used to be the occasion of should a feast. Kava was placed for the gods, after one of whom it was named and then supposed to be under his special protection. The tavane is only about 12 feet long and 8-10 inches deep; at the top it is usually about need to buy a annotated bibliography, 6 inches broad, but bellied out considerably underneath. The outrigger is about 8 feet long and supported merely by two crooked sticks, lashed across the top of the canoe. The oie, or drum, is child labour in india essay always stationary, and usually of very large size; it has generally a special roof. Its general shape [figures 6.2E and 6.2F] is the ordinary, but it is much more bellied and to buy a annotated, cut out persuasive essay, deeper at to buy a annotated the ends than is customary in Fiji (Gardiner 1898:457-459). FIGURE 6.2. Rotuman canoe features: A--side view of the tafaga , showing planks let in at the side, also bow and stern; B--section of the tafaga through one of the supporting beams of the sama , or outrigger; C--side view of the sama to notes, show method of fixing; D--top view of the tavane (the thin lines at the sides show the bulge of the to buy canoe); E--longitudinal section through the oie , or drum; F--transverse section of the oie . Of A Persuasive Argumentative! (After Gardiner 1898:458) In a section of need bibliography his notes labeled canoes, MacGregor recorded the names of and mr hyde essay canoe types and parts. Need Bibliography! His Rotuman consultants told him that they called large double canoes ahai [ 'ahai ]. Some of social essay them thought the name came from the English word ahoy, used by English sailors, a derivation favored by C.M.
Churchward, who wrote the to buy a annotated definitive dictionary of the Rotuman language (Churchward 1940:348). MacGregor was skeptical, however, since he could not elicit an alternative term. The traditional term, he wrote, would not have died out so quickly. Gardiner also reported that the term 'ahai was used for large double canoes, although he spelled it ahoie ; like MacGregor, he doubted that it derived from English (Gardiner 1898:459). Note that Lesson, who visited Rotuma in child labour be banned 1824, provided the name aoe for a small double canoe he encountered (see his quotation above). Need A Annotated Bibliography! This suggests that it was an indigenous term rather than a borrowing from English.
MacGregor wrote in his notebook that no one on the island remembers seeing a double canoe. Nevertheless, one of his Rotuman consultants told him that 'ahai were made from five or six planks to a side, according to the size of the tree, and that they were about five to five and one-half feet tall. Persuasive! He also told MacGregor that 'ahai were fitted with a deck and deck house, and with a mast guyed by a rope of the vine fanga fea [ fagfea ].  Churchward lists the Rotuman word samtutuki for the smaller double canoe (Churchward 1940:305), which MacGregor described as constructed of two hulls ( vaka ) joined by three crosspieces ( kiata ). Need Bibliography! The hulls were about eight feet high according to MacGregor's consultants, and were completely covered over to keep out persuasive essay, water. Need A Annotated! The covering had a trapdoor to permit access to provisions.
Hulls were built of five pieces, including a keelpiece, side planks, and narrower top planks. The planks had flanges and were sewn together. Persuasive Essay Illegal! Stitches tying the to buy a annotated planks together were held fast by driving small wooden wedges under the knots. Hulls were longer than one plank length, and the ends, which were cut diagonally rather than square, were also sewn together. Poles were set up in the hulls and the deck ( pupui ) was held up on them about a fathom above the canoes' top planks. A lean-to hut was built on the deck, with the ends of the roof resting on the deck. The mast ( pou ) was set on the deck, forward of the house and powerpoint presentation to instruct, guyed to the canoes. In some instances the mast was constructed so that it could be shifted, and in some instances it was permanently fixed.
Sails ( läe ) were made of about twenty ordinary floor mats sewn together. They had two wings, or points, in the fashion of Fijian canoes. The steering oar ( hose ) was worked on the starboard hull. Need To Buy A Annotated! MacGregor's consultants told him that samtutuki carried about one hundred men, but it must be cautioned that they were reporting about the construction of be banned in india essay a canoe type that had long since disappeared. Like Gardiner, MacGregor also recorded that large, single-hulled outrigger canoes were called tafaaga [ taf'aga ] and smaller ones tavane [ täväne ]. Need! Churchward lists both of these as types of outriggers, but includes an additional term, karia , for large outrigger canoes (Churchward 1940:238,319,327). MacGregor reported that täväne were made with the fore outrigger boom shorter than the aft one as an aid to example of a persuasive essay, steering. This gave the canoes an appearance of toeing in when viewed from above. The stern is the wider part of the canoe because of the narrowness of the whole canoe for a man of any size to sit in and because it handles more easily, Macgregor wrote. He also noted, contrary to Gardiner's observations thirty-six years before him, that most canoes had their outrigger on need bibliography, the port side. This is confirmed by John Bennett, an dr jekyll hyde notes American married to a Rotuman woman and an accomplished sailor. Need To Buy A Annotated! He lived on Rotuma for seven years while employed as a teacher at the high school.
According to Bennett, outriggers today are commonly mounted on the port side, as most people are right-handed and find paddling on starboard more comfortable and unobstructed if the works cited outrigger is mounted on the left. Turning with the paddle is also easier (J. Bennett, personal communication). An account of the steps involved in building taf'aga was provided MacGregor by to buy, a craftsman from the village of Salvaka: The Rotumans build two sorts of large outrigger canoes, the presentation writing tafaka oro [possibly taf'aga 'i'oro 'shark fishing canoe'] and the tafaka fonfonu [ taf'aga fonfono 'canoe with built up sides'].  The first is a three piece canoe with a deep hull, the second a five piece canoe with a shallow keel piece and built up sides, two planks to a side. When the need a annotated whole body of the canoe is considered these canoes are actually five and seven piece canoes, but the last two pieces are deck pieces and not in the walls of the canoes. The difference in structure is determined by essay, the material the carpenters have to work with. If a tree selected is not thick enough to give the proper depth to to buy a annotated, the hull, a five piece canoe is built. The machau [ majau ], or head carpenter, selects the tree from which the proposed canoe is to be built.
Then a koua or feast is held, called foiang fua [ faiag fua 'felling of a tree for the keelpiece'], at work which is announced the need to buy bibliography intention of building a canoe, and whether it will be fuaora or not, that is the admission way of constructing a tafakora . When the work is started the machau may make the a annotated stern first or hollow out the entire log. Example Of A Essay! When the tree is hollowed out to need, form the and mr fua or bottom piece of the hull, a second koua is held, called Saragfua [ sarag fua 'completing the to buy bibliography keelpiece']. The fua is then finished off and the beveled edge is made for joining the social piece to be laid on to buy bibliography, top. In the five piece canoe this keel? [sic] is the vaka fonfonu [ vak fonfono 'canoe with built up sides'], and powerpoint presentation writing to instruct, the beveled edge is a annotated bibliography made to join the fonu. ?? [sic] In this case, the fua or keel piece is made much broader and shallower. There are some canoes built with two rows of fono , which makes a seven piece canoe. It has been stated that three piece canoes are in reality of five pieces. It can be seen here where the extra pieces come in. When the work admission fua is made the stern and need a annotated, bow are cut to shape, including the upright piece of the prow, called the moa . Often this is impossible due to essay works cited, the size of the tree. Then deck pieces of purou are made to need a annotated bibliography, fit on top of the stern and bow of the level fua . Powerpoint Writing! These are necessary to carry out the a annotated height of the canoe established by dr jekyll and mr hyde essay notes, building on the fono or wall pieces. In the standard three piece canoe, these should join at each end with the high bow and stern of the need to buy a annotated bibliography fua . The fono , probably originally one strip, is persuasive with works now made of three to each side.  The center fono which is laid on the completed fua first, is called the raurara . When these two center pieces are laid a koua is held which is known as the fuakiag [ fuakiag ] fono.
Then the end fono , two to need, each side which connect the raurara with the stern and bow, are laid on. These are the fonchichaki [ fon jijaki 'sideboards slipped into persuasive essay illegal place']. When these are joined the sokoag fono koua , or joining the other fono on, is made. Next come the roa , if the canoe is to to buy a annotated bibliography, be a five piece one. These are the and mr hyde essay notes top planks or strips that are set over the fono to complete the walls. Then the bow and stern pieces are put on (these are called porou [ purou ] in one place and puka in another, puka being name given by Ismeli [another informant] as well.) The canoe is now fitted together and all the a annotated bibliography flanges are sewn down. The machau inspects all edges to immigration, see if there is a perfect fit. To insure that all the planks fit smoothly, the sides that are laid against each other are smeared with paint made of ura [ 'ura Indian mulberry] or pandanus mixed with lime.
The pandanus root is first pressed with water. This paint is smeared on the edge of the fua and to buy a annotated, then the fono is laid on. Persuasive Essay Cited! Any unevenness will show up by its lacking marking with paint. Then the entire canoe is unleashed and the pieces taken off. Each piece is trimmed and smoothed to make it thinner and lighter. The inside portion is cut out more carefully. All holes for lashing are inspected, but they must not be touched again after corrections are made from the preliminary lashing of the need a annotated canoe. When the example persuasive essay fua was made, they carefully left at each third of a fathom in the hull of the need a annotated bibliography canoe, a pair of social admission raised knobs or rests which are called susu . They are not in the exact center of the bottom of the to buy a annotated bibliography canoe but about six inches apart.
These form the rests for the rib supports or tokai of the canoe. They are set obliquely upright on these and are lashed under the uppermost edge of the puka or roa . The seats, manu , are set above pair [sic] of tokai . There should be three seats to each fathom of the canoe. The seats are cross boards lashed over the gunwale or roa . Usually a curved seat is carved out and also a small back three or four inches in height. The back of the seat is hyde notes called the kiat rot . The stern piece of puka has the need bibliography seat of the helmsman, the argumentative seat - marae or maraeheta . This puka is the last piece that is set in the hull of the canoe when she is put together. It has two arms or fork [sic], as has the bow piece, which come out and join the to buy bibliography end of the roa. These are known as the U Rua ne Puka ['u rua ne puka ], the hands of the puka . The bow and the stern piece are variously fashioned after the ideas of the machau , but in general the child be banned in india first piece usually has the butt of a bowsprit? [sic] or upright piece foremost. This is called the moa . Need Bibliography! Both pieces have a series of child labour in india small truncated knobs from the point to the raised portion or seat.
These are the to buy a annotated bibliography moa ne puakta , and correspond to the decoration on Samoan bonito canoes and paopao. Very rarely I have seen cowrie shell attached to them. A wooden bailer, tatahet [ tata ], is made for persuasive essay with works, each canoe, in the shape of a annotated a grocer's sugar scoop, with the immigration handle inverted or within the bowl. The outrigger, sama , is attached with booms, as in the tavane , and when all is finished the final koua , avahiag tafaga [ a'vahiag taf'aga ] (finishing the need canoe) is given for the occasion. The tafaka is taken out for fishing, but on this trip, no one must eat any raw fish. The catch is brought together, cooked and eaten in one place. This feast of the fish also removes the tabu against women associating with the example essay canoe.
This is primarily laid upon pregnant women who are forbidden to sit on the canoe or stepping over it or even approaching it. Need A Annotated Bibliography! Other women are less seriously regarded. If in the process of admission making the need canoe a worker is cut and blood flows, a koua is held, hapagsue [ hapagsu ]. So also if a part is broken or cut so thin that the axe comes through, a koua is held to presentation, stop the bad luck. The place where the canoe is built is tabu during the first trip out. No one is allowed to play there, and it would bring the worst sort of bad luck, armu [ armou ], if blood were shed on it. Armu is bad luck, no fish, shedding of blood, or some bad happening (Macgregor 1932). The canoe associated with this description, inspected by MacGregor, was 33 feet long, 1.5 feet at the widest part, and twenty inches deep.
MacGregor made a list of outrigger parts. Table 6.1 gives both MacGregor's terms and Churchward's corresponding dictionary entries: TABLE 6.1. Rotuman canoe lexicon. rorara, raurara, fono. upper end pieces. inside post supports. projections on to buy a annotated, ends. puket e taumuri.
* MacGregor notes that the puka is the part that runs from the end of the roa on essay, one side around the to buy stern or bow to the end of the roa on the other side. It should be of one piece. He adds that this implies it is not necessarily the whole stern piece. (MacGregor 1932) ** lit. 'body of the canoe' MacGregor also provided a list of wood types used in the construction of a canoe. The ratau [ ratu'a ] tree was used for the hull of a canoe; the outrigger and paddle [ hose ] were made from penau wood ( Thespesia populnea L., Pacific rosewood tree); the outrigger boom from hau (hibiscus) wood; and essay, the outrigger brace from either hau wood or bamboo. Paddles were 4.5 to 5 feet long, with a blade from two to two feet four inches; MacGregor described them as flat on one side and rounded on the other (Macgregor 1932). This may suggest more uniformity of construction than was the case. Need A Annotated! Today, according to John Bennett (personal communication), hulls may be built from hefau (Callophyllum), 'ulu ( Atrocarpus altilis, breadfruit), togoi ( Terminalia catappa L.), 'ura ( Morinda citrifolia L.), ratu'a ( Erythrina variegata L.) or sa'a trees,  from which most paddles are now made. Bennett suggests that sa'a is used for paddles today because it is light, and much easier to shape than paddles made of penau . He speculates that this may reflect a lack of strength and endurance among present-day paddlers as compared with the labour in india essay past. For caulking ( pulu ) MacGregor recorded breadfruit sap had been used, but a substance produced from the ripe seed of the pipi fruit ( Atuna racemose Raf.) was a recent innovation that proved superior. The seed is pressed into a red watery fluid in the hand with a rock.
It is worked into the seams where it becomes very hard and holds fast. Macgregor also noted that pandanus root was pressed with water and mixed with lime to make a marking paint for carpenters. His notes contain detailed drawings of lashings (Macgregor 1932). Based on hull shape, outrigger attachment, and proximity, Hornell concluded that Rotuman canoes were an need bibliography adaptation of a small canoe used on the northern Tuvalu island of Nanumea (Hornell 1936:281), but this conclusion is disputed by McQuarrie, who makes a strong case for their having a closer relationship to labour should in india essay, the canoes of Tonga and Samoa (McQuarrie 1980). Fishing with Canoes. Gardiner and MacGregor also provide the most thorough accounts of Rotuman fishing techniques, including hook and line, fish traps of various types, and nets. Since Rotuma is blessed with extensive fringing reefs, fish are abundantly available without resort to deep-sea fishing for all but a few isolated villages. Whether deep-sea fishing was ever a major factor in need to buy Rotumans' exploitation of marine resources is uncertain.
The position of master fisherman ( tautei ) was institutionalized on Rotuma. Each district had a tautei who was in charge of fishing expeditions. The position belonged to specific kin groups ( kainaga ) who were thought to essay, have special abilities ( mana ). Some villages had their own tautei who led expeditions limited to the village. Need A Annotated! Tautei titles derive from fishing activities. For example, according to Elisapeti Inia, retired Rotuman schoolteacher and authority on Rotuman language and powerpoint writing to instruct, customs, the title Reuas derives from räe ia'uas 'to see a shoal of fish'; Tokoar from need to buy a annotated, tok 'o'oar ta 'the canoe used as a receptacle during fish drives'; Tokroa from essay illegal, tok roa 'long pole' (used to direct communal fishing activities); and need bibliography, Urakmat from ur'ak mat 'to respect + wet', suggesting the importance of following taboos associated with fishing (Elisapeti Inia, personal communication). Gardiner reported that Rotuman fish-hooks were generally crude. He described them as follows: The fe, or shark-hook, was made from a shrub, the tiere, which, when it reached the height of about 3 feet, was twisted into an open knot, with a diameter of of a argumentative about 5 inches; it was then allowed to grow for about two years before being cut. The hook was then shaped, and a piece of hard wood spliced on as a barb projecting inwards.
The bait was tied on over the barb; the fish working at to buy a annotated bibliography this, as the essay illegal immigration wood was springy, gradually got its jaw between the barb and the stem of the hook. On being struck the barb caught in the gills, and the fish was hauled up sideways. A similar hook, but smaller, the need to buy a annotated oiniafa, was used for catching a large species of immigration rock cod, the roog. Small round hooks were cut out of pearl shell or turtle bone, 1-2 inches in diameter, and termed ovi [ 'avi ]; a barb was always cut on the outside. Those of pearl shell for to buy bibliography, certain fish were not baited, nor towed behind the canoe. Proper spinning baits are termed pa [ poa ], and illegal, were of two kinds, the one large, of pearl shell fixed on bone 4 inches, or more, long, and the other small, 1-2 inches, of need a annotated pearl shell alone. Both had underneath a hook of turtle shell or bone, and at the end a few short white feathers of the persuasive with works cited tavek [ täväke ], or boatswain bird, sticking out. Tjija [ Jija ], long fish with very narrow jaws [garfish], almost too small for any hook, are caught by a lump of spider's web at the end of a line on a long bamboo, when the tide is coming in. The teeth are numerous and a annotated, long, and cannot disentangle themselves (Gardiner 1898:425).
MacGregor provided additional information about spider web fishing: The spider web. is caught up from the corner of the house by powerpoint presentation to instruct, twisting on the end of a stick. The web is made into a ball and colored with charcoal so that it will show up black. Charcoal of the leifau [ hefau ?] is used, called mahala. This ball is then tied on the end of the fish line. The fishing was done with a long bamboo pole 16'-18' and with a line longer than this. The fish were only caught in a few places in to buy bibliography Rotuma, one of them being off the reef, another off the islet Afngaha [Afgaha] off Noatau. The pole was held so that the ball of black web was suspended just over the water, and persuasive essay illegal immigration, allowed to blow back and forth in the wind. The chiachia or chi'chia [ jija 'garfish'] is a small long fish with a very long and thin mouth with very fine teeth.
It would jump out of the water to bite at the web and be caught by its teeth in the mesh (MacGregor 1932). Gardiner described several techniques for catching fish on the reef, mostly involving traps and to buy, nets. In three instances he mentioned the social use of to buy bibliography canoes: while turtle fishing, during fish drives, and when catching flying fish. For turtle fishing, Rotumans used sennit nets, according to Gardiner. A net was put down in labour should be banned essay a reef passage just before the need a annotated tide began to ebb. Canoes were stationed at each end of the presentation writing to instruct net, and when a turtle was seen to go into a annotated it, a man from child be banned essay, each canoe dived after it, seized it by the front flippers and turned it over so that it was compelled to come to the surface (Gardiner 1898:426).  MacGregor confims this description, adding that the fishermen would frighten the turtles into the nets by drumming on the sides of their canoes. He also describes an alternative method of turtle fishing, involving taking canoes out at night on the high tide and need to buy bibliography, searching for turtles with torches, then spearing them when they came to the light (Macgregor 1932). Social Work Essay! Today people dive for turtles using goggles or a diving mask and small spear made from a quarter-inch steel rod propelled by a flexible rubber tube (similar to surgical rubber), with a copper wire loop attached on one end and a tire-tube rubber loop, placed over the thumb, at the other.
The spear is drawn like a bow and arrow (Bennett, personal communication). Fish drives involve numerous households and, at times, entire districts or more. A large net is to buy bibliography placed at a strategic location in child labour should in india a reef passage just before low tide, and fish are driven into it by lines of people beating the water. Canoes are used on such occasions as receptacles for the fish that are caught rather than as vehicles (see Feinberg, this volume, for similar uses of canoes on Nukumanu). Those picking the a annotated fish out of the cited net crush the skull between their teeth to dispatch them quickly and prevent them from flipping out of the canoes in which they are stored. Sometimes individuals, most often women, eat fish raw during such an event. Gardiner reported on one drive involving over two hundred people in which they caught 648 large fish of different kinds weighing over 1.5 tons (Gardiner 1898:427).
Communal drives are still a common fishing method, particularly off the village of Losa. To Buy Bibliography! Fish are driven out persuasive, of the reef passage and, blinded by the setting sun, are caught in bibliography a net. Persuasive! This method is called furamasa 'to fish late in to buy a annotated the afternoon' (Churchward 1940a:208), or more generically, hagoat vao 'net fishing'. The term jau 'to beat' (which in this instance refers to work, beating the water when driving fish to where they can be caught)  is a annotated bibliography commonly used for example of a argumentative, fish drives in which nets are not used. No lexical distinction is made between a communal drive involving an entire village or simply a few family members (Bennett, personal communication). In the a annotated bibliography past, canoes were also used to catch flying fish using a special net [ seu ] about twelve feet long by six feet wide, fixed at the end of two bamboo poles.
A number of canoes would paddle along the reef at high tide in two lines, with a man on should in india essay, watch at the head of each. When the fish were sighted,, usually near the shore, everyone jumped into the water. While some of the men surrounded the fish with a net, others got ready to catch them when they jumped over it (Gardiner 1898:428). From his account it seems that Gardiner was referring to mullet ( 'anasi ) rather than true flying fish ( säsäve ), since the former feed on the reef while the latter inhabit the deep sea outside the reef. Mullet often jump out need to buy a annotated, of the water, but do not have the anatomy to social work, glide through the air.  The tautei from Noa'tau district provided MacGregor with detailed information concerning seu expeditions: The Seu is a fishing party of eleven canoes which are accompanied usually by a chief, for whom the a annotated fishing is done.  The fleet of canoes go out in two lines of admission essay five in file, and to buy a annotated bibliography, the eleventh canoe travels between the two lines opposite presentation writing to instruct, the last two in the files.
There is a tautae [ tautei ] standing in the bow of the first canoe in each file. He wears an eyeshade (isau) [ isao ] made of coconut leaves, and a titi or vehnau which is a grass skirt made of hau. When the fish have been sighted, the files separate to a greater distance to surround the need bibliography school. On the command rua vao (let the nets go), each man jumps from his canoe with his net, and walks through the water to join his net with the man next to him. A complete net is thus formed on of a persuasive essay, each side of the school, and to buy, these are joined together, at one end with the net of the center or eleventh canoe and at the other between the two canoes of the tautae.
There are more than two men in a canoe. If there are flying fish in the school, hand nets are brought out by some of the presentation crew to to buy bibliography, catch them. Powerpoint Writing! These nets are vauseu [ vao seu ]. The long nets are vau hapa [vao hapa ]. Each movement is need carried out labour should essay, only at the tautae's orders. The seu is carried out inside the reef in shallow water so that the fish, when completely enclosed with the nets, are taken out by hand into the canoe (Macgregor 1932). MacGregor was told by one consultant that a seu might last two to three days. Need Bibliography! A number of taboos were associated with seu . For example, on the night before an expedition, the fishermen were supposed to admission essay, sleep alone; if any one of them had sex, fish would jump over the net he was holding. To Buy A Annotated! No one could mention the names of the men who went fishing. The houses of the fishermen were shut during a seu and no one was allowed to with works, enter them while it was in progress. Making noise was taboo, and it was forbidden to make cooking fires. The tautei had to wear the vehnau titi and the isao during all operations.
If any of need to buy bibliography these taboos were violated, it would bring bad luck. It was a bad omen if a man fell out of his canoe; if anyone did so, he had to give a feast for the entire party (Macgregor 1932). If the net used in a fishing expedition is new ( hoiag vao ), the first fish caught in it is put into a special basket ( la ) and taken to the tautei 's house, accompanied by a chief. The doors of the house, kept closed until then, are opened and hyde essay notes, an announcement of the catch ( ma hei'akia ) is bibliography chanted (Elisapeti Inia, personal communication). MacGregor mentions two locations in which hook and with, line fishing were used for catching snapper in deep water by submerged reefs: off the islets of Haua and off the village of Losa. He also reported that sharks were caught with hook and line, then clubbed when brought to the side of the canoe. His consultants told him that hooks were made from fish vertebrae, turtle shell, and need, hardwood. The favored hardwood, he was told, was found at the bottom of the sea outside the reef. (According to John Bennett, the substance referred to is black coral, commonly found off the island of Uea, which has no fringing reef.) The men dived for it and brought up branches with long hooked twigs, which made excellent hooks. Essay! Fishing line was made from the bark of need to buy paper mulberry or breadfruit trees, or from sennit cord. The practice of hyde essay closing up a house when a man goes deep-sea fishing is still common today. People are encouraged not to anticipate a fisherman's catch as this can only bring bad luck.
When one first takes out a new boat to need a annotated bibliography, fish, he is expected to acknowledge a good catch by powerpoint, providing fish to the chief and minister. Not observing this custom, Rotumans claim, will result in to buy poor catches (Bennett, personal communication). Shipping Out: Rotuman Sailors on European Vessels. It is clear from the reports of nearly all early commentators that Rotuman men were eager to leave Rotuma aboard European vessels and took every opportunity to do so (e.g., see Bennett 1831:480). Writers also praised the qualities that made Rotumans desirable sailors. The remarks of child labour should in india Joseph Osborn, aboard the need a annotated whaling ship Emerald when it stopped at Rotuma in 1835, are typical: They love to visit foreign countries great numbers of them ship on board the English whaleships.
On board a ship they are as good or better than any of the South Sea natives: diligent, civil quiet, 3 very necessary qualities. Of A Argumentative Essay! They soon learn to talk English there is to buy a annotated bibliography but few of them but what can talk a few words (Osborn 1834-1835). John Eagleston, Captain of the labour Emerald , echoed Osborn's sentiments. They make good ship men, he wrote, and for a trading vessel are preferable to any of the other natives which I am acquainted with, they being more true faithful more to be depended on (Eagleston 1832). A Annotated Bibliography! He noted that he had had a number of Rotumans aboard as crewmen in the past, as well as other islanders, but found Rotumans to presentation to instruct, be the best. Some forty years later Litton Forbes wrote: The men of Rotumah make good sailors, and after a few years' service in need bibliography sea-going vessels are worth the same wages as white men. Scarcely a man on the island but has been more or less of a traveller.
It is no rare thing to find men who have visited Harve, or New York, or Calcutta, men who can discuss the relative merits of example of a persuasive a sailors' home in London or Liverpool, and dilate on the advantages of steam over sailing vessels. Thus the average native of Rotumah is more than usually capable and intelligent (Forbes 1875:226). Commenting in 1867 on the extent of emigration, Rev. Need To Buy Bibliography! William Fletcher, the first European Methodist missionary stationed on Rotuma, wrote that upwards of seven hundred young men were known to have left the island in recent memory (Fletcher 1870). Anxiety over admission the unimpeded emigration of young men was one of the first issues raised by a annotated bibliography, the chiefs of Rotuma in their negotiations with British authorities prior to cession. Thus Arthur Gordon reported in dr jekyll hyde essay 1879 that the chiefs desired regulations to check wholesale emigration. He suggested two regulations, one prohibiting boys under sixteen and married men from leaving, the need to buy a annotated other requiring unmarried men to have their chief's consent. The regulations were passed unanimously (Outward Letters, dispatch from in india essay, A. Gordon to a annotated, Colonial Secretary, 4 December, 1879 ). The first census taken on Rotuma, in 1881 shortly after cession, yielded a population count of 2491. In the fifteen- to forty-year age group, the gender balance was 440 males to 638 females.
The Resident Commissioner at the time, Charles Mitchell, attributed the surplus of females to the fact that so many young men had left the labour should in india essay island (Outward Letters, dispatch from C. Mitchell to Colonial Secretary, 1 October, 1881).  W. L. Allardyce, who was on Rotuma about this time, commented on the shift in traveling destinations resulting from the need bibliography demise of the whaling industry as well as the social price homestayers had to pay: Nearly all the men on the island have at one time or another been to sea, and while in the old whaling days Honolulu and Behring Straits formed the goal of their ideas, the sailors of the present day must needs visit New Zealand, Australia, China, and social work admission essay, India, while others still more ambitious are not satisfied till they have rounded the Horn and passed the a annotated white cliffs of Dover. The few who have never been to sea at all have often to endure a considerable amount of banter at the expense of their inexperience (Allardyce 1885-1886:133).  Allardyce also noted that the majority of Rotuman men abroad were engaged in the Torres Straits pearl-diving industry, which was flourishing at presentation writing to instruct the time. Writing in 1884, William Gordon reported that over a annotated one hundred Rotuman men were employed in the industry, mostly in the management of boats. The boatmen earned two to powerpoint writing to instruct, three pounds a month. Divers earned much more, up to need to buy, forty pounds a month according to Gordon, but tended to squander it during binges in the city ( Outward Letters, dispatch from Wm. Admission Essay! Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 24 November, 1884). The early commissioners feared the Rotuman population was rapidly declining and in danger of extinction. They saw emigration as a significant part of the problem.
Fortunately, however, Rotuma avoided the scourges of venereal disease,  a fact remarked upon by Commissioner Gordon with surprise, given the comings and goings of so many young men who had been sailors (Outward Letters, dispatch from Wm. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 24 November 1884). Need To Buy A Annotated Bibliography! Attempts to dampen emigration were aided by writing to instruct, the British decision to govern Rotuma as part of the bibliography colony of and mr Fiji and to close Rotuma as a port of entry. This significantly reduced the to buy bibliography number of essay immigration vessels calling at Rotuma and to buy bibliography, meant that men had to go to Fiji to persuasive essay illegal, sign aboard as seamen. The issue of controlling emigration remained a matter of concern to subsequent Resident Commissioners. Following an inquiry into the matter, A. R. Mackay reported that fewer than thirty adult males on the island [out of some four to five hundred] had not been abroad. He reiterated what others had said before, that it is a cutting reproach to cast at need to buy a man that he has not been away from the persuasive argumentative island; hence, partly, the anxiety of the young men to accomplish their long cherished dream (Outward Letters, dispatch from A.R. Mackay to Colonial Secretary, 10 January, 1887). The concern for controlling emigration eventually led to the passage of need to buy a annotated bibliography Rotuma Regulation Number 3 in 1939, stating that No native may leave Rotuma without the permission of the District Officer (who replaced the Resident Commissioner as administrative officer in charge of Rotuma following a colonial governmental reorganization). Example Persuasive Argumentative! It further specified that No male adult responsible for the maintenance of his wife, children, or relatives may leave Rotuma without making adequate provision for the maintenance of said wife, children, or relatives to the satisfaction of the a annotated bibliography District Officer (Rotuma Regulations 1939:457). 
Nevertheless, a substantial number of Rotumans emigrated to Fiji, establishing an enclave there. The outbreak of work World War II accelerated Rotuman emigration to Fiji, and by 1946 approximately 17 percent of all Rotumans were residing there. Once in Fiji, Rotuman men were free to sign on ships without consulting anyone. The chiefs protested and demanded the to buy bibliography right to choose who could go, but the governor of Fiji ruled that the liberty of the individual must be respected and it is not for the Rotuman Chiefs to decide who shall and who shall not sign on ships (Fiji Archives, Document F 24/44). Although precise figures are not available, sailing remains a favored occupation among Rotumans. Child Labour Essay! In a survey of 414 households (85 percent) on Rotuma during 1989,  I identified sixty-nine men engaged in sailing at the time. This accounted for 20.7 percentof all men abroad on whom I have occupational data. Five of them were ship captains, two were pilots.
Rotuman crews were entrenched on certain ships, like the cable ships Retriever and Pacific Guardian . All the information at my disposal suggests that Rotumans are desired as crewmen as much today as they were in earlier times.  The reasons given are similar: that Rotumans are exceptionally conscientious, learn fast, and are capable of taking responsibility.  I have elsewhere related these qualities, widely recognized by employers of Rotuman personnel, to socialization patterns and the social organization of the need bibliography Rotuman community (Howard 1966, 1970). Seamanship on essay with works cited, Rotuma Today. With a few notable exceptions, Rotumans now residing on the island do not venture beyond the need reef and have not developed seafaring skills. To Instruct! Almost all fishing is need to buy done on the reef, and canoes are used more as receptacles than as vehicles. The only type of canoe that has survived is the small outrigger, formerly called täväne , but currently known only by labour should in india, the generic term for canoe, vaka . To Buy A Annotated Bibliography! They are occasionally used as transportation to the nearer offshore islets. Powerpoint Presentation Writing To Instruct! Both men and women fish on the reef, and women are as likely to take canoes for this purpose as men.
It is common to find husbands and wives exploiting the reef together. The most usual techniques employed do not require canoes, however. They involve one or two individuals with minimal gear: goggles, perhaps a spear, and occasionally small gill nets. A Annotated! Night fishing ( sulu ) is also practiced, although the technique has changed during the past decade. Dr Jekyll! Previously, benzine lanterns were used, and need to buy a annotated, one would walk on the reef at low tide or spearfish from a canoe. Essay! Today it is more common for need to buy a annotated bibliography, young men to illegal, dive at night using an underwater flashlight. In general, there has been a dramatic decline in the use of bibliography canoes in the past few years.
Bennett reports that men with whom he previously fished in the deep sea no longer go out, and young men show little interest (Bennett, personal communication). As the child should be banned in india cash flow to Rotuma has increased, largely as a result of remittances (Rensel 1994), the islanders have exploited marine resources less and less, so that consumption of tinned fish now exceeds that of fresh fish. A few years ago a Fisheries report documented an average annual per capita consumption of 30 tins of mackerel, a total wet weight equivalent of a annotated bibliography more than 40 tons of essay fish. The authors comment on need to buy, the unimportance of fishing in daily life, in stark contrast to the strong fishing traditions of other Polynesian peoples (Fisheries Division n.d.:5).  The 1989 household survey (see note 18) included an inventory of selected items, including canoes and boats. Seventy-six households (18.4 percent) reported owning a canoe, and seven households (1.6 percent) reported owning a punt or launch with an outboard motor. All canoes were owned by individual households, and persuasive essay illegal immigration, nearly all had been built by a member of the household.  One man, with the title Sautiak, owned a small fishing boat with an inboard engine. Sautiak identified five fishing areas that he exploits. Three were off the west end of the island, including Whale Bank Reef; one was to the east, another to the southeast of Noa'tau. The furthest destination, Captain Read Reef is some forty-eight kilometers to the south-southeast of Rotuma.  It is approximately sixteen kilometers long and rises to within twelve fathoms of the surface.
According to a report from the Fiji Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, this location is likely to be very productive for both pelagic and bottom fish, and can be fished with a reasonable margin of safety during favourable weather in the SE trades, when prevailing winds would favour sail-assisted return of a disabled vessel to Rotuma (Fisheries Division n.d.:18). Sautiak takes twenty liters of fuel with him on each trip, which he says is more than enough. He locates sites with a compass and uses a depth sounder to determine optimal fishing grounds. When fishing close to Rotuma, he uses alignments of landmarks on the island and watches for sea birds feeding at the reef breaks. He uses metal hooks of Japanese manufacture on nylon line, and does both deep-water drops and trolling.
He goes out once a week or so when his boat is in good repair. Most of to buy his expeditions are extremely fruitful, and he distributes his catch to friends and family, although he usually sells a portion. Since demand far exceeds the supply, selling fresh fish is very easy. He has considered fishing on a commercial basis, but the main problem is storage. He said that unless he had cold storage facilities on board he could not stay out long enough to make it pay. A group from the district of Malhaha formed a cooperative a few years ago in which fishing was to be a major activity. Social Admission! They bought two boats and a large, walk-in freezer to store their catch. But they had difficulty with the freezer and some of the fish spoiled, leading a health inspector to condemn their entire frozen stock on several occasions.
As a result, they endured financial losses and to buy, their backers, a group of Rotumans in Fiji, withdrew financial support. After a while the freezer broke down completely. One of the boats was repossessed by the bank and sold to a group from Hapmak; the other developed a leak and was still in drydock on our last visit to the island. The Hapmak group uses the boat for commercial fishing on a sporadic basis, going out when there is a special need for fish and and mr hyde, when sailing conditions are optimal. Another group, from Itu'muta, bought John Bennett's catamaran with the stated intention of starting a fishing enterprise, but they go out only bibliography, occasionally, and the venture has foundered. Despite a consistent demand for fish and recognition of dr jekyll hyde commercial possibilities, little has been done to capitalize on the potential. A lack of storage facilities and sufficient financing to keep operations going through lean periods have clearly been factors. But the need to buy a annotated bibliography fact that many Rotumans in Fiji are engaged in commercial deep-sea fishing suggests an aversion to the rigors of the deep is not at issue.  While it is probably true that economic payoffs on Rotuma are insufficient to offset investment costs in time and money,  a more important factor may be a failure in leadership. This is the opinion of Bennett, who is familiar with both the Malhaha and Itu'muta ventures. The leaders in each case were assertive individuals viewed as serving their own self-interests rather than the group at large.
In the Itu'muta case, the young men expressed dissatisfaction with spending all day fishing only to find the catch inequitably distributed among participants (J. Bennett, personal communication). Problems of leadership are endemic on Rotuma, especially when it comes to the management of financial resources. It may well be, therefore, that the persuasive essay with works kind of a annotated bibliography leadership required to sustain a fishing enterprise is absent on Rotuma, and that Rotumans engage in seabound ventures so much more readily abroad (and aboard European vessels), because they they find the leadership much more palatable. The importance of sailing as a focus of cultural experience for Rotumans is evident in social work admission many ways. It is to buy a annotated a source of solidarity between men who have sailed together and the subject of reminiscences when men congregate. Sailing experience also provides metaphoric content for a number of sayings and for the content of songs and recitations. In some instances it constitutes the core of to instruct personal identity, as in the case of to buy a annotated a woman who changed her name to Al 'e sasi 'Died at sea' after her son was lost while serving aboard a ship.
Travel abroad, in general, is metaphorically a sailing experience, and at its core remains a canoe journey. Thus, the notion that the example of a argumentative essay traveler arrives with salt on his body is central to the Rotuman ritual of mamasa , welcoming a returnee or first-time visitor to the island. The term mamasa means 'to be dry' or 'to become dry', and is used in to buy a annotated bibliography reference to a ceremony performed when people return from a sea voyage or, in earlier times, from a dangerous deep-sea fishing expedition (Churchward 1940a:258). Presumably when people arrived by canoe, or by steamer prior to the building of a wharf at Oinafa in the 1970s, they landed wet and had to be dried and provided with clothes; hence the reference to drying out. The mamasa is persuasive essay immigration one of several life crisis events that involve the central symbols of a annotated bibliography Rotuman ceremonial performances: sacrificial pigs, kava, sweet-smelling oil, garlands, and argumentative, fine white pandanus mats ( apei ). The recipient of a mamasa ceremony ( forau ) is seated in need to buy the place of dr jekyll and mr hyde essay honor upon a pile of mats ( päega ) topped with an apei , which symbolizes his or her elevation to need a annotated bibliography, a god-like status for the duration of the event. Child In India Essay! Apei are the need to buy bibliography prime form of traditional wealth on Rotuma, and are necessary elements in persuasive with cited any formal ceremony. Each apei is consecrated by a koua 'sacrificial slaughter and cooking of a pig in an earth oven'; it symbolizes life and blessings from the gods. While seated on the päega the forau is presented with a tefui 'garland', tied around his or her neck by need to buy a annotated, a woman designated to play the welcoming role. The woman then performs the mamia , which in persuasive essay with ordinary circumstances means 'to wash a person or fishing net in need a annotated bibliography fresh water after having been in the sea' (Churchward 1940a:259), but in this instance is persuasive essay works symbolized by anointing the honoree with sweet-smelling oil, which must be pure Rotuman oil.
This highly symbolic act signifies cleansing the body of salt from the sea (Nilsen 1977:80). In earlier times, the woman would take off the forau 's shirt and put a new one on him or her, then present him or her with a new lavalava (Marseu 1986:5).  This act is followed by a kava ceremony and formal presentation of food. The forau is given the head of the need bibliography largest pig (reserved for immigration, the person of highest status during feasts), which is placed in front of him or her on a ceremonial table ( 'umefe ). He or she is also served kava before anyone else present, including chiefs. Need A Annotated! If the ceremony is an elaborate one, for a person of high status or someone whose achievements abroad brought honor to the community, dances and songs composed for the occasion may be performed, glorifying the person's adventures or accomplishments. The mamasa ceremony has at dr jekyll hyde essay least two clear functions. One is to reintegrate sojourners back into Rotuman life by communicating their importance to the community and elevating their status, if only for the duration of the need event. Attention is called to their absence and return, to their bravery in powerpoint writing leaving the island, and to need to buy a annotated bibliography, their accomplishments.
They are made to feel special. The ceremony's other function is to celebrate the presentation to instruct triumph of life over death. Like all Rotuman ceremonies, the symbolism of the mamasa emphasizes the regeneration of life forces: the sacrificial pig is a gift to the gods, who are supposed to respond by giving life to bibliography, the land and its people; kava symbolizes bodily fluids that give life; and fragrant oils and illegal, flowers (in the form of need to buy bibliography a garland) suggest the sweet smells of life as opposed to the stench of death.  Journeying beyond the reef for long periods was regarded as dangerous in the past; the example persuasive argumentative essay mamasa was a way to need to buy, offer thanks for a safe return. Another possible function, given the ambivalence Rotumans have toward the sea and things foreign, is symbolic purification. By washing away salt water residues with fresh water, they perhaps ritually cleanse sojourners of contamination not only by the sea, but by foreign influences of all kinds.
Rotuman sayings referring to sailing experiences can be lumped into four categories: (1) those calling attention to the special status of travellers; (2) those used metaphorically to persuasive essay with, call attention to hardships and fatigue; (3) those referring to chaos; and (4) those calling attention to to buy bibliography, undesirable behavior. The following examples are illustrative:  1. The special status of travellers. 'Ou la mat la'mou 'Your legs (or feet) are still wet'. Said to newcomers, suggesting that they have not yet fully integrated into community life. It can be used as a put-down to someone who expresses opinions prematurely after coming to the island. 2. Hardship and persuasive essay, fatigue. Na ta lu 'Give a rope'. Said of people who work slowly, as if fatigued.
It refers to seafarers who, wearied by a long journey, need to be hauled up to need to buy bibliography, the beach with a rope, like a punt. 3. Chaos. With! 'Itake vak lo 'Like a capsized canoe'. Said when there is a sudden crisis and everyone starts talking at once, but no one knows what to do, and nothing gets done. Need A Annotated Bibliography! It also applies where one can not hear because of the noise. 4. Undesirable Behavior. Immigration! Vak ta lelei ka sam ta raksa'a 'the canoe is good but the outrigger is bad'. Metaphorically, the man is need a annotated bibliography good, but his wife is not. This is generally used in persuasive essay with works reference to a chief and his wife, since the term vaka is need to buy a annotated bibliography a common metaphor for a chief. Songs are composed in several formats referring to travel abroad, including chants that accompany action dances and compositions in a modern pan-Pacific format accompanied by guitar, ukelele and other instruments. An example of persuasive illegal such a song is presented by Mosese Kaurasi (1977:145-146): Rotuman Version Tefui hata vasa 'e tier Ma noa la se maoen 'ae 'e fue Api ma roa 'ae 'e matit fak use Tari te Rotuma noh fak rotue English Translation The garlands of pandanus fruit and gardenia Be careful not to get lost out there You've lingered long in the cold of the rain Your relatives are awaiting you in Rotuma Recitations.
Ritual presentations of kava occupy a central place in a annotated bibliography nearly all Rotuman ceremonies. A key part of the ritual is the recitation of a fakpeje , a text generally associated with the legendary coming of powerpoint presentation to instruct kava to to buy bibliography, Rotuma. Recitations are given by male elders ( mafua ), usually in a language so esoteric that most people cannot follow their meaning. Work! Rotumans often describe fakpeje as composed of archaic words whose meanings have been lost. Need A Annotated! I suspect, however, that a lack of intelligibility has always been central to such recitations, perhaps to accentuate the foreign origin of kava. The prevailing myth concerning kava's origin has it coming from Tonga, which in its generic sense is a place over or under the sea inhabited by potent beings or spirits. That Rotumans associate experiences overseas and social work admission essay, aboard ship with the foreignness (and potency) attributed to kava can be seen in a fakpeje recorded by Hocart on Rotuma in need to buy 1913.
In this instance, intelligibility seems to be obscured by the seemingly random juxtaposition of English phrases, with Rotuman words interspersed: A below, way about riepouj how many nu le for here ten mile and essay, a quarter two far off all pull up to which you can't go up there its too heavy good kuretemene hard Adele lee o four yard forty gunsale forty mainsail pull off the guff topsail French ship jib stay sail jib fore poren where your head saw pau es you takes up. Collectively, Rotuman attitudes toward the sea are ambivalent. It has been a source of wondrous adventures for some, of seasickness for many, and of grief over losing kinsmen for others. For all Rotumans, boats represent connections to the outside world. For those on the island, boats are bridges to relatives abroad, transporters of vital supplies, and the means by which money is earned through the shipping of need to buy bibliography copra. Days when boats arrive and leave are major occasions. That the sea beyond the writing to instruct reef is dangerous comes home repeatedly. A number of Rotumans have been lost in recent years during seafaring adventures. Some have gone fishing and never returned.
News of to buy bibliography crewmembers aboard vessels that have sunk arrives periodically. During my 1989 visit, a freighter sank in a storm off Nova Scotia; it had five Rotuman crew members aboard who went down with the essay ship. Shortly before this tragedy, a Rotuman helicopter pilot was killed in a crash on the U.S. mainland,  lending even more emphasis to the dangers of sailing, since sea and sky are associated in Rotuman cultural idiom (airplanes are called 'ahai fere 'flying ships'). Such tragedies have fed the mystique with which the sea is endowed by most Rotumans. They conceive of the need a annotated bibliography sea, and what happens in and on it, as dangerous and unpredictable on child labour should be banned in india, the one hand, enriching and vitalizing on to buy a annotated bibliography, the other.
Their attitudes have been shaped, in part, by the unpredictability of shipping over the years. Vessels sometimes do not arrive for months at social work essay a time, resulting in need a annotated bibliography empty stores and varying degrees of hardship. At other times several ships may arrive within days of each other. Despite numerous efforts on the part of well-placed officials, shipping to Rotuma has remained erratic since the initial arrival of Europen vessels. It has been the source of essay illegal much black humor on the island. For example, when I heard on Fiji Radio that a boat was scheduled to sail for Rotuma in bibliography a week and mentioned it to child labour be banned in india essay, my Rotuman friend, he laughed and told me always to multiply the time interval by two or three. On several occasions Rotumans have attempted to gain control of shipping by purchasing and operating their own vessel.
As early as 1901 they had a schooner built to ship copra and take passengers between Rotuma and Sydney via Suva. The fifty-ton vessel cost over 2,000 pounds and operated for eighteen months before sinking on a reef at need a annotated bibliography Rotuma (Eason 1951:89-90). Most recently, in 1992, a Rotuman group purchased an interisland vessel, the Wairua , at a cost of Fiji $250,000. It went aground on a reef at Kadavu in August 1993 and was judged unsalvageable. The evidence reviewed in this essay raises questions about Rotuma's maritime tradition at the time of European contact.
Although there is no doubt that Rotumans occasionally voyaged to child labour be banned essay, islands in their general vicinity, and need to buy, perhaps beyond, their canoes were described by cited, European observers as of poor quality, and their navigational knowledge was characterized as limited. Taken at face value, these observations suggest Rotuma lacked the highly developed maritime traditions that characterized some of its mid-Pacific neighbors. If so, this may have resulted from risks being greater than potential benefits, given Rotuma's isolation and productivity. Rotuma is an exceptionally fertile island, not often subjected to the devastating droughts and bibliography, hurricanes that forced periodic migrations in other parts of the Pacific. There may have been little motivation to powerpoint presentation writing to instruct, develop long-distance sailing skills. A second possibility is a annotated that Rotumans may have possessed a sophisticated sailing culture that deteriorated prior to European contact. Child Labour! The only hope of need to buy a annotated verifying such a prior tradition would be through archaeological investigations yet to and mr, be done. A third possibility is that Rotuman seafaring skills were in fact highly developed, but that opportunities to sail aboard European vessels led to need a annotated, an extraordinarily rapid erosion of traditional maritime technology and knowledge. Perhaps, it might be argued, the child labour be banned most skillful sailors took advantage of the opportunities European ships offered, and they distinguished themselves because they already had the personal characteristics that made them good sailors, regardless of the craft involved. That sailing, and canoes in particular, have remained central symbols in Rotuman culture lends weight to such an bibliography argument. Be Banned Essay! Regardless of which scenario one favors, it seems clear that the character traits developed on this remote island were consistent with those required for seafaring, especially where responsibility to need a annotated, one's shipmates was central.
The contributions of sailors to Rotuman society have been substantial. Until outmigration resulted in overseas enclaves, following World War II, they were the main source of acculturative influences. Admission Essay! Today travelers characteristically send remittances to their families and, when returning, bring expensive goods such as radios, refrigerators and motorbikes. For these reasons, among others, sailing continues to be a high status occupation for Rotumans.  For detailed information concerning the geology of Rotuma, see Woodhall 1987. [back to text]  W.E. Russell, who served as resident commissioner on need to buy, Rotuma in social work essay the 1920s, published an account taken from the notes of F. Gibson, a part-Rotuman man, that reported canoe voyages allegedly made by Rotumans to need bibliography, Tikopia, Malekula, Santo, Nanumea (Ellice Islands), Tonga, and Fiji (Russell 1942:253). A man by the name of Pani and two other unnamed men from hyde essay, Malhaha and Losa, respectively, were said by Gibson's informants to be the last canoe voyagers to go abroad and return.
I regard this report with considerable skepticism, however, since it was given over need to buy a annotated bibliography one hundred years from the example persuasive argumentative essay time interisland canoe voyages had ceased. [back to text]  Allen served as a Methodist missionary on need a annotated, Rotuma for several years during the 1880s. [back to text]  Hocart, during his visit to essay with works, Rotuma in 1913, elicited the to buy a annotated bibliography names of several constellations, some of which were associated with sailing directions, but it is unclear whether this information represented indigenous knowledge (Hocart 1913:4944-4946) MacGregor's notes also contain a number of entries concerning astronomy, but only one entry refers to and mr essay, the navigational use of stars. He records the name Takirua as two stars between which the need a annotated bibliography course is persuasive essay works cited laid from need, Wallis to Rotuma (Macgregor 1932). [back to text]  The spelling of Rotuman words was standardized following Churchward's publication of his Rotuman Grammar and Dictionary in 1940. I use Churchward's orthography in my own writing and following other authors' usage I include Churchward's spelling in brackets if it is dr jekyll and mr different. For an explanation of the orthography see Churchward 1940a:13. [back to a annotated, text]  MacGregor also records in labour should in india essay his notes from this consultant, a man named Niua: These canoes carried from to buy bibliography, 60-100 people and social work, traveled to Fiji, Futuna and Sufaia? [sic] in the Ellice. Ngofe was a famous captain of the last Oinafa ahoi [ 'ahai ]. Planks still in Oinafa (Macgregor 1932). Again, given the time lapse from the period in which such voyages might have been made, one must be cautious interpreting this report as factual knowledge. [back to text]  Ororo refers to a contrivance made of large number of half coconut-shells threaded on a wooden hoop, and drawn up and need to buy a annotated bibliography, down in the water, thereby making a noise which attracts sharks to the proximity of the social work baited hooks that are out for them (Churchward 1940:275). Need Bibliography! It is also used in reference to fishing for sharks with the of a persuasive argumentative help of ororo . [back to text]  MacGregor's consultant mentioned this to him when asked why there were only to buy a annotated bibliography, two strips on one border of his canoe. The man said that the wood was not long enough to reach from bow piece to stern piece. [back to text]  Identification of penau , togoi , 'ura and ratu'a trees are from Whistler (1989). He did not identify sa'a , which Churchward describes as a tree growing to large size, with very large leaves and long straight branches. The bark, at first, is greyish-green and very smooth. Bears bunches of small whitish flowers.
Timber, white, much used in house-building and canoe-making (Churchward 1940a:307). [back to text]  Hocart, in a brief article published in 1914, reported that as the result of a curse, turtle nets were no longer being made in at least in dr jekyll hyde one district (Hocart 1914). [back to text]  According to Churchward the phrase jao 'atua 'beating ghosts' is need a annotated bibliography sometimes used (1940a:231). [back to text]  I am indebted to John Bennett for pointing this out to illegal immigration, me. To Buy A Annotated! [back to text]  Another consultant told MacGregor that the last seu involved twenty-one taf'aga canoes. Be Banned Essay! [back to text]  Two years earlier, Arthur Gordon inquired into labor recruiting on Rotuma and obtained figures for five districts (Itu'ti'u, Itu'muta, Juju, Pepjei and Malhaha). Need Bibliography! They showed 177 men known to be away, approximately one-third of them married (Outward Letters,dispatch from A. Presentation To Instruct! Gordon to bibliography, Colonial Secretary, 4 December 1879, ). [back to text] A significant portion of the men who were away had been recruited as laborers to work in example the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, and had difficulty returning. In a series of to buy a annotated dispatches during 1883, William Gordon, the resident commissioner, requested assistance in having the 50-60 men in the Hawaiian Islands, and an unspecified number from persuasive essay illegal immigration, Samoa, repatriated. He commented that the men in Samoa had been paid in goods instead of money and were thus unable to to buy a annotated bibliography, pay for passage home.  Gardiner also commented on the disgrace endured by Rotuman men who had not been to with works, foreign lands (Gardiner 1898:407). He speculated (p. A Annotated Bibliography! 497) that, although it was not uncommon for dr jekyll hyde essay, a hundred or more young men to leave the need bibliography island in a year, not more than one-third ever returned. [back to and mr, text]  The population may have been protected as a result of the prevalence of to buy bibliography virulent yaws, which has a complementary distribution with syphilis (see Howard 1979). [back to text]  The practice of informing chiefs when departing the persuasive essay island is still carried out to some extent, although it has noticeably declined over the past fifteen years. Chiefs enforce the regulation to need to buy, varying degrees. Protocol calls for an individual to inform his village chief ( fa 'es ho'aga ), who in turn informs the hyde essay district chief, who then informs the district officer (J.
Bennett, personal communication). This regulation, however, conflicts with the right to freedom of need to buy a annotated bibliography movement within Fiji guaranteed by works cited, the initial and post-coup constitutions. A recent case, in which the district officer attempted to confine a woman to the island on the grounds that her children might not be properly cared for, highlighted this contradiction and resulted in a threatened lawsuit. [back to text]  The survey was conducted by school teachers hired as research assistants, supervised by need to buy bibliography, myself and my wife, Jan Rensel, who was pursuing doctoral research on the island at the time. The survey included all of Oinafa, Malhaha, Itu'muta and Itu'ti'u districts, and persuasive with, most of Juju and Noa'tau. Pepjei was omitted as a result of interviewer difficulties. [back to text]  In late 1990 a recruitment program was launched in Fiji for up to sixty Rotumans to become the core crew for a newly commissioned cable ship having English officers (J. Bennett, personal communication). [back to text]  These are the need a annotated bibliography same reasons given by supervisors at the Vatukoula gold mines for favoring Rotuman workers (see Howard 1966:266). [back to text]  The Fisheries Division report concludes that the sea around Rotuma offers considerable opportunity for commerically viable fishing enterprises, but they identify three major problems: (1) the lack of suitable vessels to child, exploit the productive areas; (2) inadequate facilities for fishing vessels, including lack of an all-weather anchorage; absence of maintenance facilities; occasional fuel shortages; and the lack of ice, gear, storage, and marketing facilities for fisherman; and (3) the isolation of the island (Fisheries Division n.d.:18-20). [back to text]  Household size averaged 5.8 persons in 1989. For a discussion of household types on Rotuma, and how they have changed over the past three decades, see Howard 1991. [back to text]  The reef is named after its discoverer, Captain Read, aboard the hydrographic vessel M.V. Tangaroa, which carried out need bibliography, a survey for phosphate deposits in presentation to instruct the region in need a annotated bibliography 1976. [back to text]  According to information provided by Vilsoni Hereniko, obtained from his sister Vamarasi, his brother Mua, and Isireli Motofaga, a boat owner in Lautoka, at least five Rotumans in Fiji own fishing vessels and essay notes, are engaged in commercial fishing.
Their boats were purchased with the to buy a annotated help of bank loans. Two of the boat owners captain their own vessels and sail with a hired crew ranging from two to four, depending on availability. The other owners remain on persuasive argumentative, land while a hired crew goes out to sea. One of the boats is quite large, and the crew sometimes remains at sea for up to a month. The other boats are smaller and need a annotated bibliography, usually stay out for about two weeks at a time, depending on weather. The large boat's catch can bring in between F$3,000-5,000 per trip, while the smaller ones usually bring in catches worth between F$2,000-3,000 per social work essay, trip.
The larger vessel may wait several weeks before expeditions, while the smaller ones go out more frequently, sometimes waiting only a few days before going out to sea again. [back to need to buy a annotated bibliography, text]  According to Hereniko's brother, Mua, the absence of reefs beyond the fringing reef around Rotuma limits access to such commercially profitable fish as tuna or walu, which eat smaller fish that feed off reefs. Mua believes this at child should least partly accounts for the absence of commercial fishing on a annotated, Rotuma. Fiji, in contrast, has extensive offshore reefs, offering better opportunities for commercial fishing. [back to text]  This practice is occasionally followed today but is persuasive argumentative essay not now regarded as essential to the ceremony. [back to text]  These symbolic associations are my inferences and were not explicitly provided by informants. They are based primarily on my analyses of symbolism contained in Rotuman myths (Howard 1985, 1986). Need To Buy Bibliography! [back to text]  The sayings included here have been obtained from an unpublished collection by Elisapeti Inia. Additional information was obtained from Aubrey Parke's published collection of persuasive essay immigration Rotuman Idioms (Parke 1971). [back to text]  The young man was flying mercy missions for a company located in need to buy a annotated bibliography Spokane, Washington. [back to essay, text] 1885-6 Rotooma and need to buy bibliography, the Rotoomans. Proceedings . 1st sets:130-44. 1895 Rotuma. Report of Australasian Association for Advancement of Science, pp. 556-79. 1938 Isle of Rotuma: curious place in Central Polynesian history.
Pacific Islands Monthly . December 15, 1938. Sydney, Australia. 1831 A recent visit to several of the Polynesian Islands. Example Of A! United Service Journal 33:198-202, 473-482. Cheever, George N. 1834-1835 Log of the ship Emerald . Pacific Manuscript Bureau, frame 31. Churchward, C. Maxwell. 1939 Tales of a Lonely Island.
Sydney: Australian Medical Publishing Co., Ltd. 1940 Rotuman Grammar and Dictionary. Sydney: Australasian Medical Publishing Co. 1829 Narrative . Need To Buy! . . of a Voyage in the South Seas. London: Hurst Chance. Eagleston, John Henry. 1832 Log of the illegal immigration ship Emerald, Vol. 3. Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass. Eason, William J. E. 1951 A Short History of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji: Government Printing Department.
1961 History and Traditions of Tikopia. A Annotated Bibliography! Wellington: The Polynesian Society. 1947 Rotuman crews on overseas vessels. Archive F22/44. Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. n.d. The Fishery Resources of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji.
1870 The Wesleyan Missionary Notices. No. 13 Vol. III. And Mr Hyde! Sidney: Australian Wesleyan Methodist Conference. 1875 Two Years in Fiji. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1898 Natives of Rotuma. Need To Buy A Annotated! Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 27:396-435, 457-524. 1913 Field Notes on Rotuma. Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde Notes! Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
1914 The disappearance of a useful art in bibliography Rotuma. Man 14:162-163. 1936 The Canoes of Polynesia, Fiji and Micronesia. Honolulu: Special Publication of the B.P. Bishop Museum, No. 27. 1970 Learning to Be Rotuman. New York: Columbia Teachers College Press. 1985 History, myth and Polynesian chieftainship: the case of Rotuman Kings. In Transformations of Polynesian Culture, edited by A. Hooper and J. Powerpoint Presentation Writing To Instruct! Huntsman, pp.39-77, Auckland: Polynesian Society.
1991 Reflections on change in Rotuma, 1959-1989. In Rotuma: Hanua Pumue: Precious Land. Need! edited by Anselmo Fatiaki et. al, pp. 227-54. Social Essay! Suva, Fiji: Institute for Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1838 Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas, in need to buy a annotated bibliography the Japan, Employed in the Sperm Whale Fishery, under the Command of Capt. John May. London: Longman and Co. and Charles Tilt. 1977 Rotuman chants, sports and pastimes.
In Rotuma: Split Island, edited by persuasive immigration, Chris Plant,pp. 143-52. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1838-9 Voyage Autour du Monde . . . sur . . .'La Coquille'. Paris: Pourrat Fréres. 1851 Rovings in the Pacific, 1837-49 . Need To Buy! . And Mr Hyde Notes! . by to buy, a Merchant Long Resident in Tahiti.
London: Longman, Brown, Green, and admission, Longman. 1932 Rotuma Field Notes. Bishop Museum Archives. Honolulu, Hawaii. SC McGregor. 1980 Canoes of Rotuma. To Buy Bibliography! Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 15:51-55. 1986 The Rotuman mamasa ceremony.
In Pacific Rituals: Living or Dying, edited by Gweneth Deverell and Bruce Deverell, pp. 3-22. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1977 The mamasa ceremony. In Rotuma: Split Island, edited by Chris Plant, pp. 79-87. Persuasive! Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. Osborn, Joseph W.
1834-1835 Log of the ship Emerald. Pacific Manuscript Bureau, Reel 223, frame 359. n.d. Need To Buy! Rotuma District Office. Suva: Fiji Central Archives. 1971 Rotuman Idioms. Auckland: Te Reo Monographs, Linguistic Society of New Zealand.
1994 For Love or Money: Interhousehold Exchange and the Economy of powerpoint to instruct Rotuma. PhD Dissertation, Anthropology Department, University of Hawai'i. 1939 Legislative Council Papers . Suva, Fiji: Government Press. 1942 Rotuma. Journal of the Polynesian Society 51:229-255. 1915 Voyage of to buy bibliography H.M.S. 'Pandora'.
London: Francis Edwards. 1989 Ethnobotany of Rotuma. Social Work Essay! Manuscript. 1799 A Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean. London: Chapman. 1875 A Yachting Cruise in the South Seas. London: Henry King.
1987 Geology of Rotuma. Need To Buy A Annotated! Suva, Fiji: Mineral Resources Department, Ministry of Lands, Energy Mineral Resources.
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