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bbc cbbc homework Ricky investigates homework. Homework - love it or hate it, it's part of comparison everyone's life when they are at school. But what's the point of 3rd grade report guidelines homework? After a hard day at comparison essay, school is it the report, best use of your time? Some people think it would be better for kids to chill out after school. They say spending time doing fun stuff like playing sport or reading would help them concentrate in sport, class. Ricky has been investigating for Newsround - but now we want to book anthem essays, know what you think about homework! This comments page is sport essay now closed.
Please check the main Chat page to book anthem essays, see the latest topic we're talking about. Loranice, 11, London, England. Homework helps children improve their education. Sarah, 8, London, England. Comparison Essay! Stewart, 11, Wrexham, Wales. Essays! Homework should be creative. Rhys, 10, Wrexham, Wales. I think homework is good because we can be creative with our work, we can research things with the computer, TV and sport essay books.
We do enough work at school so we don't need it at home too. Homework stops us from socialising and getting used to the real world. I believe that it is essays wrestling a waste of sport comparison essay time and takes up a big chunk of our lives! Trisha, 12, Manchester, England. Sometimes I like homework but eventually it gets harder and harder and that's when I start to dislike it. Grace, 10, Newcastle, England. Some of the tasks for homework are fun but at home you are supposed to relax. Anthem! Sometimes it's hard to fit it in with after school club and stuff. I say NO HOMEWORK!
Anna, 9, Stirling and Falkirk, Scotland. I don't like homework. I have had six pieces of homework to do in comparison, one weekend. Smuggling Essay! I think a small amount of homework would be okay - since it's not as if it's going to become any easier when you're an adult in sport essay, later life, I guess it does prepare you for 3rd grade report guidelines the outside world. But quite a lot can become extremely stressful and time consuming, especially things like essays. I think they are unnecessary. Zara, 13, Essex, England. I think that homework should just be gone! Even if you have a headache you still have to do it, not really fair!
Sophie, 9, Co. Meath, Ireland. I think homework is a good thing because later on in life I want to become a vet. Plus I'm doing my transfer exam soon so it helps! Daire, 10, N. Ireland. I think there should be classwork and no homework, because students are too tired when they get back home after school. George, 14, Crete, Greece. Elizabeth and Skye, 6, Derbyshire, England. Homework? What a waste of comparison time! It's boring and stressful!
May, 10, Liverpool, England. I don't like homework either but my mum makes me do it. Drug Smuggling Essay! I have an elder brother and essay sister who now have good places at college and my mum says it is equation homework help because they were made to sport, do their homework! Ben, 8, Lincolnshire, England. We kind of essays wrestling understand why we have it, we just think it's a bit excessive. It was better at sport comparison, primary school when we only got a little. Also, instead of book anthem doing it at sport comparison essay, home, we'd rather have an unaided study period for an hour at the end of the day, when we could do homework. Emily and essay Caty, 12, Essex, England. I find homework easy but sometimes I get too much. Sport Comparison! Zaib, 11, Scotland. Homework sucks!
It puts pressure on you and gives the teachers a reason to 3rd grade, put you in detention! You spend the whole day working hard just so that you can come home and do some more! It is not fair. Comparison Essay! Beth, 13, Tyne and about wrestling Wear, England. I think we already do work in school so why should we have to sport comparison essay, do it out of school too?! Lucas, 10, Leicester, England. Homework is smuggling essay so boring! But it does help us. Sport Essay! Sami, 11, London, England. Homework is language essays a waste of time because it's stuff you already do in school anyway! Marcus, 13, Birmingham, England.
Homework causes loads of stress, me and my mum get in loads of arguments over it. I think it should be banned completely. When I get home after doing about six hours of work at school, the essay, last thing I want to do is more work! Anna, 13, Surrey, England. I think it's a bad idea because I work hard at school and I am tired afterwards. Henry, 9, Milton Keynes, England.
The point is, it helps you with learning. It's not a waste of time. Samuel, 8, Rochester, England. I don't really mind homework, in fact I quite like it, but I don't love it. Today we got homework for essay help every lesson and sport all of it looks really boring. I think that homework can be fun, but not if the subject is hard or boring. Essays Wrestling! I would much rather be reading or doing art!! I think it helps with the lessons though. Emily, 13, Cumbria, England.
I would love homework to be banned because it's really boring and all you want to do is play on the Xbox when you get home not do homework, it's a waste of time! Lucy, 10, Belfast, N. Ireland. The point of homework is to get you to remember the things that you do in your normal lessons. I agree with teachers that we should be given homework, but a fair amount. Too much homework will interrupt our social lives and sport reading, writing, watching TV and much more. Aaliyah, 10, Rochdale, England. Smuggling! I think homework educates us when it is hard, but we always get stuff that we have already learned in sport comparison essay, the lesson. I think the about, only homework we should get is the work LEFT OVER from our lessons.
Matthew, 11, Chester, England. Homework destroys trees! Play more video games! Charlie, 11, Preston, England. I think that homework is a good idea as it is comparison revision which is needed in exams, it also is report something to do when we are bored. Sport! But too much can be a pain. Semra, 12, London, England. Homework should be banned. I quit school two years ago and now I go to a special school twice a week for six hours and about I still get homework, it's pointless! I don't learn anything new or anything.
We shouldn't get homework unless we ask for sport essay it. Drug Smuggling Essay! Daisy, 14, Reading, England. Homework is a waste of comparison essay time because most kids want to get away from work and drug essay relax for the rest of the day, not carry on working during the hours we have left after school. Sport! Hannah, 13, Exeter, England. Sorry teachers but it's a waste of time! School = work. Home = fun. It's quite simple!
I get stressed because of 3rd grade book homework and sport comparison essay all worked up and worried about homework help whether it's good enough and when it's due. Sport Comparison Essay! Chloe, 12, Glasgow, Scotland. Homework projects in half term are Ok but I don't like after school homework because I don't get time to do my other things! Ciya, 9, London, England. I think schools should just do one project each term for homework because they are usually fun, you can do a little bit at a time and you can still do your hobbies. James, 13, Cheshire, England.
I think homework is Ok if we only have a small amount each week, but if we got loads of homework, then I wouldn't like it. Essays! Lorenzo, 10, Edinburgh, Scotland. Be nice teachers, let the comparison, kids read and cut down on homework! James, 8, Poole, England. We are ALWAYS having to write essays for equation homework homework. I don't mind homework that much, it's just that we get soooo much. Ella, 12, Bristol, England. I think that homework is useless, if they give us homework then it means they don't teach us enough in class! Melissa, 12, Essex, England.
I think homework is a waste of time. When we have exams we still get homework, so how can we revise?! Daniel, 14, London, England. I hate homework! I have to comparison, do it on my own because my mum and family are exhausted. Phoebe, 8, Rotherham, England. Homework is boring, but when you're in Year Six (like me) homework is important if you want a good level in the SATs. Shania, 10, Derbyshire, England. I think that homework is a complete waste of time because we do enough work at school and I don't have any time to ap english essays, myself at home. James, 12, Surrey, England. Sport Comparison Essay! I think we should not have homework, because we go to language 2014, school to sport comparison, learn and at home it is a chance to essay, relax after hard work.
Robyn, 11, Stockton-on-tees, England. I hate homework, it's a waste of comparison time! Sometimes I want to rip it up into 3rd grade book guidelines tiny pieces! Solina, 9, London, England. I think homework is sport comparison brilliant because your parents get a chance to book essays, see how well their child has progressed. It's not a waste of time, but an amount of time that's important. Sport Essay! Plus, you don't just learn in school, you learn outside school as well! Lilly, 11, London, England. I think we should not have to do homework because we have just been working in essay help, school so why should we have to do more work? If we used the time with our friends we could be getting our social skills up. Reading can help in comparison, English and even watching TV - we could be watching Newsround which could help in ap english, PSHE.
WE SHOULD NOT HAVE TO DO HOMEWORK! Sophie, 13, Hertfordshire, England. It is very good because you get a better education. Comparison Essay! David, 11, London, England. I think homework is a bad idea because it makes children tired after school. Nathan, 12, London, England. Homework is Ok, but some teachers set way too much! Rhiannon, 13, Wiltshire, England.
I think homework is good, but only in 3rd grade report guidelines, small amounts. I think it helps children learn and work independently but sometimes it can be stressful and takes up too much of sport comparison children's free time and ap english language essays 2014 their childhood. Shanti, 13, Leeds, England. I think we should get homework because it helps us learn. It can also be quite fun! Lil, 10, Liverpool, England. I hate homework! You want to get home and comparison watch TV but your parents nag you to do your homework! I don't really mind if I get homework but sometimes it is help too much for essay me to handle. I would rather spend time reading or watching TV than sitting at help, the table doing my homework.
Maryam, 12, London, England. Essay! I think that it's a good idea - it's revising what you've learnt and it helps! But getting too much is anthem essays unfair, we need balance in our lives after all. Gemma, 11, London, England. Sport! Homework is stupid! When I get home I want to watch telly but I have to drug essay, do homework. Sport Comparison! Govinda, 10, Co. Wexford, Ireland. I think homework is good because it exercises your brain when you're not at school and helps you get better at anthem, things every day. Paige, 11, Huddersfield, England.
Homework is so useless, I hate it! I am at secondary school and I get lots of homework, I have to do two sets of English homework this week and I really don't want to! Chloe, 11, Herefordshire, England. In my opinion homework sucks! I don't blame young people like me for not doing their homework, simply because it's never ever fun to do! Rhonda, 14, Renfrewshire, Scotland. Homework is good for you because it will help you be a better person in comparison, life. Muzafar, 9, London, England.
I live in equation homework, Switzerland and on sport, Wednesday we haven't got any school in the afternoon so I get a lot of time to do my homework but that's why we get quite a lot! Maria, 11, Aargau, Switzerland. Homework is a waste of drug essay time! Ryan, 12, Cambridgeshire, England. Homework is just plain BORING!! There's nothing fun about it!! Alex, 10, Manila, Philippines. Sport Essay! I don't think that homework is essays wrestling a waste of time but sometimes I have a lot and can get stressed!
Shancie, 12, Liverpool, England. Homework is pointless, all you're doing is repeating what you have already done in essay, the lesson! Also, why not cut the anthem, talking out and do more work in the lesson so you are not sat there for ages listening to sport, your teacher babble on. Aimee, 12, Buckinghamshire, England. I think homework is rubbish, why should we be under pressure to ap english language essays, get extra work in school on essay, time? Also if you don't have time then you'll get told off. Drug Smuggling Essay! WE SHOULD BAN HOMEWORK! Beth, 10, Gloucestershire, England. Answer this question; would you rather have a longer school day and no homework OR a shorter school day and sport comparison homework?!
Elsemieke, 13, Singapore. My favourite homework is maths because it is easy and fun! Oscar, 11, Somerset, England. I personally like homework, it keeps me occupied at the end of the day and prepares me for lessons the next day. Josie, 10, Copenhagen, Denmark. Essay Help! Honestly I think it depends what homework it is. I like doing my reading journal as there are lots of essay different activities and I like reading, but I don't like maths homework!
Alexa, 10, Manila, Philippines. Our teacher says we should get homework because otherwise we would be sitting in book report guidelines, school for an extra two hours! So we would start school at 8:50 and finish at comparison essay, 5:15! Tahlia, 9, London, England. I think it is a waste of time because we have a lot of other things to do such as reading a book or playing sports. It gets children stressed, including me! Sometimes when I am really stressed and ap english angry I shout at my parents and tear my homework sheet.
If I don't do my six pages of homework I have to miss my break time in school and sport do it then. Essay Help! This causes me to do my work slower than usual. Also we are children, we should spend this part of our lives playing outside and having fun! When we grow older and essay think about the good things that happened in our childhood, there won't be any! You know why? Because we've spent most of our time doing homework!!
Justin, 11, Bolton, England. I think homework is not a waste of time. Differential Help! It tests your knowledge of what you have learnt in class. Essay! Do you really want to book anthem essays, get a question in sport comparison, your test on book, a subject that you have not revised for? Anyway, it is not like we really have a choice. Sarah, 13, Birmingham, England. Homework is not good, I never have any time to do it. Kelly, 13, Manchester, England. I cannot stand homework! After school I want to be out with my friends and developing my own skills and hobbies, not sat at a table doing work which I have just been over in class. I find it extremely stressful and I'd love to see it scrapped!
Emily, 13, Devon, England. I think that it depends because if you haven't covered enough of the curriculum - then it needs to be finished, but it is harder to concentrate if your friends are waiting for you! Eilis, 10, Dublin, Ireland. I don't think it's a waste of sport comparison essay time, it can help you reach the potential you didn't reach in the lesson. Amy, 13, Worcestershire, England. Most children hate homework so why do we still have it?! Anna, 10, York, England. Well, homework in moderation is about Ok but I think it can be a bit too much sometimes, and kids need time to chill and relax. I get tons of homework since I'm in some top set classes and I really do feel overtired sometimes.
So, give us homework if you must, but not too much! Soph, 13, Dorset, England. Sport Essay! I believe that homework is wrestling not a waste of time as it lets us practice the abilities we have learnt in comparison, school. Although it may be tiresome and boring it will help us in the future and the present. Help! It is good for revision and comparison essay it also challenges pupils. Plus, it gives us students a chance to get ahead and/or catch up. Ellie, 12, Essex, England. About Wrestling! Homework is such a waste of time but we can't get out of sport comparison essay doing it so buckle up and do it!
That said, I should be working now! Emma, 10, Hampshire, England. When you get homework every day for nearly all subjects you get sick of it! Especially after spending so many hours at school. Sophia, 14, London, England. It's a waste of time! You don't learn anything from homework! You learn all the stuff in essays about, school! Jack, 11, London, England.
It is a bit of a waste of time because when you get home you want to essay, go outside and have fun, not be stuck writing most of the essays, day. Megan, 10, Belfast, N. Sport Essay! Ireland. ''Homework is waste of time, I do not even do my homework. I think there are better things to essay about help, do! Firdaus, 13, London, England. We are ALWAYS having to write essays for homework. I don't mind homework that much. it's just that we get soooo much! Ella, 12, Bristol, England. I think homework is great because your parents can see what you're doing at school. Molly, 9, Glasgow, Scotland. Homework is a waste of time when you want to do other stuff like watch TV and go on sport, the Internet. Yana, 9, London, England.
No, it's not a waste of time. My teacher proved that the more homework you get, the better your test/exam/quiz marks will be. Monika, 13, Kent, England. I agree, there is drug no point in homework! It's just waste of sport time!
Ramshah, 11, London, England. I think homework is a bad thing because it can get you stressed and you do not get as much family time. We are at school a lot of the time anyway so they should BAN it! Megan, 10, Huddersfield, England. I think everyone has got homework wrong! It helps you learn, and smuggling essay if you don't do something in class you can do it at essay, home instead, so you know everything when it comes to a test. But I also think that homework can be bad and can stress children if they're pressured to do too much. Amber, 12, Warwickshire, England.
I think homework is a waste of time because I could be doing something sporty or doing a hobby. Reuben, 10, Wales. Ap English Language Essays 2014! Homework can be really annoying until you find a way to save time for other things. Get a routine and sport comparison make it happen! Laura, 12, Oxford, England. Essay! Lucas, 9, Swindon, England. I think homework is hard because we do enough stuff at school let alone at home.
I struggle with my maths especially using a protractor and angle indicator. All very hard stuff especially because I'm in the top group in sport comparison essay, Yr 6. Becky, 10, London, England. I think homework is sometimes rushed if you have a busy day or a lot to do and you don't really take any of it in. So I don't really see the point in doing it! Morven, 12 Glasgow, Scotland.
To be honest, I think that homework is just a waste of book essays time and it doesn't help me at sport, all! I would rather go on wrestling, the internet or out riding, not stressing over getting a detention for not doing my homework! Jaz, 12, Gloucestershire, England. I don't think we should be given homework. If we have school during the sport comparison, day, then why do we have to waste our time at home when we could be doing something good? Sam, 11, London, England. Homework is boring! I'd rather play with my friends and watch telly than do homework! Zofia, 9, Wycombe, England. I think it's a good idea to have homework!
We get smarter and essays wrestling smarter all the comparison, time when we go to school, but if we do more homework at home, we know we are going to have a very very bright future! Zoya, 11, Somerset, England. Homework is bad and boring and SUCH a waste of time! Lola and Aoife, 11 and 10, Dublin, Ireland. I think homework is a waste of essay about help time because we do lots of work at school! Jonesh, 14, Birmingham, England.
Work is for when you are at school. Homework is Ok for essay a test or something, but not holidays or weekends. Melody, 11, Devon, England. I think homework is language 2014 a waste of your time, as you've just had six hours at school studying and need free time. Sport Essay! But on the other hand, it's great if you don't understand what you are learning about at school. It gives you extra time to essays, increase your understanding of things. Hannah, 10, Surrey, England. I don't think there's any point in sport comparison, homework because you learn it at school and the next day and so on.
Also, there are a lot more things you can do, such as playing sport and things like that, which can help to homework help, build your self confidence! Alfred, 9, Berkshire, England. People at sport comparison, my school hate homework! Some even asked the school council to equation homework help, get rid of it. Chandan, 10, Midlands, England.
I hate homework, it should be banned! Jordan, 11, London, England. I don't think that homework is a waste of sport comparison time as you'll be able to revise what you have done that day at school! Emma, 11, Edinburgh, Scotland. It's a waste of essay pupils' time and comparison essay it's really unfair when we get more work to do after doing loads of work at school. Olivia, 14, London, England. I hate homework because I sometimes end up going to about, bed at 10, because my teacher expects it in the next day and then I'm really tired in essay, class.
Mina, 12, Oxford, England. I personally think that homework should be banned! I recently joined a grammar school and they pile on the homework! It's not fair as I spend all my time working, and have no time for myself! Luke, 12, Kent, England. It's a waste of homework help time, because school is the sport, place where you learn new stuff and not when you're at home. That's meant to be your free time! And I have school every day and have four pieces of homework every day! Samantha, 11, Buckinghamshire, England. Teachers say homework is to 3rd grade book report guidelines, 'help' us improve - WRONG!
I think it's a waste of time, space and money! Emily, 10, London, England. I don't think we should do homework! We spend the comparison, whole day in school working and about we should get time to do other stuff like play sport. So I say NO homework please! Ikra, 12, Glasgow, Scotland. I think that homework is good, but sometimes teachers give a lot and it sometimes gets HARD! Emily, 10, London, England. Sport! It depends, if you're a brain box, you wouldn't necessarily need homework. However, some people struggle with certain subjects and even though it's a waste of ap english 2014 time, they find homework useful and it helps them improve in the certain subject. Amy, 11, Glasgow, Scotland.
After school, when you're tired out and want to relax, you have to work MORE work and comparison can't do fun things. I DO NOT GET THE POINT OF IT! Emma, 11, Sheffield, England. I think homework is pointless, because after a day at anthem essays, school it's just more work when you could be watching CBBC! Ruby, 11, Stockport, England. I think homework is a real pain sometimes, although when it comes to comparison essay, writing stories, it's usually quite fun.
I also think each class could have a different after schools club on their subject instead of anthem homework. I think that could be fun! Caitlin, 11, N. Ireland. We do enough work in school and we should have some relaxation time when we get home, which doesn't involve doing work! Imogen, 11, Essex, England.
I think schools should just do one project each term as homework. The reason why I think this is because they are usually fun, you can do a little bit at a time and you can still do your hobbies! James, 13, Cheshire, England. I get lots and lots of homework, which means that I have hardly any time to sport essay, do the things I like to do, such as after school sport and watching TV. It's really not fair as every child must give up about six hours every working day to 3rd grade guidelines, school and just adding extra time for doing homework and also travelling to and from school means you get nearly no time to do anything. Emma, 12, Kent, England. Comparison Essay! I'm in high school and we get loads if homework and some of it is very hard. 3rd Grade Report! The difference between doing the work in school and doing work at home is that in comparison, school you can ask a teacher, but at report guidelines, home most parents might not know all about what modern kids learn about. School is for learning and home is a place to be with your family and sport comparison relax! Rebecca, 13, Manchester, England. Homework is a waste of time!
We should do work at SCHOOL, not at home where you are supposed to relax! Greg, 11, Edinburgh, Scotland. I don't believe that homework should be the best way to further your intelligence. Book Essays! At my age, I have GCSEs coming up and with studying for sport essay those tests as well as the essays, two and sport comparison a half hours I'm supposed to be working on homework, I just don't believe that I am doing anything other than school work. As a child you should be out drug smuggling essay enjoying yourself and sport having fun with your friends, not cooped up in a house for hours on essay about, end. Sport Comparison Essay! Karen, 14, Belfast, N. Ireland. I think that homework is a good idea, especially homework from secondary school, as it helps you get organised and meet deadlines and also gives you the skills you need for future jobs! Emily, 13, Cambridgeshire, England.
I think homework is a waste of ap english essays time, because when you get into high school the homework gets harder and harder and you get more and more stressed. I could be doing other things instead of wasting time on sport essay, my homework! William, 11, Yorkshire, England. I think homework is a waste of time because your home time is for relaxing! The only homework you should get is revision to drug essay, get good results. Sport! Xander, 11, Kent, England. I think there's no point of having homework because after a day at school the help, last thing you want to be doing is more work!
However, it will help you be more independent. Sara, 11, London, England. Sport! I think it's a waste of time because we have to go to school and work hard all day, just to get more work! When do we get to be kids? Patti, 12, Kent, England. I don't think homework is a very good idea because the homework we get is the same as we get in school, and after school we are supposed to rest.
What is the point in doing school work during our time? Not only is it unfair for children, but adults get stressed too. And we get into trouble if we don't bring it in. It's not fair! Nikhil, 11, London, England. Homework is a waste of time because most kids want to get away from the work and relax for the rest of the day, not carry on book guidelines, working during the sport comparison essay, hours we have left after school. Hannah, 13, Exeter, England. I think that we shouldn't have to language essays, do homework in sport comparison essay, the holidays because we have better things to do and anthem it's our break! But I don't mind doing a tiny bit on school days!
Grace, 10, London, England. I think homework is a waste of time and it should be scraped. Ben, 11, Leicestershire, England. Sport Comparison! Homework is a waste of homework help time! When it's nice and sunny you want to comparison, get out, but you can't because your mum nags at you for not doing your homework.
Yasmin, 11, Edinburgh, Scotland. Homework is a waste of time and I would much rather be playing outside! Kate, 12, Stockport, England. Yes it wastes my time, I hate it! I could be watching CBBC instead of doing mathematics! Robin, 6, London, England.
Homework is ok, it depends on what homework you are getting. Ruhama, 11, Bristol, England. I like homework because we can learn from drug smuggling, home. Leona, 9, West Lothian, Scotland. I think it is NOT a waste of time because many school teachers say that if you don't finish the work at school then take it home as homework, which means it challenges the pupils to comparison essay, do the differential equation homework help, best they can. Rachel, 14, Kent, England. Homework is sport comparison essay boring. If you've worked a hard day at school why should you do that again at home?! Keval, 11, London, England. I don't think homework is a waste of time as you're still learning and it keeps your mind focused and ready for another lesson- it helps your brain to smuggling, remember how to do it and what you did. I do hate homework but I don't think it is a waste of time.
Destiny, 13, Oxfordshire, England. I hate homework on Mondays! You come home from a sad (or terrible!) day at school and what do you get? A million bits of homework! I say ban homework! Yasmine, 11, Co. Meath, Ireland. I agree that homework can be a waste of time and you could better spend your time outside doing sport and chilling out, but when you have big exams it does help you learn stuff. You can't revise in school. Tess, 13, Cheshire, England. My teacher said she didn't think we should get homework but it's the law.
I think homework is sometimes boring. We should get it every 2 weeks, not every day or every week, so that we can go out to play or chill out. Sian, 10, Moray, Scotland. Sport Essay! I get too much homework, it is really annoying. Everyone says it will get you ready for year 7. Maisie, 11, Kent, England. I don't have much homework but I HATE IT!! It's a time-waster!! Rachel, 10, Glasgow, Scotland.
For homework we do exactly what we just did in equation help, school which is completely useless! Chris, 12, Stoke-On-Trent, England. We shouldn't have homework because while we are children we should play and sport have a good time. And you have to work all night. BAN HOMEWORK!! Hope, 11, Leicester, England. My name is Jacob and anthem I really like homework that includes writing, especially when it's about elephants! Jacob, 5, Essex, England. I hate homework so I always leave it to the last minute, but sometimes it is a bit interesting. Hannah, 10, Birmingham, England.
I hate home work, I get 14 pieces a week! I'm always doing homework the whole way through the weekends. Matthew, 11, England. I hate homework! I get so much depending on sport essay, what lessons I have on that say. Wrestling! But I understand the meaning of working at sport comparison, home- it's trying to 3rd grade report guidelines, check if u understand. Leah, 12, Sussex, England. I think homework is a load of rubbish!
Work is meant for school not for home. At my school you get detention for not doing your homework! It isn't fair to be honest. Maddie, 13, Derbyshire, England. I think homework should stop after you reach 13 (year 8). Comparison! Daniel, 13, Nottingham, England. Well, I personally think that homework is A-OK!
It helps kids explore deeper into the subject, in order to expand their knowledge. Drug Essay! Even when kids are 'chillin' they need to think of the benefits/advantages of homework! I might sound like a geek but this is my personal opinion.
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Sports-Cultural Comparison Essay - 2554 Words
How Did Economists Get It So Wrong? I. MISTAKING BEAUTY FOR TRUTH. It’s hard to believe now, but not long ago economists were congratulating themselves over the success of their field. Those successes — or so they believed — were both theoretical and practical, leading to a golden era for the profession. On the theoretical side, they thought that they had resolved their internal disputes. Thus, in a 2008 paper titled “The State of Macro” (that is, macroeconomics, the essay, study of big-picture issues like recessions), Olivier Blanchard of M.I.T., now the chief economist at the International Monetary Fund, declared that “the state of essay about macro is sport comparison, good.” The battles of smuggling yesteryear, he said, were over, and there had been a “broad convergence of vision.” And in the real world, economists believed they had things under control: the comparison, “central problem of depression-prevention has been solved,” declared Robert Lucas of the University of essay Chicago in his 2003 presidential address to the American Economic Association. In 2004, Ben Bernanke, a former Princeton professor who is sport comparison, now the chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, celebrated the Great Moderation in economic performance over the previous two decades, which he attributed in part to improved economic policy making. Last year, everything came apart.
Few economists saw our current crisis coming, but this predictive failure was the language 2014, least of the comparison essay, field’s problems. About? More important was the profession’s blindness to the very possibility of catastrophic failures in a market economy. During the golden years, financial economists came to sport comparison essay, believe that markets were inherently stable — indeed, that stocks and other assets were always priced just right. There was nothing in the prevailing models suggesting the possibility of the kind of ap english language essays collapse that happened last year. Meanwhile, macroeconomists were divided in their views.
But the comparison, main division was between those who insisted that free-market economies never go astray and those who believed that economies may stray now and then but that any major deviations from the essay help, path of prosperity could and would be corrected by sport essay the all-powerful Fed. Neither side was prepared to anthem essays, cope with an economy that went off the rails despite the sport comparison essay, Fed’s best efforts. And in the wake of the crisis, the fault lines in the economics profession have yawned wider than ever. Homework Help? Lucas says the Obama administration’s stimulus plans are “schlock economics,” and his Chicago colleague John Cochrane says they’re based on sport comparison discredited “fairy tales.” In response, Brad DeLong of the University of book anthem essays California, Berkeley, writes of the “intellectual collapse” of the sport essay, Chicago School, and I myself have written that comments from Chicago economists are the product of a Dark Age of macroeconomics in which hard-won knowledge has been forgotten. What happened to the economics profession? And where does it go from here? As I see it, the economics profession went astray because economists, as a group, mistook beauty, clad in impressive-looking mathematics, for truth. Until the essays, Great Depression, most economists clung to a vision of capitalism as a perfect or nearly perfect system. That vision wasn’t sustainable in the face of mass unemployment, but as memories of the Depression faded, economists fell back in sport love with the old, idealized vision of an economy in which rational individuals interact in perfect markets, this time gussied up with fancy equations.
The renewed romance with the idealized market was, to be sure, partly a response to shifting political winds, partly a response to drug smuggling, financial incentives. But while sabbaticals at the Hoover Institution and job opportunities on Wall Street are nothing to sneeze at, the central cause of the sport comparison, profession’s failure was the desire for essay help, an all-encompassing, intellectually elegant approach that also gave economists a chance to show off their mathematical prowess. Unfortunately, this romanticized and sanitized vision of the economy led most economists to ignore all the things that can go wrong. They turned a blind eye to the limitations of human rationality that often lead to bubbles and busts; to the problems of institutions that run amok; to the imperfections of markets — especially financial markets — that can cause the sport comparison essay, economy’s operating system to undergo sudden, unpredictable crashes; and to the dangers created when regulators don’t believe in book essays regulation. It’s much harder to essay, say where the economics profession goes from here. But what’s almost certain is help, that economists will have to learn to essay, live with messiness. That is, they will have to acknowledge the about wrestling, importance of irrational and often unpredictable behavior, face up to the often idiosyncratic imperfections of markets and accept that an elegant economic “theory of everything” is a long way off. Comparison Essay? In practical terms, this will translate into ap english language essays, more cautious policy advice — and a reduced willingness to dismantle economic safeguards in the faith that markets will solve all problems. II. FROM SMITH TO KEYNES AND BACK. The birth of economics as a discipline is usually credited to Adam Smith, who published “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776.
Over the next 160 years an extensive body of economic theory was developed, whose central message was: Trust the market. Yes, economists admitted that there were cases in sport comparison which markets might fail, of which the most important was the essay help, case of “externalities” — costs that people impose on others without paying the sport comparison, price, like traffic congestion or pollution. But the basic presumption of “neoclassical” economics (named after the late-19th-century theorists who elaborated on the concepts of their “classical” predecessors) was that we should have faith in the market system. This faith was, however, shattered by help the Great Depression. Actually, even in the face of total collapse some economists insisted that whatever happens in a market economy must be right: “Depressions are not simply evils,” declared Joseph Schumpeter in essay 1934 — 1934! They are, he added, “forms of something which has to be done.” But many, and wrestling, eventually most, economists turned to the insights of John Maynard Keynes for both an explanation of what had happened and a solution to future depressions. Keynes did not, despite what you may have heard, want the government to run the sport essay, economy. He described his analysis in his 1936 masterwork, “The General Theory of language essays Employment, Interest and Money,” as “moderately conservative in its implications.” He wanted to fix capitalism, not replace it.
But he did challenge the notion that free-market economies can function without a minder, expressing particular contempt for financial markets, which he viewed as being dominated by short-term speculation with little regard for sport essay, fundamentals. And he called for wrestling, active government intervention — printing more money and, if necessary, spending heavily on public works — to fight unemployment during slumps. It’s important to understand that Keynes did much more than make bold assertions. “The General Theory” is a work of profound, deep analysis — analysis that persuaded the best young economists of the day. Yet the story of economics over the past half century is, to a large degree, the sport, story of a retreat from Keynesianism and 3rd grade guidelines, a return to neoclassicism. The neoclassical revival was initially led by comparison essay Milton Friedman of the University of Chicago, who asserted as early as 1953 that neoclassical economics works well enough as a description of the way the language 2014, economy actually functions to be “both extremely fruitful and deserving of much confidence.” But what about depressions? Friedman’s counterattack against Keynes began with the doctrine known as monetarism. Monetarists didn’t disagree in principle with the idea that a market economy needs deliberate stabilization. “We are all Keynesians now,” Friedman once said, although he later claimed he was quoted out of comparison context.
Monetarists asserted, however, that a very limited, circumscribed form of government intervention — namely, instructing central banks to essays, keep the nation’s money supply, the sum of cash in circulation and bank deposits, growing on a steady path — is all that’s required to prevent depressions. Famously, Friedman and his collaborator, Anna Schwartz, argued that if the Federal Reserve had done its job properly, the Great Depression would not have happened. Later, Friedman made a compelling case against sport comparison, any deliberate effort by government to push unemployment below its “natural” level (currently thought to be about 4.8 percent in the United States): excessively expansionary policies, he predicted, would lead to a combination of inflation and high unemployment — a prediction that was borne out by the stagflation of the 1970s, which greatly advanced the credibility of the essays, anti-Keynesian movement. Eventually, however, the sport comparison essay, anti-Keynesian counterrevolution went far beyond Friedman’s position, which came to essay, seem relatively moderate compared with what his successors were saying. Among financial economists, Keynes’s disparaging vision of financial markets as a “casino” was replaced by “efficient market” theory, which asserted that financial markets always get asset prices right given the available information. Meanwhile, many macroeconomists completely rejected Keynes’s framework for understanding economic slumps. Some returned to the view of Schumpeter and other apologists for comparison, the Great Depression, viewing recessions as a good thing, part of the ap english essays, economy’s adjustment to change. And even those not willing to go that far argued that any attempt to sport essay, fight an economic slump would do more harm than good. Not all macroeconomists were willing to go down this road: many became self-described New Keynesians, who continued to believe in an active role for the government.
Yet even they mostly accepted the 3rd grade book, notion that investors and comparison essay, consumers are rational and that markets generally get it right. Of course, there were exceptions to these trends: a few economists challenged the book, assumption of rational behavior, questioned the belief that financial markets can be trusted and pointed to the long history of financial crises that had devastating economic consequences. Comparison? But they were swimming against the tide, unable to make much headway against a pervasive and, in retrospect, foolish complacency. In the 1930s, financial markets, for obvious reasons, didn’t get much respect. Keynes compared them to “those newspaper competitions in which the competitors have to pick out the six prettiest faces from a hundred photographs, the prize being awarded to the competitor whose choice most nearly corresponds to the average preferences of the competitors as a whole; so that each competitor has to pick, not those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of the other competitors.”
And Keynes considered it a very bad idea to let such markets, in which speculators spent their time chasing one another’s tails, dictate important business decisions: “When the capital development of a country becomes a by-product of the activities of equation help a casino, the job is likely to be ill-done.” By 1970 or so, however, the study of financial markets seemed to have been taken over by sport comparison essay Voltaire’s Dr. Pangloss, who insisted that we live in the best of drug smuggling essay all possible worlds. Discussion of investor irrationality, of bubbles, of destructive speculation had virtually disappeared from academic discourse. The field was dominated by the “efficient-market hypothesis,” promulgated by Eugene Fama of the University of Chicago, which claims that financial markets price assets precisely at their intrinsic worth given all publicly available information. (The price of a company’s stock, for sport comparison, example, always accurately reflects the company’s value given the information available on the company’s earnings, its business prospects and so on.) And by the 1980s, finance economists, notably Michael Jensen of the Harvard Business School, were arguing that because financial markets always get prices right, the best thing corporate chieftains can do, not just for themselves but for the sake of the economy, is to maximize their stock prices. In other words, finance economists believed that we should put the capital development of the nation in the hands of what Keynes had called a “casino.” It’s hard to argue that this transformation in the profession was driven by events. True, the memory of 1929 was gradually receding, but there continued to be bull markets, with widespread tales of speculative excess, followed by bear markets. In 1973-4, for example, stocks lost 48 percent of their value.
And the 1987 stock crash, in which the Dow plunged nearly 23 percent in a day for no clear reason, should have raised at least a few doubts about market rationality. These events, however, which Keynes would have considered evidence of the unreliability of markets, did little to blunt the force of a beautiful idea. The theoretical model that finance economists developed by assuming that every investor rationally balances risk against reward — the essays, so-called Capital Asset Pricing Model, or CAPM (pronounced cap-em) — is wonderfully elegant. And if you accept its premises it’s also extremely useful. CAPM not only tells you how to choose your portfolio — even more important from the financial industry’s point of view, it tells you how to comparison essay, put a price on financial derivatives, claims on claims. The elegance and apparent usefulness of the new theory led to a string of Nobel prizes for its creators, and drug smuggling essay, many of the sport essay, theory’s adepts also received more mundane rewards: Armed with their new models and formidable math skills — the 2014, more arcane uses of CAPM require physicist-level computations — mild-mannered business-school professors could and sport, did become Wall Street rocket scientists, earning Wall Street paychecks.
To be fair, finance theorists didn’t accept the efficient-market hypothesis merely because it was elegant, convenient and lucrative. They also produced a great deal of statistical evidence, which at first seemed strongly supportive. But this evidence was of an oddly limited form. Finance economists rarely asked the seemingly obvious (though not easily answered) question of whether asset prices made sense given real-world fundamentals like earnings. Instead, they asked only whether asset prices made sense given other asset prices. Larry Summers, now the book anthem, top economic adviser in the Obama administration, once mocked finance professors with a parable about “ketchup economists” who “have shown that two-quart bottles of ketchup invariably sell for exactly twice as much as one-quart bottles of ketchup,” and sport comparison, conclude from this that the ketchup market is perfectly efficient. But neither this mockery nor more polite critiques from about, economists like Robert Shiller of Yale had much effect.
Finance theorists continued to believe that their models were essentially right, and so did many people making real-world decisions. Not least among these was Alan Greenspan, who was then the Fed chairman and a long-time supporter of financial deregulation whose rejection of calls to rein in subprime lending or address the ever-inflating housing bubble rested in comparison large part on the belief that modern financial economics had everything under control. There was a telling moment in 2005, at equation help a conference held to honor Greenspan’s tenure at the Fed. One brave attendee, Raghuram Rajan (of the University of Chicago, surprisingly), presented a paper warning that the financial system was taking on potentially dangerous levels of sport comparison essay risk. He was mocked by almost all present — including, by anthem the way, Larry Summers, who dismissed his warnings as “misguided.” By October of last year, however, Greenspan was admitting that he was in a state of “shocked disbelief,” because “the whole intellectual edifice” had “collapsed.” Since this collapse of the sport comparison essay, intellectual edifice was also a collapse of real-world markets, the essay, result was a severe recession — the sport comparison, worst, by book anthem many measures, since the Great Depression. What should policy makers do?
Unfortunately, macroeconomics, which should have been providing clear guidance about comparison, how to address the anthem essays, slumping economy, was in its own state of essay disarray. “We have involved ourselves in a colossal muddle, having blundered in the control of a delicate machine, the working of which we do not understand. The result is that our possibilities of wealth may run to book, waste for essay, a time — perhaps for smuggling essay, a long time.” So wrote John Maynard Keynes in an essay titled “The Great Slump of comparison 1930,” in essay which he tried to sport, explain the catastrophe then overtaking the world. And the world’s possibilities of wealth did indeed run to waste for a long time; it took World War II to bring the Great Depression to a definitive end. Why was Keynes’s diagnosis of the Great Depression as a “colossal muddle” so compelling at first?
And why did economics, circa 1975, divide into opposing camps over the value of differential equation homework help Keynes’s views? I like to explain the essence of Keynesian economics with a true story that also serves as a parable, a small-scale version of the messes that can afflict entire economies. Consider the travails of the sport, Capitol Hill Baby-Sitting Co-op. This co-op, whose problems were recounted in a 1977 article in The Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, was an association of about 150 young couples who agreed to ap english language 2014, help one another by baby-sitting for one another’s children when parents wanted a night out. To ensure that every couple did its fair share of baby-sitting, the essay, co-op introduced a form of scrip: coupons made out of heavy pieces of paper, each entitling the bearer to one half-hour of sitting time. Initially, members received 20 coupons on joining and essay about help, were required to return the same amount on departing the group. Unfortunately, it turned out that the co-op’s members, on sport average, wanted to hold a reserve of more than 20 coupons, perhaps, in case they should want to go out several times in a row. As a result, relatively few people wanted to spend their scrip and go out, while many wanted to baby-sit so they could add to their hoard. But since baby-sitting opportunities arise only when someone goes out for the night, this meant that baby-sitting jobs were hard to find, which made members of the co-op even more reluctant to go out, making baby-sitting jobs even scarcer. . . . In short, the co-op fell into a recession.
O.K., what do you think of this story? Don’t dismiss it as silly and trivial: economists have used small-scale examples to shed light on big questions ever since Adam Smith saw the smuggling, roots of economic progress in a pin factory, and sport comparison, they’re right to about help, do so. The question is whether this particular example, in which a recession is a problem of inadequate demand — there isn’t enough demand for baby-sitting to provide jobs for everyone who wants one — gets at the essence of what happens in a recession. Forty years ago most economists would have agreed with this interpretation. But since then macroeconomics has divided into two great factions: “saltwater” economists (mainly in coastal U.S. Sport Comparison? universities), who have a more or less Keynesian vision of what recessions are all about; and “freshwater” economists (mainly at inland schools), who consider that vision nonsense.
Freshwater economists are, essentially, neoclassical purists. They believe that all worthwhile economic analysis starts from the anthem, premise that people are rational and markets work, a premise violated by the story of the baby-sitting co-op. As they see it, a general lack of sufficient demand isn’t possible, because prices always move to sport comparison, match supply with demand. If people want more baby-sitting coupons, the value of those coupons will rise, so that they’re worth, say, 40 minutes of baby-sitting rather than half an hour — or, equivalently, the cost of an hours’ baby-sitting would fall from about, 2 coupons to 1.5. And that would solve the comparison, problem: the purchasing power of the coupons in circulation would have risen, so that people would feel no need to hoard more, and there would be no recession. But don’t recessions look like periods in which there just isn’t enough demand to employ everyone willing to work? Appearances can be deceiving, say the freshwater theorists. Sound economics, in their view, says that overall failures of demand can’t happen — and that means that they don’t.
Keynesian economics has been “proved false,” Cochrane, of the University of Chicago, says. Yet recessions do happen. Why? In the book essays, 1970s the leading freshwater macroeconomist, the comparison essay, Nobel laureate Robert Lucas, argued that recessions were caused by temporary confusion: workers and companies had trouble distinguishing overall changes in the level of prices because of book anthem inflation or deflation from changes in sport comparison their own particular business situation. And Lucas warned that any attempt to fight the business cycle would be counterproductive: activist policies, he argued, would just add to the confusion. By the 1980s, however, even this severely limited acceptance of the idea that recessions are bad things had been rejected by essay help many freshwater economists. Instead, the new leaders of the movement, especially Edward Prescott, who was then at the University of sport essay Minnesota (you can see where the ap english, freshwater moniker comes from), argued that price fluctuations and comparison essay, changes in demand actually had nothing to do with the business cycle. Rather, the business cycle reflects fluctuations in the rate of about help technological progress, which are amplified by the rational response of sport comparison essay workers, who voluntarily work more when the environment is favorable and less when it’s unfavorable.
Unemployment is a deliberate decision by workers to take time off. Put baldly like that, this theory sounds foolish — was the essay about help, Great Depression really the Great Vacation? And to be honest, I think it really is silly. Sport Comparison Essay? But the basic premise of Prescott’s “real business cycle” theory was embedded in ingeniously constructed mathematical models, which were mapped onto real data using sophisticated statistical techniques, and the theory came to dominate the teaching of macroeconomics in many university departments. In 2004, reflecting the theory’s influence, Prescott shared a Nobel with Finn Kydland of Carnegie Mellon University.
Meanwhile, saltwater economists balked. Where the essays, freshwater economists were purists, saltwater economists were pragmatists. Comparison Essay? While economists like N. Gregory Mankiw at Harvard, Olivier Blanchard at M.I.T. and David Romer at the University of California, Berkeley, acknowledged that it was hard to reconcile a Keynesian demand-side view of recessions with neoclassical theory, they found the evidence that recessions are, in ap english language essays 2014 fact, demand-driven too compelling to reject. So they were willing to deviate from the assumption of comparison essay perfect markets or perfect rationality, or both, adding enough imperfections to accommodate a more or less Keynesian view of recessions. Essay? And in the saltwater view, active policy to fight recessions remained desirable. But the self-described New Keynesian economists weren’t immune to the charms of rational individuals and perfect markets. Sport Essay? They tried to keep their deviations from report, neoclassical orthodoxy as limited as possible. This meant that there was no room in the prevailing models for such things as bubbles and comparison essay, banking-system collapse. The fact that such things continued to happen in the real world — there was a terrible financial and macroeconomic crisis in much of Asia in 1997-8 and a depression-level slump in Argentina in 2002 — wasn’t reflected in the mainstream of New Keynesian thinking.
Even so, you might have thought that the report, differing worldviews of comparison freshwater and saltwater economists would have put them constantly at loggerheads over economic policy. Somewhat surprisingly, however, between around 1985 and essays about wrestling, 2007 the disputes between freshwater and saltwater economists were mainly about theory, not action. The reason, I believe, is that New Keynesians, unlike the original Keynesians, didn’t think fiscal policy — changes in government spending or taxes — was needed to fight recessions. Sport Essay? They believed that monetary policy, administered by the technocrats at essay the Fed, could provide whatever remedies the comparison, economy needed. At a 90th birthday celebration for Milton Friedman, Ben Bernanke, formerly a more or less New Keynesian professor at Princeton, and by then a member of the essay, Fed’s governing board, declared of the Great Depression: “You’re right. We did it. We’re very sorry. Sport Comparison? But thanks to you, it won’t happen again.” The clear message was that all you need to avoid depressions is a smarter Fed. And as long as macroeconomic policy was left in the hands of the maestro Greenspan, without Keynesian-type stimulus programs, freshwater economists found little to complain about. (They didn’t believe that monetary policy did any good, but they didn’t believe it did any harm, either.)
An error has occurred. Homework Help? Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. It would take a crisis to reveal both how little common ground there was and how Panglossian even New Keynesian economics had become. In recent, rueful economics discussions, an all-purpose punch line has become “nobody could have predicted. Comparison Essay? . . .” It’s what you say with regard to disasters that could have been predicted, should have been predicted and actually were predicted by a few economists who were scoffed at for their pains. Take, for example, the precipitous rise and fall of housing prices.
Some economists, notably Robert Shiller, did identify the bubble and report guidelines, warn of painful consequences if it were to burst. Yet key policy makers failed to see the obvious. In 2004, Alan Greenspan dismissed talk of sport comparison essay a housing bubble: “a national severe price distortion,” he declared, was “most unlikely.” Home-price increases, Ben Bernanke said in 2005, “largely reflect strong economic fundamentals.” How did they miss the differential equation homework help, bubble? To be fair, interest rates were unusually low, possibly explaining part of the price rise. Comparison? It may be that Greenspan and Bernanke also wanted to celebrate the essays wrestling, Fed’s success in pulling the economy out of the 2001 recession; conceding that much of that success rested on the creation of a monstrous bubble would have placed a damper on the festivities. But there was something else going on: a general belief that bubbles just don’t happen. Comparison Essay? What’s striking, when you reread Greenspan’s assurances, is that they weren’t based on evidence — they were based on the a priori assertion that there simply can’t be a bubble in report guidelines housing. Comparison Essay? And the finance theorists were even more adamant on this point.
In a 2007 interview, Eugene Fama, the about, father of the efficient-market hypothesis, declared that “the word ‘bubble’ drives me nuts,” and went on to explain why we can trust the sport comparison essay, housing market: “Housing markets are less liquid, but people are very careful when they buy houses. It’s typically the biggest investment they’re going to make, so they look around very carefully and they compare prices. Essays? The bidding process is very detailed.” Indeed, home buyers generally do carefully compare prices — that is, they compare the price of their potential purchase with the comparison essay, prices of other houses. But this says nothing about whether the overall price of houses is justified. About? It’s ketchup economics, again: because a two-quart bottle of ketchup costs twice as much as a one-quart bottle, finance theorists declare that the price of ketchup must be right. In short, the belief in efficient financial markets blinded many if not most economists to the emergence of the essay, biggest financial bubble in history. And efficient-market theory also played a significant role in inflating that bubble in the first place. Now that the undiagnosed bubble has burst, the true riskiness of supposedly safe assets has been revealed and the financial system has demonstrated its fragility.
U.S. Essay About? households have seen $13 trillion in sport comparison wealth evaporate. Ap English 2014? More than six million jobs have been lost, and comparison essay, the unemployment rate appears headed for its highest level since 1940. So what guidance does modern economics have to offer in our current predicament? And should we trust it? Between 1985 and 2007 a false peace settled over the field of 3rd grade book report guidelines macroeconomics.
There hadn’t been any real convergence of comparison essay views between the saltwater and freshwater factions. But these were the ap english essays 2014, years of the Great Moderation — an essay extended period during which inflation was subdued and essay about, recessions were relatively mild. Saltwater economists believed that the Federal Reserve had everything under control. Freshwater economists didn’t think the sport essay, Fed’s actions were actually beneficial, but they were willing to let matters lie. But the crisis ended the phony peace. Anthem Essays? Suddenly the narrow, technocratic policies both sides were willing to sport comparison essay, accept were no longer sufficient — and the need for a broader policy response brought the old conflicts out into the open, fiercer than ever. Why weren’t those narrow, technocratic policies sufficient? The answer, in a word, is zero. During a normal recession, the Fed responds by buying Treasury bills — short-term government debt — from banks. This drives interest rates on book anthem government debt down; investors seeking a higher rate of return move into comparison, other assets, driving other interest rates down as well; and normally these lower interest rates eventually lead to an economic bounceback.
The Fed dealt with the language, recession that began in 1990 by driving short-term interest rates from 9 percent down to 3 percent. It dealt with the sport essay, recession that began in 2001 by driving rates from 6.5 percent to 1 percent. And it tried to equation, deal with the current recession by driving rates down from sport, 5.25 percent to zero. But zero, it turned out, isn’t low enough to end this recession. And the essays, Fed can’t push rates below zero, since at near-zero rates investors simply hoard cash rather than lending it out. So by late 2008, with interest rates basically at comparison essay what macroeconomists call the “zero lower bound” even as the recession continued to deepen, conventional monetary policy had lost all traction. Now what? This is the equation homework help, second time America has been up against the zero lower bound, the previous occasion being the Great Depression. And it was precisely the observation that there’s a lower bound to sport comparison essay, interest rates that led Keynes to advocate higher government spending: when monetary policy is ineffective and the private sector can’t be persuaded to spend more, the public sector must take its place in essay about supporting the economy. Fiscal stimulus is the Keynesian answer to the kind of sport essay depression-type economic situation we’re currently in. Such Keynesian thinking underlies the Obama administration’s economic policies — and the freshwater economists are furious.
For 25 or so years they tolerated the differential homework help, Fed’s efforts to manage the economy, but a full-blown Keynesian resurgence was something entirely different. Back in 1980, Lucas, of the University of Chicago, wrote that Keynesian economics was so ludicrous that “at research seminars, people don’t take Keynesian theorizing seriously anymore; the essay, audience starts to whisper and giggle to one another.” Admitting that Keynes was largely right, after all, would be too humiliating a comedown. And so Chicago’s Cochrane, outraged at the idea that government spending could mitigate the latest recession, declared: “It’s not part of language what anybody has taught graduate students since the 1960s. They [Keynesian ideas] are fairy tales that have been proved false. It is very comforting in times of comparison stress to go back to the fairy tales we heard as children, but it doesn’t make them less false.” (It’s a mark of how deep the division between saltwater and freshwater runs that Cochrane doesn’t believe that “anybody” teaches ideas that are, in fact, taught in places like Princeton, M.I.T. and Harvard.) Meanwhile, saltwater economists, who had comforted themselves with the report guidelines, belief that the great divide in comparison macroeconomics was narrowing, were shocked to realize that freshwater economists hadn’t been listening at all. Freshwater economists who inveighed against the stimulus didn’t sound like scholars who had weighed Keynesian arguments and found them wanting. Rather, they sounded like people who had no idea what Keynesian economics was about, who were resurrecting pre-1930 fallacies in the belief that they were saying something new and profound.
And it wasn’t just Keynes whose ideas seemed to have been forgotten. As Brad DeLong of the University of California, Berkeley, has pointed out in his laments about the essays about, Chicago school’s “intellectual collapse,” the school’s current stance amounts to a wholesale rejection of Milton Friedman’s ideas, as well. Friedman believed that Fed policy rather than changes in government spending should be used to stabilize the economy, but he never asserted that an comparison increase in government spending cannot, under any circumstances, increase employment. In fact, rereading Friedman’s 1970 summary of book anthem his ideas, “A Theoretical Framework for Monetary Analysis,” what’s striking is how Keynesian it seems. And Friedman certainly never bought into essay, the idea that mass unemployment represents a voluntary reduction in work effort or the idea that recessions are actually good for the economy. 3rd Grade Book? Yet the current generation of freshwater economists has been making both arguments. Thus Chicago’s Casey Mulligan suggests that unemployment is so high because many workers are choosing not to take jobs: “Employees face financial incentives that encourage them not to work . . Essay? . decreased employment is explained more by reductions in the supply of labor (the willingness of people to work) and less by book report guidelines the demand for labor (the number of workers that employers need to hire).” Mulligan has suggested, in sport particular, that workers are choosing to remain unemployed because that improves their odds of receiving mortgage relief. And Cochrane declares that high unemployment is actually good: “We should have a recession. People who spend their lives pounding nails in Nevada need something else to do.”
Personally, I think this is crazy. About Wrestling? Why should it take mass unemployment across the whole nation to get carpenters to move out of Nevada? Can anyone seriously claim that we’ve lost 6.7 million jobs because fewer Americans want to comparison, work? But it was inevitable that freshwater economists would find themselves trapped in this cul-de-sac: if you start from the assumption that people are perfectly rational and markets are perfectly efficient, you have to conclude that unemployment is voluntary and recessions are desirable. Yet if the book essays, crisis has pushed freshwater economists into absurdity, it has also created a lot of soul-searching among saltwater economists. Their framework, unlike that of the Chicago School, both allows for sport comparison essay, the possibility of involuntary unemployment and considers it a bad thing. But the New Keynesian models that have come to about help, dominate teaching and research assume that people are perfectly rational and financial markets are perfectly efficient. To get anything like the current slump into their models, New Keynesians are forced to introduce some kind of fudge factor that for reasons unspecified temporarily depresses private spending. (I’ve done exactly that in some of my own work.) And if the analysis of where we are now rests on comparison essay this fudge factor, how much confidence can we have in the models’ predictions about where we are going? The state of macro, in language essays short, is not good. So where does the comparison essay, profession go from here? Economics, as a field, got in trouble because economists were seduced by the vision of a perfect, frictionless market system.
If the profession is to redeem itself, it will have to reconcile itself to essay, a less alluring vision — that of a market economy that has many virtues but that is also shot through with flaws and frictions. The good news is that we don’t have to essay, start from scratch. Even during the essays, heyday of perfect-market economics, there was a lot of work done on the ways in which the real economy deviated from the theoretical ideal. What’s probably going to sport comparison, happen now — in fact, it’s already happening — is that flaws-and-frictions economics will move from the periphery of economic analysis to its center. There’s already a fairly well developed example of the kind of economics I have in mind: the school of thought known as behavioral finance. Practitioners of this approach emphasize two things. First, many real-world investors bear little resemblance to the cool calculators of efficient-market theory: they’re all too subject to herd behavior, to bouts of irrational exuberance and unwarranted panic. Book Anthem Essays? Second, even those who try to base their decisions on cool calculation often find that they can’t, that problems of trust, credibility and limited collateral force them to run with the herd. On the sport comparison essay, first point: even during the heyday of the efficient-market hypothesis, it seemed obvious that many real-world investors aren’t as rational as the prevailing models assumed. Book Essays? Larry Summers once began a paper on finance by declaring: “THERE ARE IDIOTS.
Look around.” But what kind of idiots (the preferred term in the academic literature, actually, is “noise traders”) are we talking about? Behavioral finance, drawing on the broader movement known as behavioral economics, tries to comparison, answer that question by relating the apparent irrationality of investors to known biases in human cognition, like the tendency to drug essay, care more about small losses than small gains or the tendency to extrapolate too readily from sport comparison essay, small samples (e.g., assuming that because home prices rose in the past few years, they’ll keep on rising). Until the crisis, efficient-market advocates like Eugene Fama dismissed the evidence produced on behalf of behavioral finance as a collection of “curiosity items” of essays wrestling no real importance. That’s a much harder position to maintain now that the comparison essay, collapse of a vast bubble — a bubble correctly diagnosed by behavioral economists like Robert Shiller of Yale, who related it to 3rd grade book report guidelines, past episodes of sport comparison “irrational exuberance” — has brought the about help, world economy to its knees. On the second point: suppose that there are, indeed, idiots. How much do they matter? Not much, argued Milton Friedman in an influential 1953 paper: smart investors will make money by buying when the comparison essay, idiots sell and selling when they buy and will stabilize markets in the process. But the second strand of behavioral finance says that Friedman was wrong, that financial markets are sometimes highly unstable, and right now that view seems hard to essays, reject. Probably the most influential paper in sport this vein was a 1997 publication by Andrei Shleifer of Harvard and essay about, Robert Vishny of sport Chicago, which amounted to guidelines, a formalization of the old line that “the market can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent.” As they pointed out, arbitrageurs — the people who are supposed to buy low and sell high — need capital to do their jobs. And a severe plunge in asset prices, even if it makes no sense in terms of fundamentals, tends to sport comparison essay, deplete that capital.
As a result, the smart money is forced out of the market, and prices may go into a downward spiral. The spread of the current financial crisis seemed almost like an object lesson in the perils of financial instability. And the general ideas underlying models of financial instability have proved highly relevant to economic policy: a focus on the depleted capital of financial institutions helped guide policy actions taken after the homework help, fall of Lehman, and it looks (cross your fingers) as if these actions successfully headed off an even bigger financial collapse. Meanwhile, what about macroeconomics? Recent events have pretty decisively refuted the idea that recessions are an optimal response to fluctuations in the rate of technological progress; a more or less Keynesian view is the only plausible game in town. Yet standard New Keynesian models left no room for a crisis like the one we’re having, because those models generally accepted the comparison, efficient-market view of the drug essay, financial sector. There were some exceptions. One line of work, pioneered by none other than Ben Bernanke working with Mark Gertler of New York University, emphasized the way the lack of sport comparison sufficient collateral can hinder the smuggling essay, ability of businesses to raise funds and comparison, pursue investment opportunities.
A related line of work, largely established by my Princeton colleague Nobuhiro Kiyotaki and John Moore of the London School of Economics, argued that prices of drug smuggling essay assets such as real estate can suffer self-reinforcing plunges that in turn depress the economy as a whole. But until now the impact of dysfunctional finance hasn’t been at the core even of Keynesian economics. Sport Comparison? Clearly, that has to change. So here’s what I think economists have to do. First, they have to differential equation help, face up to the inconvenient reality that financial markets fall far short of comparison perfection, that they are subject to differential help, extraordinary delusions and the madness of crowds. Second, they have to essay, admit — and this will be very hard for the people who giggled and whispered over 3rd grade guidelines Keynes — that Keynesian economics remains the comparison, best framework we have for making sense of recessions and differential equation help, depressions. Third, they’ll have to sport essay, do their best to ap english essays, incorporate the realities of finance into macroeconomics. Many economists will find these changes deeply disturbing. Sport Comparison? It will be a long time, if ever, before the new, more realistic approaches to finance and 3rd grade report, macroeconomics offer the comparison essay, same kind of clarity, completeness and sheer beauty that characterizes the wrestling, full neoclassical approach.
To some economists that will be a reason to sport essay, cling to neoclassicism, despite its utter failure to make sense of the greatest economic crisis in three generations. This seems, however, like a good time to recall the words of differential equation help H. L. Mencken: “There is comparison essay, always an easy solution to every human problem — neat, plausible and wrong.” When it comes to drug essay, the all-too-human problem of recessions and comparison, depressions, economists need to report, abandon the neat but wrong solution of assuming that everyone is sport, rational and markets work perfectly. The vision that emerges as the differential homework help, profession rethinks its foundations may not be all that clear; it certainly won’t be neat; but we can hope that it will have the virtue of sport comparison being at wrestling least partly right. Because of an editing error, an article on Page 36 this weekend about the failure of economists to anticipate the latest recession misquotes the economist John Maynard Keynes, who compared the financial markets of the 1930s to sport comparison, newspaper beauty contests in which readers tried to about, correctly pick all six eventual winners. Keynes noted that a competitor did not have to pick “those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of the other competitors.” He did not say, “nor even those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of other competitors.”
Paul Krugman is a Times Op-Ed columnist and winner of the 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science. His latest book is essay, “The Return of Depression Economics and essay, the Crisis of comparison 2008.” A version of this article appears in print on , on Page MM36 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: How Did Economists Get it So Wrong?. Equation Homework Help? Today's Paper | Subscribe. We’re interested in your feedback on sport comparison essay this page.
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A Murder Mystery Unfurled in a College Admissions Essay. Comparison Essay. Every so often on The Choice, we traverse into do-not-try-this-at-home territory, and essay about, the story told in a new novel called #8220;The November Criminals#8221; would seem to fit that category. As described in a review in sport comparison The Times Book Review on Sunday, the book, by Sam Munson, is #8220;a murder mystery that takes the form of a rambling college admissions essay.#8221; Here#8217;s how the reviewer, Joseph Salvatore, who teaches writing and ap english essays 2014, literature at sport the New School, synthesizes the plot: Addison Schacht, the conflicted hero of #8216;The November Criminals,#8217; is less interested in book essays committing a crime than solving one. Sport Essay. And though no one in the admissions office at the University of Chicago has asked Addison to discuss the murder of his high school classmate Kevin Broadus, he uses the application’s essay assignment (#8216;What is your best quality? What is book report guidelines, your worst quality?#8217;) as a chance to get some things off his chest. The result is no tidy, eager-to-please essay but a book-length spiel — concerning, among other things, Virgil’s #8216;Aeneid,#8217; Holocaust jokes, dope dealing, friends with benefits, classic cinema, adolescent ennui, Latin grammar and syntax, Jewish numerology, anti-Semitism, struggles with guilt, the hypocrisy of liberal politics, race relations in comparison essay the United States, the philosophical downside of living in about D.C. and, oh yeah, who killed Kevin Broadus.
Mr. Salvatore#8217;s ultimate assessment: The list of topics sometimes makes this novel, Sam Munson’s first, feel a bit shaggy. But, more often, #8216;The November Criminals#8217; is both a thoughtful coming-of-age story and an engaging teenage noir. Think of comparison essay it as an existential murder mystery for the stoner pre-college set — Keanu Reeves’s #8216;River’s Edge,#8217; as written by Camus. If readers of The Choice have given this book an early read #8212; or have other admissions-related fiction to suggest, like last year#8217;s “Admission” by Jean Hanff Korelitz #8212; please use the comment box below to let us know. Drug Essay. Comments are no longer being accepted. Favorite Admissions Book, Non-Fiction: the sport essay peerless (despite being dated) Questions and Admissions: Reflections on 100,000 Decisions at Stanford, by Jean Fetter. Favorite Admissions Book, Fiction: Jane Austen in differential equation homework Scarsdale, by Paula Marantz Cohen.
Can#8217;t wait to read this one. Thanks for the point. Acceptance, by Susan Coll, was excellent fun fiction as well. The Overachievers is another non-fiction winner in my book. read november criminals after suffering through the admissions process and after seeing the sport review in the post. it was surprisingly great. Jacques: I read with interest your article from equation homework, May 16th called #8220;Plan B, Skip College#8221; and wanted to sport comparison essay alert you to the fact that there is differential help, a great alternative to college in comparison essay the Washington Metro Area. The UAM special showcase Open House event is happening tomorrow. Perhaps you can do a feature article on this wonderful contest and the outcome of this national contest. It#8217;s the United Association’s District II Apprenticeship Contest. This year’s contest will be held at the U.A. Mechanical Trade School, located at 8509 Ardwick-Ardmore Road Landover, MD, 20785.
This event is hosted by Plumbers Local No. 5, Steamfitters Local No. 602 and Sprinkler Fitters Local No. 669. This contest is held to determine the best plumber, steamfitter, sprinkler fitter, welder and book, H.V.A.C. tech that will represent District II in the International Apprenticeship Contest of the United States and Canada being held this August. District II is comprised of 8 states, including the District of Columbia as well as Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Indiana. The three day competition will encompass trade-related projects that are part of a skilled journeyperson’s craft. Sport. We are having an open house with a tour of our facility on Wednesday, June 9th from 10:00 a.m. until 2:00 p.m. with lunch provided. This “Pipe Trades Industry Day” will include area high school students, school administrators and civic leaders from the participating jurisdictions. About Help. There will be interactive learning, trainers covering green awareness, fire safety, career opportunities, and comparison essay, a chance to help observe the competition.
A remote radio broadcast, along with Washington, D.C. area sports professionals, will be onsite to sport help encourage young men and women on choosing rewarding career paths. It is very exciting for our area to get the opportunity to host this event that dates back to 1954. We would be thrilled if you would be available in joining us to help us showcase what career opportunities in the piping trades are available in wrestling the D.C. / Metro area. If you should have any questions, please feel free to contact Jim Killeen at (301) 899-7861. The favor of a reply is requested by June 4th, 2010. Does any one find it ironic that the student#8217;s name is comparison, Kevin Broadus? For those of drug smuggling essay you who do not follow college basketball, Kevin Broadus(same spelling) is the NCAA I college basketball coach from Binghamton University currently on suspension for comparison, violating a couple of NCAA rules and has had 6 members that he recruited suspended from the team. Most in the local community despise both the image both he and the adminstration at about help BU have done to the school. Sport Comparison. I wonder if the author is from the area? Looking for more tips on how to write a powerful college admissions essay?
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Sport Systems Comparison Essay
flood geology essay History of the Collapse of Flood Geology and a Young Earth. And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is essay, filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. About. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and comparison, without with pitch. And this is the book anthem essays, fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. Comparison. Picture below right: Illustration of the building of Noah's Ark from The Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514), a native of differential equation homework help, Nuremberg, one of the most sophisticated printed books published before 1500 AD, from the Beloit College library. From the mid-seventeenth (c. 1650 AD) to the mid-eighteenth century (c. 1750 AD), a range of British mathematicians, naturalists, and clerics from the Church of England attempted to sport comparison essay demonstrate that belief in a global biblical deluge was perfectly compatible with extrabiblical knowledge and the latest theoretical developments in mechanistic science. They maintained that the fact that such a deluge had occurred could now be established not only on the basis of book anthem essays, biblical authority but also on mathematical and scientific grounds.
Their various theories reflected different conceptions of natural theology, the roles of science and theology, and the bearing of Scripture on the interpretation of essay, nature. Their diluvial cosmogonies provided a mainstream scientific paradigm that stimulated hard thought, biblical exegesis, widespread geological observation, and some of the earliest geological experiments. But if these seventeenth-century cosmogonies were on the whole plausible given the limitations of the geological science of the day, they were nevertheless seriously flawed in other ways -- perhaps most notably by the fact that their proponents based them on relatively small bodies of 3rd grade report, favorable evidence and tended to ignore damaging evidence. The cosmogonists generally avoided the insurmountable problems of animal distribution and migration, for instance, and resisted determinations that geological strata are not arranged in order of specific gravity. On the sport comparison, other hand, the theorists were for the most part committed to providing honest scientific accounts of physical processes associated with the flood, and they resisted making appeals to miracle in order to resolve difficulties in those accounts. In the ap english essays, end, the old diluvial cosmogonies fell victim to their own success. Sport. The genuine spirit of scientific inquiry that they engendered and stimulated gradually produced a wealth of geological discoveries that undercut the premises of diluvialism. All manner of different field observations indicated that geological strata could not be the remains of layers of soft sediments deposited together at the same time. Furthermore, the smuggling, plethora of exegeses of the deluge account raised doubts in many scholarly minds about whether the Bible was being properly used in trying to settle questions of geological history. By the comparison, middle of the eighteenth century, few competent proponents of diluvialism remained. The basic pattern of the ap english 2014, attempts to accommodate extrabiblical information during this period is by now familiar.
Scholars began with the assumption that the biblical flood narrative describes a literal universal deluge and then sought evidence of that event using the best scientific tools and evidence available to them. As evidence accumulated, however, their theories became increasingly untenable, and sport essay, when that happened, all those who were dedicated to the truth of the matter -- scientists and essays, theologians alike -- abandoned the discredited hypotheses and began to look elsewhere. The Collapse of Diluvial Cosmogonies. The discovery of the New World disclosed dozens of hitherto unknown animals. Despite the serious problems raised for the concept of a global deluge by this new knowledge, Christian intellectuals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries continued to sport essay seek ways to explain the deluge in scientific terms.
Even though some orthodox scholars such as Voss or Stillingfleet proposed a more restricted flood, the differential, church at large felt little need to comparison essay adjust its long-held view of a strictly literal universal flood. Christians rested secure in smuggling, the belief that the sport comparison essay, calculations of language essays, respected scholars established the point that the ark could hold all known animals including those of the sport comparison essay, New World. The problems of essays wrestling, migration from the sport comparison essay, ark were awkward but not insurmountable. There was no evidence to dispute the book anthem essays, existence of former land bridges or to show that animals could not rapidly diversify because of environmental factors. Of course, the proposal of rapid diversification of animals after their emergence from the ark posed significant problems in its own right, since it presumes a rate of change vastly more accelerated than that presumed by any conventional evolutionary theory, and quite unaccountable in terms of any accepted understanding of biology. Moreover, some held out the hope that animals that had been found living only in the Americas might yet be discovered closer to the Middle East in still unexplored areas of essay, Africa or Asia.
All of which is to say that at the end of the seventeenth century, there was still not enough biological evidence to convincingly challenge traditional views of the capacity of the ark. The same was the book anthem essays, case with geological evidence. Numerous writers gave various accounts of the deluge using the latest knowledge of physics, astronomy, rock strata, fossils, and earth structure. Although this evidence was adequate to comparison uncover flaws in the details of various flood theories, it proved insufficient to language 2014 challenge the basic thesis of a global deluge. Global diluvialism represented mainstream scientific thought in the late seventeenth and sport, early eighteenth centuries.
Many outstanding British biblical commentators of the eighteenth century gave little hint of any awareness of the essays about wrestling, difficulties attendant on sport comparison essay, the discovery of the Americas. They showed even less inclination to modify their conception of the flood as derived by biblical exegesis. Even commentators who did note the problems were not of a mind to alter long-held traditional exegeses. The commentaries of the prominent divines Matthew Henry (1662-1714), John Wesley (1703-1791), John Gill (1697-1771) and Thomas Scott (1747-1821) represent a spectrum of British theological thought in the eighteenth century. For example, in his classic Commentary on the Holy Bible (1706), the English Nonconformist minister Matthew Henry stated that the flood came 1,656 years after creation, that Noah did not need to collect the animals since they came of their own accord, and that secondary causes were probably used to supply floodwater.  Likely aware of calculations showing that rainfall alone could not have produced the requisite floodwater and possibly acquainted with the widely held views of the diluvialists, Henry wrote that the flood came from the book anthem, abyss. Sport. During the flood the normal hostility between animals ceased, but afterward they reverted to 3rd grade book true character.
Henry also suggested that the tops of mountains may have been washed down somewhat by the waters and that the heat of the sun helped to dry up the waning waters. On the whole, he paid scant attention to extrabiblical evidence or to the problems that had plagued scholars during the previous century. Henry intended his commentary to be devotional and practical, and he expressly left the critical questions to essay Poole 's Synopsis . The great founder of Methodism, John Wesley , omitted virtually all dialogue with relevant authors and current debates about the nature of the deluge in his exegesis of the text. He simply asserted the essay about help, universality of the flood, the preservation of all species aboard the ark, and the ability of sport comparison, waters of the deep and rains to cover the earth fully. Once the drug essay, flood was over, he said, the heat of the sun exhaled some of the sport, water, and subterranean caverns soaked up the rest.  Several years later in language 2014, his journal for 1770, Wesley expressed great admiration for sport essay, Burnet 's Sacred Theory , commenting that its account of the 3rd grade report, flood was highly probable.  In contrast, John Gill , the comparison essay, Baptist divine who pastored one church in Horsleydown for fifty-two years, displayed considerably more awareness of contemporary discussions. 3rd Grade Report. Gill believed that the flood legends of the Arabs, Chinese, Mexicans, Peruvians, and Brahmins confirmed the universality of the flood. He cited calculations by sport comparison essay Buteo and Wilkins as establishing the book anthem, point that the ark was spacious enough to have held the requisite animals and essay, food. He maintained that plenty of essay help, source water was hiding in subterranean passages beneath such places as the Caspian and Black Seas as well as in the air. He specifically referred to one writer's assertion that thick air is easily turned into sport water and that the atmosphere might well extend as far as the equation, moon.
Gill calculated that if rain fell toward the essay, earth at a rate of 250 miles per day, then in the allotted time of 40 days, all the watery particles, which were 10,000 miles high, might descend upon the earth; and this alone might be more than sufficient to cover the highest mountains. Gill also reckoned that the highest mountains weren't nearly so high as often claimed and that it wouldn't be as difficult to cover them as some people had charged. Wrestling.  Gill responded to concerns about animal migration by appealing to the ability of wild creatures to essay swim across narrow seas and to the notion that humans might have brought them across larger bodies of water in boats. Book Anthem Essays. And if these explanations would not suffice, he offered a backup argument: What is it the power and providence of sport, God cannot do, who could not be at a loss for ways and means to replenish a world in all the parts of it he had made desolate, when it was his pleasure?  The Anglican commentator Thomas Scott affirmed that unnamed learned men had shown that the ark was more than adequate to contain all the animals and their provisions. He further asserted that the ark was even large enough to have accommodated as many sinners as might have repented at the last moment. Book Essays. Scott dismissed as presumptuous attempts to explain the flood in terms of essay, second causes. Yet despite his reluctance to discuss the mechanisms of the flood, he did suggest that at the conclusion of the debacle, the waters were in part evaporated and in part ran off into the lower countries and the bed of the ocean, or sunk into caverns in the bowels of the earth. He insisted that despite the contentions of some learned men, the deluge was strictly universal and that even in his day, traces of the deluge are found in all parts of the earth.
Unfortunately he left no clue as to what he understood those traces to be.  Generally speaking, eighteenth-century biblical commentators, like Luther and Calvin before them, made relatively little effort to engage either extrabiblical data or scientific discussions. They evidenced little sense of the difficult problems posed by the discovery of the New World and were willing to make confident assertions about the universality of the deluge on drug smuggling, essentially textual grounds. They uncritically accepted diluvialism because it reinforced traditional conceptions of the essay, deluge. As the eighteenth century proceeded, however, the community of smuggling, natural philosophers found it more difficult to sustain a belief in diluvialism. Despite Catcott 's late efforts, mounting evidence was undermining attempts to account for all the earth's fossiliferous strata by means of a flood theory. Eventually diluvialism collapsed for both theological and scientific reasons. Sport. The stress on book anthem, the theological side accumulated as individual texts of comparison essay, Scripture were used to support a variety of guidelines, competing theories and speculations about earth history.  The fountains of the great deep (Gen 7:11), for example, had been variously understood to refer to the abyss, comets, the ocean, and water from caves. These diverse interpretations and conflicting applications of the relevant texts to scientific problems of sport essay, earth history led to essay a growing suspicion that the texts were being used improperly, that they were being pressed into answering categories of questions they were not meant to answer. Theologically oriented naturalists began to wonder openly if the inspiration of the Bible extended to the sphere of science.
Did God give Scripture as a source of scientific information, they asked, or was it a book of redemption, theology, and morals? As the sense grew that Scripture provided no single, incontestable, infallible diluvial scenario, scholars began to back away from comparison essay grandiose biblically based flood cosmogonies. The exegetical tensions were more than matched by scientific tensions. Many thinkers sensed that diluvialism grew too much out of speculation and too little out of anthem essays, empirical evidence. Gradually the empirical discoveries of the eighteenth century provided more tension than diluvialism could bear. Important developments in the study of rock strata, spectacular fossil finds, and new knowledge about animal species and their relationships to sport comparison essay their environment all fatally undermined diluvialism. The Rise of 3rd grade report guidelines, Stratigraphy and sport comparison essay, Geomorphology. At first, the essays about wrestling, recognition that the comparison essay, earth's outer skin is typically stratified was readily integrated into ap english language 2014 theories of global diluvialism. Sport Comparison Essay. John Woodward had stressed that stratification was widespread, and he, Hutchinson , Catcott , and differential homework help, others explained the strata as deposits of the receding deluge.
As the sport comparison essay, eighteenth century progressed, however, stratigraphy increasingly became a stumbling block for diluvialism. Despite Steno 's important work on stratification, it was not until Woodward had emphasized the significance of drug smuggling, layering that a number of people began to describe stratified outcrops and quarries in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of essay, London . For example, in 1710, Fettiplace Bellers described strata in a coal pit at Dudley, Staffordshire, and included a table of about help, specific gravities of the sport essay, strata. John Strachey (1671-1743) contributed papers in book, 1719 and 1725 on strata in coal mines at sport comparison essay Mendip in Somersetshire, and John Michell (1724-1793) discussed stratification in connection with earthquakes. Essay About Help.  Occasionally, brief letters describing unconsolidated strata in surficial deposits were also published.  By mid-century, naturalists had begun to describe and map successions of rock strata on a large scale and to classify mountains on the basis of sport comparison essay, their groups of strata. Wrestling. Much of that work was done in continental Europe, where scholars were considerably less constrained by the demands of natural theology or the desire to essay produce biblical-scientific cosmogonies than were scholars in Great Britain. In Italy, Antonio Vallisnieri (1661-1730), a physician, professor at the university in Padua, and about help, fellow of the Royal Society of sport comparison essay, London since 1705, concluded from his examination of Alpine strata that the marine-looking strata were too widespread to be the product of Woodward's deluge. He suggested that water would need to differential homework help cover the globe for a much longer time than the year of the deluge in order to comparison essay lay down all the observed strata.  In 1740, Anton-Lazarro Moro (1687-1764), a Roman Catholic priest and naturalist, described mountains in terms of the presence or absence of stratification. He classified mountains that lacked stratified rock as primary and essay help, mountains that consisted of stratified rocks clearly superimposed on primary rocks as secondary. Sport Essay. He generally attributed the primary mountains to the action of the earth's internal fire. Despite his interest in cosmogony and positive references to Genesis and divine creation, Moro had little use for the diluvialism of Burnet or Woodward. According to Moro, the anthem, deluge ought to essay be believed according to the Scripture, as a miracle, and not to be proved by natural rules. Smuggling Essay. 
A mining inspector and professor of mining in Venice, Giovanni Arduino (1714-1795) further developed Moro's classification in northern Italy by recognizing four different divisions. Arduino classified mountains consisting of granite, metallic veins, and mica slates as primary or primitive. These were overlain by secondary mountains consisting of limestones that locally contained fossil marine shells. Above those strata were tertiary materials such as gravel, sand, clay, and marl containing abundant marine remains. These deposits accumulated in valleys or on the slopes of the secondary hills. The tertiary material, concluded Arduino, had been in part derived by decay of the secondary rocks. Some volcanic layers were also interlayered with tertiary strata.
The fourth category contained surface materials eroded from the mountains by the action of running water.  German-born scientist-explorer Pierre Simon Pallas (1741-1811) occupied the chair of natural history in the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg. At the request of Empress Catherine II he led an expedition to Siberia and described primitive, secondary, and tertiary mountains based on the efforts of previous investigators and comparison essay, his own explorations of the Ural and Altai mountains. Pallas believed that the classification of 3rd grade book, mountains was applicable to the Alps, the sport comparison essay, Apennines, the Caucasus, and several other ranges.  Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719-1767), a physician, copper producer, and professor of chemistry in St. Essay. Petersburg, arrived at a similar classification for the mountain ranges of northern Europe. Lehmann believed that very high primitive mountains were probably coeval with the original making of the world.
Surrounding these mountains were secondary mountains that consisted of Flotzgebirge -- flat layers of rock formed from water-borne sediments and exhibiting abundant quantities of fossils. Superimposed on these were local accidents. Sport Comparison Essay. Lehmann sketched cross sections of these layered secondary mountains and subdivided the layered strata. A Swedish chemist at anthem essays Uppsala, Torbern Bergman (1735-1784), followed Lehmann's classification, and Georg Fuchsel (1722-1773), a royal physician and devotee of mining, published detailed maps and cross sections of Lehmann's strata.  The classification of Lehmann and Bergman was further developed and elevated to quasi-canonical status by Abraham G. Werner (1749-1817), an sport comparison, outstanding teacher at the Mining Academy of 3rd grade book, Freiberg, Saxony.  Like his predecessors, Werner used the terms primary or primitive for the oldest mountains ( Urgebirge ). He also employed Lehmann's term Flotzgebirge . However, he introduced a new category of transition strata ( Ubergangsgebirge ) that included steeply inclined, unfossiliferous stratified slates and graywackes that lay above the comparison essay, primitive rocks but below the help, Flotz rocks. The Flotz rocks included limestone, gypsum, salt, coal, sandstone, and sport essay, basalt. He designated younger unconsolidated sedimentary materials as das aufgeschwemmte Gebirge or the alluvial series. He believed volcanic rocks to be very recent in the geological time scale. 
A crude geological timescale gradually emerged from study of the stratigraphic relationships in mountains during the eighteenth century. Naturalists agreed that primitive rocks were the oldest because they lay beneath all others, that transition rocks (if they used that term) were a little younger, that secondary or Flotz rocks were younger yet because they lay atop primitive rocks, and that tertiary or alluvial rocks were younger still because they lay atop secondary formations. Individual strata could be distinguished within the help, various groupings, and comparison essay, their relative ages were determined by their position in a succession of strata. The irregular boundaries that separated primitive from about secondary and secondary from tertiary rocks implied that deposition had not been continuous. Sport Essay. The discontinuities between groupings of strata implied periodic interruption by uplifts and deposition by causes other than the differential equation, flood. Evidences for essay, such revolutions were made explicit by James Hutton 's (1726-1797) descriptions of angular unconformities in Scotland.  At Siccar Point on the Scottish coast east of book, Edinburgh, at Jedburgh, and on the Isle of Skye, Hutton pointed out the phenomenon of the comparison essay, angular unconformity, a situation in which relatively horizontal rocks overlie the evidently eroded edges of steeply tilted layers. Hutton argued that such phenomena were evidence for important revolutions in earth history. The older strata had been consolidated, tilted on edge, uplifted toward the surface, eroded to form a land surface, then submerged beneath the sea and buried under newly deposited marine sediments. He interpreted the unconformities as ancient buried erosion surfaces. Naturalists and mining engineers involved in the classification schemes measured the thicknesses of strata, determined their lateral extent, and noted the regularity with which the equation, various strata succeeded one another.
Lehmann , Fuchsel , and Pallas discovered that rock strata occurred in orderly sequences, that European sequences were commonly thousands of feet thick, and that in many instances individual formations could be traced for tens or hundreds of miles. The thickness, extent, and orderliness of stratigraphic successions, unrecognized in the heyday of diluvial cosmogonies, were increasingly difficult to account for sport, in terms of a catastrophe presumed to have been marked by chaos, confusion, and turbulence. The stratigraphic evidence being uncovered rendered traditional diluvialism increasingly untenable. Attempts were also made to explain the surface features of the landscape. It had been widely accepted for 3rd grade report, some time that rivers eroded mountainsides, and yet there were many mountain valleys throughout northern Europe that contain no rivers or at most small streams that scarcely seemed capable of having produced any major excavation. It was assumed that these valleys must have resulted from a large-scale catastrophic process no longer operative. Many eighteenth-century naturalists turned toward a deluge as a strong possibility. Surface deposits of sport, gravel and sand found far from differential equation homework help any existing river system were also considered by many to be evidence of a large inundation at some point in essay, the past. Geological evidence was thus used to push the site of the essay about help, flood's action from the strata to comparison essay the earth's surface. The Advent of Neptunism.
Scholars are often reluctant to abandon a cherished theory no matter how flawed it might be until a more satisfactory theoretical framework becomes available. Essays About Wrestling. The demise of sport essay, diluvial cosmogony during the eighteenth century was facilitated not only by the collection of new stratigraphic data but also by the emergence of neptunism as an equation help, alternative way of viewing the comparison essay, earth's history. Neptunism first flourished in continental Europe where Enlightenment rationalism created an environment for the growth of earth theories less tied to Genesis than was the case in Britain. Only later did neptunism catch on in Great Britain and America. The fundamental thesis of neptunism was that the bulk of the earth's geological features could be accounted for in terms of the gradual diminishing of an ap english language essays, ocean that covered the infant globe at creation. The theory had roots in the speculations of Descartes and the classical Greeks, but it did not begin to sport essay enjoy widespread acceptance until the eighteenth century, following the essays wrestling, publication of a volume entitled Telliamed by sport comparison essay a well-traveled French diplomat named Benoit de Maillet (1656-1738). Geological observations he made during his frequent travels in the Middle East and throughout the Mediterranean led de Maillet to postulate that rock formations had been laid down in a gradually lowering ocean over the course of millions of years. 
French savant and ap english language essays, director of the botanical garden in Paris Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), linked the essay, theory of the recession of the ocean together in one grand cosmogony with his comprehensive explanation of biological and geological phenomena in drug essay, terms of the gradual cooling of the globe from an originally incandescent state over a period of tens of thousands of years.  The suspicions that the British naturalists Lhwyd , Ray , and Hooke entertained in their letters that the earth was more than six thousand years old were made shockingly explicit by de Maillet and Buffon . And the sport comparison, Swedish botanist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) viewed both the occurrence of fossils far inland from the sea and the raised marine terraces along the Scandinavian coasts as evidence of a past diminution of the ocean. Essays Wrestling.  The neptunist theory received a definitive treatment by Werner . Sport Comparison Essay. He interpreted mineralized veins and primitive rocks such as granite and homework help, schist as precipitates of chemicals originally dissolved in a universal ocean. Most neptunists agreed that primitive rocks were chemical precipitates, but Werner also believed that many of the stratified rocks, particularly those of a crystalline nature such as basalt, were also chemical in origin. He further maintained that the transition and sport essay, Flotz rocks were a combination of chemical precipitates and mechanically produced sediments. He viewed fossiliferous rocks as examples of mechanical sediments produced by the erosion of older primitive mountains.  Other neptunists regarded most of the layered Flotz rocks as mechanically derived sediments deposited on the surface of primitive mountains and subsequently tilted.
Werner's numerous disciples at Freiberg spread neptunist doctrine throughout Europe and America. Neptunism boasted such prominent defenders as Jean Andre Deluc (1727-1817), Jean Francois d'Aubuisson (1769-1819), Leopold von Buch (1774-1852), Robert Jameson (1774-1854), and famed geographer Alexander von Humboldt (1765-1859). Although neptunism largely replaced diluvialism as an explanation for the formation of book, layered rocks, interest in the Noachian flood was hardly dead. Diluvialism may have been dying out, but many scholars continued to believe that there was scientific evidence for the flood. Diluvialists such as Woodward , Whiston , Hutchinson , and Catcott had maintained that the sport essay, biblical flood deposited the rocks now categorized as secondary and tertiary, or transition, Flotz, and alluvial. Essays 2014. Neptunists variously attributed the formation of at least secondary and some tertiary deposits (or at least transition and sport essay, Flotz deposits) to the action of a shrinking ocean that predated the biblical flood, but some of them still attributed tertiary or alluvial materials composed of gravel, sand, clay, and peat to the flood. Such deposits had frequently yielded the puzzling skeletal remains of giant animals no longer known to exist. Some neptunists believed that these remains could readily be attributed to the flood even if the invertebrate marine shell beds of the secondary rocks could not. Discoveries of Vertebrate Remains.
In 1728, Hans Sloane (1660-1753), the president of the Royal Society of London, summarized several of these peculiar animal finds.  Issues of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London frequently contained notices of strange bones, teeth, or horns that had accidentally been encountered during the essay help, digging of wells or excavation for building foundations.  Particularly intriguing were a growing number of sport comparison, discoveries of teeth, tusks, and bones belonging to a strikingly elephant-like creature.  Some of the discoveries were in Europe, but reports of remains of an elephant-like creature kept trickling in 3rd grade book report, from the frozen expanses of Siberia. Picture below right: Wooly Mammoth ( mammuthus primigenius , Late Pleistocene) -- This well known mammoth was a cold climate dweller equipped with a thick layer of fat for comparison essay, insulation, and an exterior of essay, long black hair. It was smaller than most mammoths (9 ft or 2.7 m high), and had a hump of fat behind its domed head. It fed on comparison, low tundra vegetation in which it scraped away snow and ice with its ivory tusks. Ap English Essays. Several well preserved remains have been found in Siberia and Alaska and cave paintings in Spain and France show depictions of the sport comparison, Wooly Mammoth as seen by early humans. The mammuthus primigenius went extinct only about 10,000 years ago. Drawing by artist Josef Moravec of Prehistoric World Images . In a 1692 Siberian expedition, Ysbrand Ides , Peter the Great 's envoy to China, not only encountered tusks and bones but saw remnants of a partially preserved carcass embedded in frozen ground. Ides wrote that Mammut's Tongues and Legs are found and noted that such remains could be encountered on the shores of the Jenize (Yenisei), Lena, and other rivers. One of language 2014, his companions found a head when a frozen piece of riverbank collapsed.
Most of the flesh was rotten. Ides recounted an old native belief that the mammoths continually, or at least by reason of the very hard Frosts, mostly live under Ground, where they go backwards and forwards, and they died when they came in contact with air. In contrast, said Ides, the Russians believed that there were elephants in the area when the climate was warmer before the deluge. After the flood, the air became cold enough to comparison essay freeze them, and their bones have lain frozen in the Earth ever since, and so are preserved from Putrefaction till they thaw. Ides suspected that the carcasses could have floated in from several hundred miles distant during the great flood.  Additional Siberian mammoth finds were reported in the early eighteenth century. About Wrestling. In a letter to Philosophical Transactions , John Breyne expressed his view that such remains were left there by the universal deluge.
When several large bones and a tooth were dug up in the Hudson River valley of sport, North America, Puritan leader Cotton Mather attributed them to an antediluvian giant. In 1739, elephant tusks, molars, and bones were discovered in help, a marsh near the Ohio River in Kentucky. A 1765 expedition to the site now known as Big Bone Lick turned up huge amounts of skeletal material, and sport comparison, two years later an account of some of the tusks and grinders was presented to the Royal Society of London. In 1780, in the Wallkill Valley of Orange County, New York, four large teeth were collected from a swamp on the property of the Reverend Robert Annan . Several more finds, including entire elephant-like skeletons (of mastodons), were excavated from the same region in subsequent years. In 1796, Thomas Jefferson acquired remains of homework help, a huge skeleton with claws that had been recovered from a cave in western Virginia. Jefferson called the creature megalonix , an animal now known to be a giant extinct sloth. In the comparison, meantime, Siberia continued to yield frozen carcasses of rhinoceros and mammoth, some of about help, which were studied by Pallas. One of the more impressive finds was made by sport comparison Shumakhov in 1799 in the delta of the Lena River when he noticed a strange looking mass within the frozen ground. He revisited the site for several years, during which time more of the animal emerged.
During the fifth year, the carcass thawed completely and slid down to the river bank. Smuggling Essay. The tusks were chopped off and sold. Drawings of the creature came into possession of M. Comparison. F. About. Adams , a zoologist member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who hustled off to the Lena delta in 1806 to see the carcass for comparison essay, himself. The trunk, tail, and one ear were gone, but one eye still kept its color. Differential Homework. Soft parts, except for the skin on the head, one foot, and the side on which the animal lay, had been completely destroyed by wild animals and sport, dogs. Equation Help. The animal, a male, had been well fed and fat. The hide preserved on the ground was covered with thick hair.  Remnants of the sport essay, beast were returned to the St. Petersburg museum. In the long run, the 2014, discovery of comparison, most far-reaching significance took place in 1797 at Hoxne, England, when a series of flint implements were found in anthem essays, a layer of gravelly soil. The discoverer, John Frere (1740-1807), reported that the implements lay in sport, great numbers at the depth of about twelve feet, in a stratified soil and were associated with some extraordinary bones, particularly a jaw-bone of enormous size, of some unknown animal.
The significance of the discovery, however, was not immediately recognized.  Neptunism and the Flood. Despite the growing belief that primitive, secondary, and ap english essays 2014, most tertiary rocks must have formed prior to the deluge, perhaps during long ages of creation, neptunists nonetheless had room for the deluge. After all, the fossil remains of comparison essay, most of the monstrous animals discovered during the seventeenth and book, eighteenth centuries had come from swamps, marshes, and gravels that formed subsequent to sport comparison most tertiary formations. Not all neptunists worked out specific deluge theories, but predictably closer links between neptunism and Scripture (and particularly the about wrestling, Noachic flood) were forged in the British Isles. The ideas of Richard Kirwan (1733-1812) are illustrative. Sport. Kirwan, a chemist and mineralogist, Inspector of Mines for Ireland, and eventually long-time president of the Royal Irish Academy, discussed the topic of the deluge in a lengthy article.  He suggested in neptunist fashion that the original sea had retreated through rifts in the crust until a few centuries before the deluge, an amount of time necessary for the rocks formed from the universal ocean to become sufficiently hardened to withstand the shocks they would undergo during the ensuing catastrophe. What, asked Kirwan, were the geological proofs of the deluge? Having proved that at the time of the creation, no mountains reached higher than 8,500 feet, he argued that shells found at about higher elevations than that could only sport have been left there by a subsequent inundation. He found further evidence for a flood in essay, the fact that the fossil remains of organisms that dwell in widely disparate and distant climates were mixed promiscuously with each other in the rocks. Marine remains accompanied European fossil elephant and rhinoceros bones, and all such remains were found even in such hostile areas as Siberia, where animals native to Africa and India could never have survived alive.
Kirwan argued that the comparison, remains must have been swept into the harsher regions over equation homework great distances from their native habitats by an enormous inundation. Kirwan rejected previous explanations of a universal deluge. He asserted instead that the deluge originated in the ocean south of the equator and rushed to the northern hemisphere. It was forceful enough, he said, to carry the carcasses of animals such as elephants from the southern countries and marine species from sport essay southern seas to high latitudes beyond 45 deg N, where their remains can now be found in surficial deposits. The force of the flood must have traveled northward, he reasoned, because no remains of essays about, animals native to the north are found in the southern lands. Moreover, he contended that traces of a violent shock or impression from the south were perceptible in the shapes of the sport, mountains. Indeed, he found evidence in the very shapes of the continents, which tend to be sharpened toward the south as at the Cape of Good Hope and in Patagonia: the land was swashed by the southern ocean so forcibly, he said, that nothing but the mountains could resist.
Finally, an inundation from the southeast would also have been necessary to drive the anthem essays, ark northwesterly toward Armenia. Kirwan envisioned the great southern ocean surging northward with irresistible impetuosity against a continent that at one time likely united Asia and America. This material was torn up and swept away as far as latitude 40 deg N, he said, leaving only scattered islands. The progress of the surge was checked by the mountains of China, Tartary, and the west American coast. Sweeping into China, the torrents picked up the soil covering what is now the sport comparison essay, Gobi Desert and pressed on differential equation homework, toward the north polar regions. Essay. Here the torrents were ultimately spent by the mountains of eastern Siberia. But on the way these huge torrents dashed over report the mountains bearing over them the vegetable and animal spoils of the more southern, ravaged or torn up continents to the plains of western Siberia, where the remains were deposited. The bed of the Atlantic Ocean was also scoured by the water.
As evidence, Kirwan called attention to the similarities in comparison, shapes of coastlines on the opposite sides of the Atlantic and asserted that the depression of such a vast tract of land cannot appear improbable when we consider the shock it must have received, and drug, the enormous load with which it was charged.  The concussion of water also rent the basaltic masses along the Scottish and Irish coasts into pillars, he said. Kirwan maintained that only animals that were most necessary for the use of man were present on the ark. Since the ravenous animals would have posed a threat to the immediate survivors of the deluge, Kirwan proposed that carnivores were probably created after the flood and after the graminivorous animals had greatly multiplied. He likewise attributed the animals of America and of the torrid and frigid zones to a subsequent creation . Kirwan further suggested that prediluvial vegetables gave off such vast quantities of oxygen that the atmosphere before the flood was much purer than now, perhaps explaining the greater longevity of the antediluvians. After the sport comparison essay, flood, however, the surface of the earth was covered with putrefying animals and fish which absorbed oxygen and supplied only mephitic and fixed air, thus bringing the atmosphere to 3rd grade book guidelines its present state.
He conjectured that domestic disturbances within Noah's family induced him to move, along with those closest to him, to comparison the regions he inhabited before the flood, in the vicinity of China, and hence the early origin of the Chinese monarchy.  The widespread opinion that the world's stratified, fossiliferous rocks could be accounted for in terms of the action of a biblical global deluge had faded. Nonetheless, nearly a century later, orthodox Christian naturalists were still largely committed to a universal flood, a flood that accounted only for surficial phenomena, including surface gravels, vast deposits of marine shells, and graveyards of vertebrates. The hardened stratified deposits were now generally regarded as having formed much earlier than the flood, in all likelihood at the time of creation. And some orthodox Christians were beginning to wonder if a six-day creation was adequate to account for those rocks.
Developments in drug smuggling essay, Biogeography. Further adjustments were also being forced by sport growing knowledge about animal and plant distribution. The eighteenth-century expeditions such as Captain Cook's voyages to drug the Pacific were continuously adding to the list of sport essay, organisms, pushing it well beyond the 500 birds, 150 quadrupeds, and about 10,000 invertebrates that had been catalogued by John Ray in the seventeenth century. The great systematician of the eighteenth century, Linnaeus , listed more than 14,000 animal species, including almost 300 mammals. Linnaeus doubted that Noah's ark could have carried all the animal species. Rather than attributing dispersal of all the animals to the ark, he envisioned creation taking place on a primitive mountain rising above a universal ocean. Each pair of ap english 2014, animals was created in a particular climatic belt in association with the other species designed for such conditions. Reindeer and essay, arctic lichens existed at the summit; tropical palms and essay, monkeys lived at sport essay the base.
Every plant had its proper soil and every animal its proper climate, and the mountain was an entire world in miniature.  In standard neptunist fashion, Linnaeus had the animals spread out to their ultimate environments and book anthem, latitudes as the sport essay, universal ocean shrank and exposed more land. Linnaeus generally assumed that species were fixed, unchangeable units binding individuals together by descent through successive generations. He argued that the drug smuggling, number of individuals in a species is constantly increasing, so if we work backward, we can trace each species to one set of primeval parents created by God. Linnaeus further stressed the notion that the function and comparison essay, structure of an organism is indissolubly linked to the environment for which it was adapted. Every species inhabited its own definite place. Linnaeus objected to the notion of essay, a universal deluge on the grounds that it would have upset the God-ordained stability of creation. Sport Comparison. How could all the animals have migrated from an ark when they were now so well adapted to their specific environments? For example, how could a reindeer, so well adapted to the bitter cold of the essays about wrestling, far north, survive a trek from the sport comparison essay, ark to the tundra of Scandinavia? Buffon accounted for animal distribution in terms of his theory of the cooling of the globe. All life, he claimed, began near the north pole when that locality was much warmer and then migrated southward as the planet cooled.
The southward movement of organisms into the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa led to increased isolation as animals were cut off from one another by wide oceans.  In the first detailed review of mammal distribution, a little-known zoologist, Eberhardt A. W. Ap English Language. Zimmermann , a late eighteenth-century professor of essay, mathematics and physics in Brunswick, dispensed altogether with the concept of a common dispersal center. He dismissed Linnaeus's idea of equation, original created pairs existing in the same place on the ground that the first pair of lions would quickly have devoured the first pair of sheep, goats, and other species, and would ultimately have starved because they had eaten the sport comparison, first pair of everything else. Zimmermann hypothesized that each species, including the approximately 450 mammals recognized in his time, was created in the region it now inhabits. The climate that prevails now in each region would also have prevailed at the time of species creation. Thus whole environments were created at once.  Summary of Eighteenth-Century on about, the Flood. Despite the considerable body of scholarship pertaining to the capacity of the ark, the worldwide distribution of essay, animals, and diluvial cosmogonies, some of the more important biblical commentators of the eighteenth century failed to interact significantly with that scholarship. Matthew Henry, Thomas Scott, and John Wesley gave little attention to essay about help extrabiblical information and were generally content to support traditional views with naive, sweeping, unsubstantiated assertions or by invoking miracle.
John Gill often knowledgeably interacted with extrabiblical knowledge more than others, but, when faced with the difficulties posed by animal migration to and from the ark, even he ultimately fell back on miracle. Discoveries made after these commentators wrote rendered the case for sport, a global deluge still weaker. For example, eighteenth-century scholars increasingly came to appreciate the very close dependency of species on their habitats. Help. Ultimately this awareness exposed a fatal flaw in sport essay, theories depending on any sort of natural migration of animals over long distances. It is possible for only a very few species to migrate over long distances; the absence of appropriate food, water, and climate renders such journeys impossible for most animals. Naturalists also accumulated evidence that the flood could not have deposited the entire stratified rock record. They increasingly concluded that if the flood left behind geological evidence, it must have been confined to essays about various surface features and deposits. Coupled with this shift in understanding of the deluge's effects was a growing sense that the earth must have experienced a history longer than the traditionally supposed six thousand years. Sport. As significant quantities of physical evidence accumulated, many of those who grappled with it felt a need to reconsider traditional interpretations of the biblical texts relevant to essay about earth history.
Nineteenth-Century Developments, the Rise of Diluvial Catastrophism. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the interpretation of the geological strata had changed radically. Sport Comparison. Virtually no established geologist thought that the thick sequences of stratified sedimentary rocks so evident in quarries, cliffs, and essays about wrestling, mountains had anything to do with the flood. Neptunists attributed stratification to deposition of sediments from a shrinking primeval ocean. Sport Comparison. Others suspected that rock strata represented deposits laid down in successive interchanges of land and sea, possibly over long periods of time before the advent of human beings. Drug. Most students of the earth gave tacit assent to a rudimentary time scale that classified rocks as primitive, transition, secondary, or tertiary. Sport. Great thicknesses of strata, many evidently deposited on the sea bottom, strongly implied that the help, earth's pre-human history extended far beyond a few thousand years. James Hutton demonstrated that primitive rocks that had previously been dated back to the time of creation actually had a discernible prior history: many of them were altered sedimentary rocks that showed signs of having been deposited on a seabed. Geological unconformities gave evidence of extensive histories involving the consolidation of strata, uplift and tilting, and severe erosion of the tilted rocks before deposition of the next sequence of strata.
Discoveries of several unconformities within thick stacks of sedimentary rocks and various other observational and sport comparison, experimental findings accumulated to differential equation homework help suggest that the earth was really quite ancient . The vast majority of naturalists readily agreed with John Playfair 's 1802 assessment that though there be in it no data, from which the commencement of the present order can be ascertained, there are many by which the sport, existence of that order may be traced back to an antiquity extremely remote. Essays About.  Students of geology were now mapping secondary and tertiary strata in detail. In southern England, for comparison, example, the engineer of the British canal system, William Smith (1769-1839), worked out the stratigraphy of much of the essay, secondary sequence during the sport comparison essay, last decade of the eighteenth century. In the first decade of the following century, Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and his colleague Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) at the French Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris did the same with tertiary strata in the Paris basin. They soon recognized that individual formations were characterized by 3rd grade report guidelines their own distinctive fossil fauna.
And Cuvier recognized that the Paris basin sequence contained alternating marine and comparison, terrestrial deposits, the former containing fossilized invertebrate shells and the latter containing fossilized vertebrate quadruped remains. Ap English Language Essays 2014. Both the regular distribution of fossils and the alternations between marine and terrestrial remains made it difficult to essay reason that the book essays, deluge could have produced the earth's consolidated fossiliferous sedimentary rocks. Students of the earth had also become increasingly reluctant to indulge in grandiose cosmogonical theories.  Even so, the presumption of a vast deluge was still common among late eighteenth-century naturalists. Leading geologists of the early nineteenth century on the Continent, in Britain, and in America still had no difficulty in attributing many surficial geological features to essay catastrophic diluvial action. Essays Wrestling. Recognizing the essay, tentative, incomplete state of knowledge about the earth, the multitude of important unanswered questions about the earth's past, and the need for a reasonable theory of the earth at the close of the eighteenth century, Alpine geologist Horace Benedict de Saussure (1740-1799), professor of philosophy at the Academy of anthem, Geneva, published an agenda for future research to provide a foundation for a theory of the earth. Among the matters he felt should be addressed were historical monuments, including the deluges or great inundations; their epochs and extent. Sport Comparison Essay. In a section on rolled pebbles, de Saussure suggested that a study of high elevation pebbles and 3rd grade book report, rolled blocks foreign to sport essay the soil which bears them and ap english language, of the large valleys nearby could yield some indications of the direction, size and force of the currents produced by the grand revolutions of the earth. He also thought it important to determine whether blocks of rock found on mountaintops were transported gradually by waves that raised them from the bottoms of the valleys or abruptly by huge tides.  De Saussure spoke for the geological community when he identified the role and effects of past floods as a significant geological issue. During the early nineteenth century there was no shortage of top-rank geologists willing to tackle that problem.
Georges Cuvier , scientist-administrator extraordinaire who firmly established the disciplines of both vertebrate paleontology and comparative anatomy, was a professor of sport essay, zoology at the College de France who also held an influential post in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Equation Homework.  He was also a nominal Protestant who, according to sport comparison essay his biographer Dorinda Outram, viewed Protestantism as a series of opportunities rather than as a body of wrestling, belief. His handling of the issue of the comparison, flood, says Outram, was not motivated by any deep spiritual attachment to Scripture. In his Essay on the Theory of the Earth , an introduction to his monumental multi-volume work on fossil vertebrates, Cuvier proposed that the secondary and tertiary strata had been formed during successive sudden catastrophes caused over long ages by repeated irruptions and retreats of the sea.  The idea of multiple catastrophes was suggested by fragmented and overturned strata, the presence of book anthem, heaps of debris and rounded pebbles found among the solid strata, and the carcasses of large quadrupeds that had been partially preserved in surface deposits of the northern regions. Cuvier maintained that natural catastrophes had caused the permanent extinction of several large mammals such as the mammoth. Cuvier asserted on zoological grounds that the sport, most recent of these catastrophes could not have been very ancient, consistent with the essays about wrestling, existence of many traditions, including that of Moses, that the globe had suffered a recent catastrophe. Cuvier fully agreed that. if there is any circumstance thoroughly established in geology, it is, that the crust of our globe has been subjected to a great and sudden revolution, the epoch of which cannot be dated much farther back than five or six thousand years ago; that this revolution had buried all the countries which were before inhabited by essay men and by drug smuggling the other animals that are now best known; that the same revolution had laid dry the bed of the last ocean, which now forms all the countries at present inhabited; that the small number of individuals of men and other animals that escaped from the effects of that great revolution, have since propagated and spread over the lands then newly laid dry; and consequently, that the human race has only resumed a progressive state of improvement since that epoch, by forming established societies, raising monuments, collecting natural facts, and constructing systems of science and of learning.  Cuvier stopped just short of an explicit identification of this recent catastrophe with the Mosaic flood. George Bellas Greenough (1778-1855), a student of Werner, member of Parliament, and one of the founders and essay, first president of the about, Geological Society of London in 1807, also stopped short of such an sport comparison, identification.
In A Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology , issued in 1819 when he was president of the ap english 2014, Geological Society, Greenough addressed the problem of the great displaced blocks that were scattered across the face of comparison, Europe. He maintained that if seas, rivers, or collapsing lakes could not transport such exotic blocks, then the only remaining cause, to which these effects can be ascribed, is a Debacle or Deluge. Drug.  To account for the bones and tusks of elephants found in Siberia, Pallas proposed that the comparison essay, deluge had swept over the Alps and the mountains of Tartary during a period of tremendous eruptions that he believed produced the Moluccas, the guidelines, Philippines, and other volcanic islands in the Indian Archipelago. Greenough had difficulties with Pallas's hypothesis, however. He doubted that the comparison, bones could have traveled from the ap english language, Indian Ocean to Siberia without fracture or abrasion, for instance.
He also maintained that relatively fresh carcasses found in the Arctic could not have been transported there from southern regions, because any such remains would have putrefied long before arriving. Moreover, the bones of the elephants were mixed with the bones of such decidedly northern species as the ox, buffalo, elk, and essay, horse. Greenough also wondered why volcanic eruptions would have caused deluges to take a northern rather than southern course, and book, he questioned whether the comparison, volume of water involved would have been adequate to essay produce the presumed disruption. The rising of these islands could displace only a quantity of water equivalent to sport essay their bulk, wrote Greenough, and such a quantity would not have been able to surmount the mountains of Asia. About. Greenough also rejected a proposal of Sir James Hall (1761-1832), early geological experimentalist and good friend of James Hutton , to account for the granite blocks dispersed over the Jura mountains by a debacle.  Despite problems with the various hypotheses, Greenough believed that the widespread distribution of alluvial sand and sport essay, gravel proved that the about help, same inundation had affected all countries, as did the sport, universal occurrence and distinctive symmetry of mountains and valleys. Moreover, he maintained that the equation homework, direction in which the waters of the deluge flowed could be ascertained by an examination of the orientations of bowlder-stones, mountains, valleys, promontories, and escarpments.  The timing of the sport comparison, geological deluge was a crucial issue, however, for identifying the deluge that Greenough believed had left its mark on the earth's surface features with the biblical deluge. He found no evidence that might help to determine whether the geological deluge occurred before or after the creation of essays about wrestling, man. There existed only the negative evidence that no human skeletal remains nor implements of art had been discovered either in sport, the regular strata or in the diluvian surficial deposits.  A more difficult matter was the cause of the deluge.
Greenough suggested that a transitory cause foreign to the solar system, capable of inundating continents, and giving to the waters of the deep unexampled impetuosity, but without altering the interior constitution of the earth, or deranging the sister planets was needed. Greenough recalled Halley by looking favorably on the possibility of a cometary or meteoritic shock to the earth. Report Guidelines.  Diluvial catastrophism was firmly established when William Buckland (1784-1856) was inaugurated as professor of geology at Oxford in sport comparison, 1819. Buckland was a minister in the Church of England with moderate broad church sympathies. As indicated by his advocacy of the gap theory for language essays, Genesis 1 (i.e., the belief that a long period of time occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, between the initial creation and the state of formlessness of the earth), he did not insist on strict biblical literalism. Buckland was very sensitive to two matters: (1) the flood played a much smaller role in reconstructions of geological history than it had a century earlier despite the considerable attention still paid to it, and (2) geology was increasingly charting its own course and paying less heed to sport theological assertions about the alleged demands of scriptural texts. In his landmark Oxford inaugural lecture, Buckland sought to allay the 2014, suspicions of the theologically conservative university authorities that geology might be hostile to sport comparison essay revealed religion by painstakingly demonstrating the differential equation, compatibility of geology and religion, particularly with regard to the flood.
Buckland's strategy was to show that geology blended with Oxford's tradition of classical learning. As Nicolaas Rupke observed, in Buckland's inaugural the diluvial theory became the linchpin by which modern geology attached itself to the carriage of the Anglican tradition of learning and the clerical purpose of an Oxford education. Comparison.  Buckland conceded some slight difficulties in efforts to harmonize geology and Christian faith, but he maintained that there was harmony on the most essential points, including the deluge. 3rd Grade Report Guidelines. He virtually equated the hypothesized geological inundation with the deluge of Moses and sport essay, optimistically pronounced that. the grand fact of an universal deluge at help no very remote period is proved on grounds so decisive and incontrovertible, that, had we never heard of such an event from Scripture, or any other, authority, Geology of itself must have called in the assistance of some such catastrophe, to explain the phenomena of diluvian action which are universally presented to us, and which are unintelligible without recourse to a deluge exerting its ravages at a period not more ancient than that announced in the Book of Genesis.  Just what were those decisive and essay, incontrovertible grounds? Buckland argued that the shape and essay, position of hills and valleys as well as the confluence of streams into a main trunk favored the flood. He argued that gravel deposits around the world, locally forming isolated horizontal strata, could not be attributed solely to river action. Moreover, the unfossilized organic remains of animals identical to species now in existence found deposited in the gravels pointed to sport a deluge. The two great points of the relatively late appearance of the human race and the universality of a recent deluge, said Buckland, were satisfactorily confirmed by every thing that has yet been brought to essays about wrestling light by Geological investigations. Young Professor Buckland, however, had no doubt whatever that the comparison essay, thick successions of stratified, fossiliferous rocks underlying surface gravels were not produced in ap english language, the deluge but were rather deposited in a slow and comparison, gradual manner during successive periods of both tranquillity and great disturbance.
In some cases, said Buckland, these strata had been produced from the destruction of more ancient consolidated rocks and then violently uplifted prior to the deposition of the more modern strata. Although the deluge had sculpted and drug smuggling, destroyed the consolidated strata, the comparison, strata themselves could not have been formed in ap english, the single year occupied by the Mosaic deluge. According to Buckland, the antediluvian continents were fundamentally the sport comparison essay, same as those of the drug smuggling, present. Buckland's inaugural address exerted considerable influence on sport comparison essay, a variety of essays, geologists, including his friend William Conybeare (1787-1857) and William Phillips (1775-1828), coauthors of the highly respected Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales. Conybeare was an early member of the Geological Society of sport, London, one-time fellow at New College, Oxford, and dean of Llandaff. Like Buckland, he was an Anglican minister with centrist affinities, a readiness to ap english 2014 look kindly on non-literal scriptural interpretations, and a willingness to cooperate in matters of science with those outside the Church of England such as his coauthor Phillips, a Quaker. Although this 1822 volume was primarily concerned with a detailed description of the secondary formations of southern Great Britain, Conybeare used the sport comparison essay, occasion to discuss the relationship of geology to religion. About. He appealed to the same evidences for the deluge that Buckland had, asserting that a recent inundation had swept over the consolidated strata and indiscriminately covered the whole surface. This inundation was the last great geological change to which the surface of our planet appears to have been exposed. Comparison. He called this general covering of water-worn debris Diluvium because of that great and universal catastrophe to which it seems most properly assignable. 
In the meantime, in 1821, a bone-filled cave was discovered at Kirkdale in Yorkshire. As one of the cave's first explorers, Buckland found what he took to be further confirmations of a universal deluge.  The exploration of caves for fossils had recently taken on help, considerable importance. Sport Comparison. Buckland had already examined a few, but the equation homework help, remains of Kirkdale provided the occasion for compiling a vast catalogue of physical evidence in support of sport essay, a recent global flood. Buckland placed on a sound empirical, systematic basis the flood catastrophism expressed by ap english language essays 2014 Cuvier and sport comparison essay, implicit in the thought of many contemporary geologists. Following the publication of a synopsis of his findings in Philosophical Transactions, Buckland published his great work Reliquiae Dduvianae in 1823. Not quite identifying his universal deluge with that of the Bible, Buckland's dedicatory letter to the Lord Bishop of Durham observed that the conclusions of his work afforded the strongest evidence of an language essays 2014, universal deluge and expressed the hope that it will no longer be asserted, as it has been by comparison essay high authorities, that geology supplies no proofs of an event in the reality of which the truth of the essays wrestling, Mosaic records is so materially involved.  Also included was a brief chapter containing evidence showing that the inundation had occurred at high elevations. Buckland argued that granite blocks drifted from the heights of Mont Blanc to the Jura, and sport comparison essay, the bones of diluvial animals found by Humboldt on the elevated plains of South America showed that all the drug smuggling, high hills and the mountains under the comparison, whole heavens were covered when the last great physical change affected the surface of the whole globe.  Buckland came as close as possible without specifically identifying the geological and biblical floods. In Reliquiae Diluvianae Buckland summarized the results of the discoveries at Kirkdale and several other British and drug smuggling essay, European caves. He reviewed facts concerning the form and structure of hills and valleys and concerning accumulations of diluvial loam and gravel containing the remains of animals like those found in the caverns. All of these facts, said Buckland, cast light on sport comparison essay, the earth's state prior to the last great convulsion affecting its surface and affording one of the drug essay, most complete and satisfactory chains of consistent circumstantial evidence I have ever met with in the course of my geological investigations. 
In Kirkdale cave, Buckland had discovered a great abundance of hyena bones and excrement as well as bones of sport, tigers, bears, wolves, foxes, weasels, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, horses, oxen, deer, hares, rabbits, water-rats, mice, ravens, pigeons, larks, ducks, and anthem essays, snipes. The bones, some of which had been gnawed, were embedded in crystalline material on the cave floor and in red mud overlying the sport essay, crystalline material. 3rd Grade Report. The red mud had been covered by sport comparison essay later stalactitic deposits devoid of animal remains. Buckland concluded that the gnawed bones were those of animal carcasses that had been dragged into drug a lair of hyenas. Comparison Essay. He contended that the red mud covering the assemblage of extinct vertebrate species had been washed into drug smuggling the cave by the deluge and comparison, hence he maintained that the drug essay, stalactitic material covering the mud was postdiluvial. Buckland cited the limited stalactite deposits over the mud and the presence of sport essay, undecayed bones as evidence that the mud layer was introduced no earlier than the time inferred by essay about help Cuvier -- that is to say, the time that had elapsed since that great and universal inundation which has overwhelmed the earth was about essay five or six thousand years.  In the drug, latter part of the book, Buckland discusses the essay, dispersion of the bones of extinct elephants, deposits of loam and gravel, and essay, diluvial evidences around the world. The book also carries an appendix in essay, which he argues that the flood was responsible for the excavation of river valleys. Buckland doubted that rivers could adequately excavate the book report guidelines, huge valleys in which they presently flowed. Unlike Kinvan and sport comparison essay, Pallas, however, Buckland insisted that the great deluge must have swept out essay help of the north, since boulders on the surface and in gravel deposits of Europe and essay, North America had been transported from identifiable sources to the north. As the homework help, years passed, Buckland backed away from the views he so eloquently set forth in Reliquiae Diluvianae . In a footnote in his contribution to the Bridgewater Treatises, Buckland observed that subsequent discoveries showed that many of the animals he had previously described had existed.
during more than one geological period preceding the catastrophe by which they were extirpated. Sport. Hence it seems more probable, that the event in question, was the last of the many geological revolutions that have been produced by violent irruptions of water, rather than the comparatively tranquil inundation described in the Inspired Narrative. It has been justly argued, against the attempt to ap english language identity these two great historical and natural phenomena, that, as the rise and fall of the waters of the Mosaic deluge are described to have been gradual and sport comparison, of short duration, they would have produced comparatively little change on the surface of the country they overflowed.  Although he still endorsed the notion of great deluges, Buckland pointedly distanced himself from identifymg the geological and biblical deluges, and book anthem essays, he also attributed the extinct cave animals to a time prior to the creation of man. Later still he recognized that even catastrophic floods could not satisfactorily account for diluvial gravels, erratic boulders, and large river valleys. During the years in which Buckland's catastrophic deluge dominated much geologic discussion, particularly in Great Britain, important field investigations were conducted in essay, the Auvergne region of ap english, central France, a region previously explored by comparison essay Guettard, Desmarest, Montlosier, von Buch, and d'Aubuisson. Language Essays 2014. Auvergne had attracted attention because of its extinct volcanic cones. Sport Comparison. The nature of essay about, these volcanoes and their associated rocks became a major problem because of controversies over sport comparison the nature and origin of basaltic rock. Werner and the neptunists maintained that basalt was a chemical precipitate. Anthem Essays. Hutton, Playfair, Hall, and sport comparison, others who belonged to about wrestling the vulcanist party suspected that basalt might be a volcanic rock. Naturalists were eager to compare the Auvergne rocks with basalts of comparison, disputed origin in Scotland and Ireland.
They began to recognize that there had been a long succession of volcanic events in Auvergne, including eruption of basaltic lava flows from the about, cones. Some of the most recent flows filled large valleys that had been excavated into sport older layers of lava. The recognition that the basalts at Auvergne were volcanic helped to undermine the neptunist theory. In his early field investigations of the Auvergne area, Oxford's professor of chemistry Charles Daubeny (1795-1867) another associate of Buckland and help, enthusiastic advocate of the diluvial origin of sport comparison essay, valleys, classed different lava flows as either postdiluvian or antediluvian. He suggested that if Buckland was correct in attributing the excavation of valleys to the Mosaic deluge, then the modern volcanoes of Auvergne must all have been posterior to the latter event, since valleys in the older lava flows (presumably scoured by 3rd grade diluvial waters) were filled with more recent lava flows.  Diluvial catastrophism also spread to America. Sport Comparison. The outstanding chemist and mineralogist Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864) of Yale, a devout Congregationalist, contributed greatly to the establishment of American geology through his teaching, public lecturing, personal research, and founding in essay, 1818 of the American Journal of Science, a still-thriving periodical that is devoted almost exclusively to geology.  Among other things, he brought out an American edition of sport comparison, a textbook by British geologist Robert Bakewell to which he appended a lengthy essay on the consistency of geology with sacred history.  Silliman flatly rejected the old idea that the bulk of stratified rocks could have been the work of a global deluge. But, he continued, the surface of the 3rd grade, planet is covered with wreck and ruin that can be justly attributed to mighty floods and rushing torrents of water. Nor were these surface phenomena restricted to Europe; we must charge to moving waters the undulating appearance of stratified sand and gravel, often observed in many places, and very conspicuously in the plain of New Haven, and in other regions of sport essay, Connecticut and about wrestling, New England, wrote Silliman. Sport Comparison. He attributed to diluvial agency both bowlder stones and equation, the vast deserts of sand in South Africa, the Sahara, Arabia, Germany, Russia, and at the foot of the comparison, Rocky Mountains. Silliman maintained that denuded valleys, fossilized bones and skeletons of book anthem essays, extinct species, and many beds of oyster shells were probably the result of diluvial action.
He believed that the tusla of the extinct elephant that had been found in northern Asia were deposited there by a deluge that drowned and buried the bodies of whole races of animals. Nothing could be more violent, destructive, and overwhelming than the universal deluge of Genesis, he said, and certainly upon the face of the earth are every where recorded, in legible characters, the essay, necessary physical effects of such a debacle. Essay About. But there were some difficulties. Silliman suggested that some gravel deposits could have been produced by local floods, and he suspected that the universal flood would have been much too short to sport essay accomplish the rounding of boulders. Like Cuvier and Buckland, Silliman did not explicitly equate the geological with the essay, Noachic deluge, but he did claim that it was legitimate to compare the two. From 1770 to 1825 diluvial catastrophism was widespread among mainstream geologists in Europe and North America. Silliman's disciple Edward Hitchcock may even have extended the lifetime of diluvial catastrophism in America several years after it had fallen out of favor in Europe.
The Collapse of Diluvial Catastrophism. Despite its popularity among geologists and a British and American lay public eager to see biblical revelation corroborated by science, diluvial catastrophism began to crumble upon closer inspection. As already noted, Buckland gradually abandoned his early views. Perhaps the most perceptive of those taking a closer look at the approach was John Fleming (1785-1857), a capable naturalist who ultimately became professor of natural history in Aberdeen in 1834 and an evangelical, Calvinistic pastor of the sport, Church of Scotland who participated in the disruption of 1843 to book essays join the Free Church of Scotland. In a series of articles published during the 1820s in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Fleming advanced several arguments against diluvial catastrophism. In an initial poke at current diluvial speculations, Fleming criticized the tendency of sport, naturalists to essay help blur the distinction between the genus and species of fossil remains. We are so impatient to speculate, he charged, that we do not stop to inquire, whether the bones found in a fossil state belong to the living species, or to a member of the sport comparison essay, same genus only, now extinct.  Assuming that many fossil remains resembling modern tropical animals must themselves have lived in tropical regions, naturalists got into trouble by help speculating that these organic remains must have been brought into their present situation, by some violent means, from tropical regions, or that our country once enjoyed the sport comparison, warmth of a tropical climate. Fleming argued that the unbroken state of the essays about, remains rendered the violent transportation idea absurd, and comparison essay, astronomy ruled out the climate change hypothesis.
Fleming vs. Cuvier and Buckland. An example of the differential homework, speculative tendency concerned the fossil elephants of Europe, Asia, and America. As amply demonstrated by the anatomical studies of sport comparison, Cuvier and others, these extinct elephants were a different species from those now living and homework, could well have been native to northern countries. In fact, the Lena River delta carcass discovered in 1799 was covered with more than thirty-six pounds of thick, lengthy hair, which certainly seemed to suggest that it was not a native of a tropical climate, but an inhabitant of a cold region.
This particular species of sport comparison, elephant was suited to live in Siberia, said Fleming, and the Siberian climate was basically the same when the mammoth lived there as it is now. Where was the need for a cataclysm? Fleming also trained his critical guns on Buckland's Kirkdale cave. While defending Buckland's identification of the cave as the den of an extinct species of hyena, Fleming questioned his identification of the red mud as a diluvial deposit. Similar mud in other caves was claimed to be fluvial; why not that at Kirkdale? Fleming also wondered why the deluge was so selective in drowning the hippopotamus but allowing the ox and about help, horse to survive. The subdivision of strata into diluvian and postdiluvian could not be sustained, he argued, because the vertebrate remains occurred in both alleged diluvian clay and acknowledged post-diluvian marl. Comparison. The flood should have indiscriminately consigned all British quadrupeds to a watery grave but instead targeted precisely those animals that in all ages must have been most eagerly sought after by the huntsman, and such as his efforts would, long before this period, have annihilated. It was not the deluge, said Fleming, but human beings who exterminated the extinct British vertebrates. To prevent readers from concluding that he was hostile to Scripture, Fleming argued forcefully that efforts to link geology and the Bible were proving rash and harmful.
Of course, the wrestling, works and the words of sport essay, God must give consistent indications of his government, provided they be interpreted truly. The moral authority of the book of revelation had been established through the ages. But interpreters of the equation, book of nature, said Fleming, have been few in number, their field of sport essay, observation too limited, and their prejudices too obvious, to permit any high value to be attached to ap english essays 2014 their theoretical deductions. Geology would fare better, he thought, if its practitioners were more disposed to examine the structure of the sport essay, earth, and drug smuggling essay, the laws which regulate the physical distribution of sport, its inhabitants and less eager to identify their conjectures with popular truths. Furthermore, he asserted that the interests of revelation would be better served if believers would not exhibit such morbid earnestness to gain support for their creed from the sciences but would rather calmly acknowledge the fact that. geology never can, from its very nature, add the weight of a feather to the moral standard which he has embraced, or the anticipations of eternity in essays about, which he indulges, even should he fancy that it has succeeded in disclosing the dens of antediluvian hyaenas, in exhibiting the skeleton of a rhinoceros drowned in the flood, or in discovering the decayed timbers of the ark.
This indiscreet union of Geology and Revelation can scarcely fail to sport essay verify the censure of Bacon, by producing ' Philosophia phantastica, Religio haeretica .' Fleming intensified his assault in 1826 when he wrote The Geological Deluge, as Interpreted by Baron Cuvier and Professor Buckland, Inconsistent with the Testimony of Moses and the Phenomena of Nature.  Fleming was concerned that Buckland in particular, with his high view of Scripture, had allowed his imagination to become overactive in his desire to find evidence for the flood. Fleming reminded Buckland that he had attributed the extinction of many species of quadrupeds to the deluge, whereas Scripture spoke of the preservation of at least a pair of essay, every kind. Buckland contended that the flood was sudden, transient, virtually universal, and simultaneous, rushing about with overwhelming impetuosity, but Moses mentioned only the universality of the flood, and if anything the biblical evidence suggested that the flood was slow and gradual, inasmuch as it took forty days for the waters to rise. Sport Comparison Essay. If the flood had been as violent as Buckland suggested, it is hard to imagine how the ark could have survived, much less landed relatively close to the point from which it first lifted off the ground as the help, Bible reports. Buckland said that the flood excavated deep valleys by sport essay tearing up solid rock, which would imply that prediluvian geography must have been radically different from book essays what it is now, and yet Moses implied that the countries had the same appearance before and after the flood. If one took the biblical reference to the olive leaf seriously, one would have to conclude that the Mosaic flood was not violent enough to comparison essay have disturbed the soil or trees; and the fact that Noah was able to plant a vineyard shortly after the flood further indicated that the differential equation, soil had not been washed away. Fleming accused Buckland of having obtained his notions of the flood from Ovid rather than the Bible. Himself endorsing the biblical description of a slowly accumulating, non-violent flood, Fleming disposed of all forms of flood geology, saying that he was not prepared to sport comparison essay witness in nature any remaining marks of the catastrophe, and I feel my respect for the authority of wrestling, revelation heightened, when I see on the present surface no memorials of the event. Buckland and his fellow catastrophists habitually attributed the existence of river valleys and sport comparison, canyons, gravel beds, mud in caves, and extinct animals to essays 2014 the action of the flood. Sport Essay. The diluvialists said that river valleys had been carved by the tremendous power of the flood as it drained off the surface of the earth, but Fleming, like Hutton and help, Playfair before him, argued that the sinuous shapes of canyons and valleys and the fact that they gradually widen owing to the existence of tributaries mirrors the comparison essay, shapes of 3rd grade book report, modern stream channels, which we know were produced solely by the streams themselves. Comparison. It was clear to homework Fleming that ancient canyons and valleys were carved out by the long-continued action of sport, running water rather than by a stupendous but brief flood.
Flood waters might erode loose soil and loosen boulders, said Fleming, but there is no way they could have carved deep valleys out of solid bedrock. Fleming was not alone in challenging early nineteenth-century diluvialism. Throughout the 1820s, the Auvergne district received continued attention from three of Great Britain's more able geologists, George Poulett Scrope (1797-1876), Charles Lyell (1797-1875), and Roderick Murchison (1792-1871). Upon careful investigation of the valleys and lavas, all three of them concluded that the action of rivers and streams over a long period of ap english language, time was perfectly capable of excavating the valleys. Bucklandian deluges were unnecessary. Indeed, if a great torrent had swept over that part of Europe, then the cinder cones from which some of the sport essay, older lava flows had emanated should have been disrupted or even swept away altogether, and they had not been.  By 1830, many geologists were having second thoughts about a single universal deluge and were taking another look at the physical evidence. Authorities began to ap english language essays issue public recantations. Cambridge's Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873), like his friends Buckland and Conybeare a broad church Anglican with perhaps stronger evangelical leanings, had also been an early advocate of diluvial catastrophism. Yet, upon retiring from the presidency of the Geological Society of London in sport comparison, 1831, Sedgwick announced his abandonment of the deluge theory:
There is, I think, one great negative conclusion now incontestably established -- that the ap english language essays 2014, vast masses of diluvial gravel, scattered almost over the surface of the earth, do not belong to one violent and transitory period. It was indeed a most unwarranted conclusion, when we assumed the contemporaneity of all the superficial gravel on the earth. Essay. We saw the clearest traces of diluvial action, and we had, in our sacred histories, the record of a general deluge. Essays About Wrestling. On this double testimony it was, that we gave a unity to a vast succession of phaenomena, not one of which we perfectly comprehended, and under the name diluvium, classed them all together. Comparison Essay. Our errors were, however, natural, and of the same kind which led many excellent observers of a former century to refer all the secondary formations of book essays, geology to sport comparison the Noachian deluge. Having been myself a believer, and, to the best of my power, a propagator of what I now regard as a philosophic heresy, and having more than once been quoted for opinions I do not now maintain, I think it right, as one of my last acts before I quit this Chair, thus publicly to read my recantation.  Sedgwick suggested that geologists had been too hasty in referring all superficial gravel to the action of the Mosaic flood, on the grounds that no trace of humanity had been recovered from those deposits. Report Guidelines. Nevertheless Sedgwick confidently rejected the inference that there had been no historic deluge or that the facts of geology were opposed to sacred Scripture. Essay. Not a word in the Bible or the traditions justified looking to mere physical monuments as the intelligible records of the event, he said. Such monuments had not yet been found, and perhaps they never would be, but that was scarcely decisive as to their reality. To cover all bases, Sedgwick affirmed that, although certain traces of a great diluvian catastrophe within the human period had not been found, it had been shown that paroxysms of internal energy, accompanied by the elevation of mountain chains, and followed by mighty waves desolating whole regions of the earth, were a part of the mechanism of nature.
Because such paroxysms had occurred frequently throughout the book report, earth's history, they may have occurred during the few thousand years that man had been living on its surface. Sedgwick triumphantly concluded that we have therefore, taken away all anterior incredibility from the sport comparison, fact of a recent deluge; and we have prepared the mind, doubting about the truth of things of which it knows not either the origin or the language essays 2014, end, for the adoption of this fact on the weight of historic testimony. Greenough issued a similar recantation in sport comparison essay, 1834, acknowledging that he once held the not hastily formed opinion based on the best available geological data that the entire globe had been covered by a general deluge.  But now, better acquainted with physical and geological nature, he had been convinced otherwise. He acknowledged his debt to essays wrestling Lyell for bringing together a vast mass of evidence suggesting that if a deluge had swept over the entire globe five thousand years earlier, its traces could no longer be distinguished from more modern and local disturbances. Other evidence bore different and more convincing interpretation as well. What he had viewed as diluvial elephants and sport, other animals could probably be better referred to two or three distinct epochs, he granted, and the stone blocks found in the Jura Mountains, northern Germany, northern Italy, and England are not the waifs and strays of one, but of differential equation homework, several successive inundations. What had Lyell said to convince Greenough of his error?
In the final volume of sport comparison essay, his epochal Principles of Geology issued between 1830 and 1833, Charles Lyell , a deist, poured plenty of cold water on current diluvial thinking. In a chapter on essay about, the geology of the Eocene Epoch, he reviewed the geology of the sport, Auvergne region and then took up a discussion on the supposed effects of the flood. Ap English Language 2014.  Lyell noted that contemporaries who used the sport, terms antediluvian and postdiluvian with respect to the volcanoes of Auvergne assumed that there are clear and unequivocal marks of the passage of a general flood over all parts of the surface of the globe. He rejected that view as incompatible with the book, evidence, but he did leave the door open for a localized deluge. He contended that a flood extending to the whole of that part of the earth inhabited by human beings might have occurred had there been both extensive lakes elevated above the level of the ocean and sport, large tracts of dry land depressed below that level in a given region. Lyell postulated that if the ap english, waters of Lake Superior, situated six hundred feet above sea level, were to be set loose by comparison essay the rending or sinking down of the barrier during earthquakes, the entire valley of the Mississippi, with its huge population, would be deluged. A similarly catastrophic flood might be induced by book anthem the depression of part of Asia, he suggested. The great cavity of western Asia has an area of 18,000 square leagues, and a considerable population.
The lowest parts in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea are three hundred feet below the level of the Black Sea. In that area floodwaters could cover hills rising three hundred feet above the plain, and if deeper depressions had existed at some earlier time, then even loftier mountains might have been covered in a flood of the sport essay, region. Although Lyell recognized that the majority of older commentators held to the geographical universality of the flood and that both Deluc and Buckland had eloquently and zealously supported the notion of a great flood that worked a considerable alteration in the external configuration of our continents, he expressed agreement with Fleming that the biblical narrative did not indicate the impetuous rushing of the waters, either as they rose or when they retreated. For Lyell as for Fleming, the survival of the olive branch seemed a clear indication that vegetation had not been destroyed in essay, the deluge. Essay. Lyell confessed reluctance to talk about the flood at all because of the sensitive nature of people's feelings about the subject. He concluded his digression by asserting that he had always considered both the causes and effects of the flood to be in the preternatural category beyond the reach of philosophical inquiry. And he warned those who were anxious to point out the coincidence of geological phenomena with the occurrence of such a general catastrophe that they must neglect no one of the circumstances enumerated in smuggling, the Mosaic history, least of all so remarkable a fact as that the olive remained standing while the waters were abating.
Lyell tried as nicely as he could without offending anyone to say that he did not see any geological evidence to support the notion of a global catastrophe. Indeed, he found that the strictest interpretation of the scriptural narrative does not warrant us in expecting to find any geological monuments of the catastrophe, a conclusion consistent with the preservation of the volcanic cones of Auvergne. Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century on the Flood. Naturalists of the early nineteenth century accumulated a great deal of information that led to changes in their view of earth's history and the role of the Noachic deluge in it. They all paid scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of available geological information and adjusted their ideas in response to that information. Many of them were orthodox Christians, and yet they felt no need to comparison distort the evidence they encountered in order to sustain their belief in the biblical deluge. Drug Essay. One finds no appeal to miracle on the part of even the most ardent advocate of the deluge, William Buckland. The premier geologists were persuaded that existing geological evidence supported the notion of a global or at comparison essay least continental deluge. Book Anthem Essays. Every one of them rejected the old diluvialism which attributed the deposition of fossiliferous secondary and tertiary strata to the flood, however.
They identified only surface deposits as the sport, effects of the deluge. Even that view collapsed, however, because of the importance that these men placed on extrabiblical evidence. Essays Wrestling. Buckland, Sedgwick, and sport, others ultimately abandoned nineteenth-century diluvialism when it became clear that gravels, valleys, polished rocks, cave deposits, and the like could no longer be satisfactorily understood as the result of a giant deluge. Because the Christian naturalists of the era were unafraid of God-given evidence, they recognized that extrabiblical information provided a splendid opportunity for closer investigation of the biblical text in order to drug smuggling clear up earlier mistakes in interpretation. Biblical expositors of the period were more reluctant to comparison essay grapple with extrabiblical data in so forthright a manner, as we will see. The Coming of the Ice Age -- the Frozen Flood. The diluvial explanation of gravels, boulders, and wide river valleys had suffered a fatal setback by 1840. Although James Hutton and John Playfair had described before 1800 the effects of ap english language essays 2014, glaciation, their work attracted little attention. Unaware of their contributions, Ignatz Venetz (1788-1859), a civil engineer, and Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855) a mining engineer whose father had been a professor at Werner's Freiberg Academy, undertook careful investigations of glacial phenomena in the Alps during the 1820s and 1830s. Charpentier recognized that erratic boulders, gravels, and sandy drift in the mountains had been deposited by melting glaciers and that broad U-shaped valleys were excavated by advancing ice.
He also realized that Swiss glaciers had been larger in the past. In 1836 a brilliant young Swiss naturalist, Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) a student of Cuvier and professor in comparison, the College of Neuchatel who was already renowned for pioneering studies on fossil fish, was given a guided tour of glacial phenomena in the Rhone River valley by Charpentier. Aware that Charpentier explained Swiss erratics and gravels as glacial deposits, Agassiz was skeptical at first but quickly became an enthusiastic convert. He immediately undertook extensive field research throughout Europe and the British Isles and had already gleaned sufficient information by the summer of 1837 to create a sensation with a lecture before the Swiss Society of Natural History announcing that vast ice sheets had covered the northern continents all the way to the Mediterranean Sea during the Pleistocene epoch.  Not unexpectedly, William Buckland was extremely interested in about help, Agassiz's startling hypothesis. Hoping to discount Agassiz's new ideas, Buckland participated in one of the most significant field trips in history in October 1838. Agassiz showed Buckland several examples of polished, striated bedrock and transported erratics on the southeastern slopes of the Jura mountains near Neuchatel. Together they examined glaciers in the Alps.
Buckland received a firsthand lesson in comparison essay, the capabilities of flowing ice and essays wrestling, was convinced that alpine glaciers had once been much more extensive. He informed Agassiz that he had seen similar phenomena in Scotland and England and sport comparison, had attributed them to diluvial action, but he now realized that flowing ice accounted for such features much more satisfactorily than an aqueous catastrophe ever could. Buckland had become a glacialist. Lyell soon followed. Agassiz issued a full-scale work in 1840 entitled Etudes sur les Glaciers . He, Buckland, and essays, Lyell also gave important papers in late 1840 before the comparison essay, Geological Society of essay about help, London on the evidence that glaciers had covered Scotland, Ireland, and comparison, England in the distant past, pointing out: the widespread occurrence of moraines, shoreline terraces of ancient lakes, and essay about, striated and essay, polished bedrock. Differential Equation Help. General skepticism reigned. Many believed that the action of icebergs swept over sport land accounted for some of the features more effectively than the action of 3rd grade report, glaciers.
In a few years, however, Agassiz's theory of a great continental ice sheet prevailed because it explained so much about the erratics, polished rocks, gravels, and wide valleys that had been previously puzzling in sport essay, the context of the deluge hypothesis. A scant two decades after his inaugural lecture, Buckland had completely repudiated diluvial catastrophism and had warmly embraced the homework, concept of a great ice age. In Rupke's words, Buckland saw glaciation as the 'grand key' to the diluvial phenomena. Sport Comparison. Many of his contemporaries eventually followed.  Development of the Geological Time Scale. While the great debates over the flood and glaciation were going on, geologists were also occupied with detailed mapping and subdivision of the simple geological time scale inherited from the 3rd grade book report, eighteenth century. By the mid-1800s, the time scale had become highly refined.  The subdivisions were worked out primarily in the British Isles and western Europe, where thick successions of fossiliferous strata abounded.
The secondary rocks of England were fruitfully subdivided. These rocks consisted of a very thick series of sport comparison essay, strata that had first been mapped by ap english William Smith. In a book issued in 1822, William Conybeare and William Phillips carefully described, refined, and sport, extended the sequence and book report, lumped the strata into groups of related units. For example, they defined the comparison essay, succession of strata including a prominent formation in Scotland and help, western England known as the Old Red Sandstone and the overlying formations including the Coal Measures as the essay, Carboniferous Order because of the abundance of coal in book anthem essays, the succession. During the latter 1830s, Adam Sedgwick and Roderick Murchison mapped and described a terrane of sport comparison, rocks that lay beneath the Old Red Sandstone in Devonshire and labeled it Devonian .  Sedgwick and Murchison also mapped the transition rocks of Wales over essay about help a period of years.  Despite bitter disputes about how to classify these strata, the geological community ultimately recognized a Cambrian and Silurian system in sport essay, these strata. Smith's claim that different strata were characterized by distinctive fossil remains was amply borne out by these later investigations. Murchison successfully applied the British succession to rocks in European Russia in 1840. Differential Equation.  There he recognized rocks that he assigned to the Silurian , Devonian , and Carboniferous systems on the basis of their fossil content.
Despite the fact that the rock types did not always precisely match those in sport essay, Britain, strata with Silurian fossils did lie beneath strata with Devonian fossils, which in turn lay beneath the formations with Carboniferous fossils. On another trek toward the Urals the following year, Murchison found another group of strata with unfamiliar fossils above the Carboniferous units. He named this series Permian after the about wrestling, nearby town of Perm. Back in Britain, geologists subdivided rocks that lay above the Carboniferous. Southeastern-most England contained formations made up of thick chalk deposits underlain by sands and marls.
These chalks were traced across the English Channel into France and Belgium, where they had been designated the Cretaceous Terrane in 1822 by comparison Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783-1875). Beneath the essays, British chalk and marl are various limestones. Because of the abundant spherical pellets known as oolites in many of the limestones, the sport comparison, entire series was first known as the Oolitic , but eventually the term Jurassic was applied because the rocks contained similar fossils and occupied the same stratigraphic position as limestones in the Jura mountains. Rocks beneath the essays about, limestones and overlying the Carboniferous rocks correlated with so-called Trias strata in Germany and were eventually identified as the Triassic . Even tertiary strata were subdivided. In the sport, third volume of his Principles of drug smuggling, Geology (1833), Lyell described rocks of the Eocene , Miocene , and comparison, Pliocene epochs. These subdivisions of the tertiary were based on the relative percentage of modern species of fossil shells in the strata. The term Quaternary was employed by 1829 to describe alluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic material overlying consolidated Tertiary beds in France. The term Pleistocene also was applied to Quaternary deposits to drug smuggling essay describe formations overlaying Pliocene deposits -- what Lyell had earlier termed later Pliocene deposits. By the early 1840s, a detailed geological time scale had been worked out on the basis of successions of superposed sedimentary strata distinguished by characteristic fossils. The primitive, transition, secondary, and tertiary gave way to the Precambrian , Cambrian , Silurian , Devonian , Carboniferous , Permian , Triassic , Jurassic , Cretaceous , Tertiary , and Quaternary , and the Tertiary was subdivided into Eocene , Miocene , and Pliocene strata.  These rock sequences could be traced all across Europe and were always found to occupy the same relative order. Although strata of a given system might be missing locally, rocks were never found out of sequence where the strata were clearly in a right-side-up position.
Rocks containing Triassic fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Jurassic fossils, for example, and comparison essay, rocks containing Silurian fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Devonian fossils. With increasing confidence geologists subdivided strata around the world on the basis of superposition and fossil content. They also found that rocks belonging to different periods were often separated from one another by differential equation homework erosional surfaces known as unconformities, indicating that periods of uplift, tilting, and erosion had occurred several times during the deposition of a given sequence of sedimentary rocks. Increasingly detailed studies disclosed features indicating that the layers must have been deposited over long periods of time in alternating marine and terrestrial environments. In the face of the wealth of new data, no reputable geologist any longer attributed the consolidated fossiliferous strata to the action of the flood. New Paleontological Discoveries. While they were engaged in their detailed mapping and subdivision of strata and expansion of the geologic time scale, naturalists were also discovering spectacular fossilized dragons, monstrous marine and terrestrial vertebrates that made the sport comparison essay, extinct elephants appear tame by ap english comparison. Sport Essay. Some of the most impressive remains were encountered in the Jurassic and Cretaceous beds of 3rd grade book report, southern England by Mary Anning (1799-1847), who at the age of eleven found a skeleton of an Ichthyosaurus , a sleek, sharp-toothed, fast-swimming marine reptile. A few years later she found remnants of a Plesiosaurus , a vastly longer swimming reptile, and in 1828 she encountered a fossil pterodactyl , a great airborne reptile with a long beak and membranous wings. Picture right: Pterosaur ( Pterodactylus kochi ), upper Jurassic, approx 150 million years old. Cuvier also described finds of Jurassic and sport comparison essay, Cretaceous vertebrates, including a pigeon-sized pterodactyl and about help, a fierce fifteen- to twenty-foot-long marine lizard that Conybeare had named Mosasaurus . Remains of sport, a variety of extinct species were discovered in the Stonefield Slate not far from drug smuggling Oxford.
Caves yielded bones and skulls of several extinct mammals including hyenas and the cave bear. In 1824, Buckland described Megalosaurus , a gigantic terrestrial reptile reconstructed from teeth, jaws, and bones from the Stonefield Slate. Cuvier estimated that the creature had been about forty feet long. Not to be outdone, Gideon Mantell (1790-1852), an outstanding British amateur paleontologist, found a more complete specimen whose thigh bones prompted his estimate that it had been surty feet long. Mantell had also collected crocodile and plesiosaur teeth and bones. In 1822, Mantell's wife found the earliest specimens of comparison, Iguanodon , and years later, Mantell described another extinct lizard, Hylaeosaurus .  One of the great collectors of the era was anatomist Richard Owen (1804-1892) of the Royal College of Surgeons, arguably England's premier paleontologist of the rnid-nineteenth century.  Owen described and reconstructed skeletons of several great extinct lizards and in report, 1841 proposed the establishment of a new suborder of Saurian Reptiles, for which I would propose the name of Dinosauria .  He also described several extinct South American mammals. By 1850 numerous small extinct land animals had also been described. Fossil kangaroos were found in Australia. Fossil sloths were found in the Americas.
The rapidly expanding list of comparison essay, newly recognized extinct land animals inevitably raised a variety of equation homework help, questions in sport essay, connection with the book report guidelines, biblical account of the flood. The first major issue concerned the contents of the ark. Essay. By this point, it had really ceased to be an issue for established geologists, who were altogether convinced by differential homework help a weight of comparison essay, evidence that seemed both incontrovertible and compelling. They were accustomed to essays interpreting Jurassic and Cretaceous strata as deposits that had been formed millions of years before the sport comparison essay, advent of essay about, human beings. But for laypeople, theologians untrained in the physical sciences, and non-professional scriptural naturalists who worked from outdated geological theory or otherwise continued to think of fossiliferous strata as flood deposits, the issue was extremely problematic. Those who insisted that all species of comparison essay, all land animals had been preserved on the ark now had to report guidelines include among them not only lions and bears but also mastodons , mammoths , giant sloths , pterodactyls , megalosaurs , iguanodons , hylaeosaurs , and a host of other extinct mammals. The prospect of an essay, ark with pairs of forty-foot-long monsters aboard stretched the limits of credulity. The most obvious way to avoid the problem was to assume that God had eliminated such beasts in the catastrophe, but that involved a departure from a strict literal interpretation of the biblical account, which states that God preserved at least two of every kind of beast in the ark . To this day, this problem is not faced squarely by proponents of flood geology. A second issue related to animal migration. Ap English Essays. Discoveries indicated that certain animals occurred as fossils only in specific and sport comparison essay, limited areas.
Fossil kangaroos , for example, were found only in Australia, and fossil sloths were found only in the Americas. The problem of migration thus became doubly severe for those who wished to ap english essays 2014 preserve a literal reading of the biblical text: they not only had to argue that kangaroos found the means to migrate from the ark to Australia after the flood but they also had to argue that kangaroos had found a way to migrate from comparison essay Australia to the ark before the flood. After 1850 no professional paleontologist felt it necessary or warrantable to assume the occurrence of a global deluge. Despite the smuggling essay, unceasing deluge of discoveries in comparison essay, the early decades of the century that devastatingly annihilated the global deluge theory, a few writers resisted the tendency of geologists to develop theories apart from book anthem a recognition of Mosaic history. Some objected to Buckland's restricted brand of diluvialism. Some sought to sport comparison essay update the diluvialism of Woodward and essay, Catcott. For the most part, as James R. Moore observed, these individuals were clergymen, linguists, and antiquaries -- those, in general, with vested interests in mediating the meaning of books, rather than rocks, in churches and classrooms. A few were competent field observers who had described regional geology. In any event, reflecting an undying attachment to biblical literalism, England spawned a reactionary movement of scriptural geologists. Comparison Essay.  The scriptural geologies of such people as Granville Penn , George Young , George Bugg , Joseph Sutcliffe , George Fairholme , Sharon Turner , and wrestling, William Kirby were typically marked by a strict adherence to literal readings of the flood narrative -- until they chose to sport make exceptions. About Help.  They typically proceeded by forcing selected geological data into the historical framework they believed to be supplied by a literal interpretation of Genesis; along the way, they typically ignored a sizable amount of problematic geological and paleontological data.
Perhaps pride of place among the scriptural geologies belongs to A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies , published in 1822 by Granville Penn , a toweringly self-assured and prolix writer. He argued at some considerable length that, contrary to the assertions of the sport comparison, neptunists, primitive rocks could not have formed by precipitation and crystallization from an initial chaos; rather, as Moses taught, they had been created in situ by 3rd grade book report guidelines God. We would be sure to reason unphilosophically and falsely, Penn asserted, if we were to conclude that a piece of granite had formed by aqueous solution or igneous fusion simply because it looked as though it had been formed by water or fire. Sport Comparison Essay. Primitive formations were made in correspondence with the laws which [God] was then about to essays about wrestling establish, said Penn, and in anticipation of effects and appearances which were thenceforward to be produced only by the operations of those laws.  Penn also spoke directly to the issue of the sport comparison essay, flood. The problem with mineral geology, he said, was that it rejected the Bible's revelation of a great universal revolutioni1 that God had brought about by the operation of water. On the third day of creation, a first revolution suddenly deepened the ocean bed, violently allowing water to drug essay rush in. A second revolution 1,656 years later depressed the exposed land area and raised the comparison, former sea bed, submerging what had formerly been dry land and rendering the former seabed habitable. This was the Noachic flood. True Mosaic geology allowed for these two revolutions only, said Penn.
The practitioners of mineral geology erred by presuming numerous revolutions. Scripture provided a true chronological order of geological events consisting of a first formation, a first revolution on the third day of creation, a long period of essay about, relative calm, and a second revolution during the flood. Penn argued that calcareous deposits and other marine substances were quietly deposited during the 1,656-year interval between the two revolutions. Comparison Essay. During the flood, incessant cataracts of rain and the overflow of the rivers stripped off soils and differential equation homework, vegetation. Vertebrate remains and the bulk of stratified rocks were distributed by eddies, tides, and the continuous flux and reflux of currents.
Equatorial animals were transported to northern sites by the flood. Human beings, on the other hand, would have been clustered together and drawn into the vortex created by the conflux of the two seas meeting from the opposite essay hemispheres on the subsidence of the last intervening land; and essays about, would thus have been immediately carried downward with violence, into sport the profundity of the new sea.  Despite insisting on strict adherence to the Bible concerning other points, Penn asserted that the ark had not in book, fact carried representatives of all the earth's animals. He stated that the extinction of sport, animals such as the mastodon was divinely ordained as part of God's plan of renovation. He also affirmed that since vegetation could not have survived a devastating year-long flood, God must have created postdiluvial vegetation just like the original vegetation.  Penn recognized that his thesis had other difficulties as well. He wondered, for example, why the homework help, rivers of the garden of Eden had familiar names if the sport comparison essay, surface of the postdiluvian earth were wholly new. His solution was to resort to the exegetical subterfuge of book, postulating that the description of the rivers was a parenthesis inserted into the direct thread of the history for the purpose of essay, illustration. The fluvial description introduced into the four verses , cannot therefore be regarded, critically, as any part of the Mosaical history, he wrote, and differential equation, so had no weight to affect the strong evidence of the sport essay, Mosaic history of the destruction of the primitive earth by the deluge.
Even the most enthusiastic biblical literalist found it increasingly difficult to devise scientific theories without abandoning literalism at essay key points. Another reactionary effort was tucked in an appendix to sport the Bridgewater Treatise written by William Kirby , a biologist of modest accomplishments and one-time president of the Royal Society. Smuggling.  He admitted that his knowledge of geological science was limited, and his work bore it out. In asserting that geologists had not paid sufficient attention to the magnitude, duration, momentum, varied agency, and. consequences of the biblical flood, he betrayed an apparent ignorance of the comparison essay, fact that the field had been dominated by various flood theories during the previous 150 years but that all reputable professionals had long since abandoned diluvialism. His assertions were all badly dated -- he named abyssal waters, torrential rain, and volcanoes as sources for the flood, for instance, and cited the abundant fossils in stratified rocks as clear evidence of the action of the diluvial waters -- and in general he sought to attribute far more effects to the flood than any geologist was prepared to. One of the most influential scriptural geologists was George Fairholme , whose masterwork New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and Period of the Mosaic Deluge was issued in 1837. Fairholme lamented the fact that belief in a universal deluge was vanishing and that such scholars as Sedgwick and ap english 2014, Buckland had recanted their earlier diluvialism. Despite the growing body of evidence to the contrary, Fairholme optimistically announced that evidences of a general deluge had recently assumed the character of complete demonstration . by sport essay a mass of exclusively physical testimony. What was this physical testimony that somehow failed to convince the geologists who were spending their lives investigating it? Undaunted by the widespread knowledge of the existence of unconformities, conglomerates, and steeply tilted strata of constant thickness, Fairholme forwarded the untenable claim that the sedimentary rocks contained no evidence of great age and were deposited rapidly and continuously in a moist state so that each individual stratum was unconsolidated when the next layer was deposited on top of it.
Ignoring countless reported observations of geologists, Fairholme further claimed that he had not personally seen a single instance of a well-defined ancient valley on the subterranean surface of any individual formation, and on this basis he proceeded to conclude that secondary strata could not have been formed by causes in existence today.  To support his assertion that the deluge occurred only a few thousand years ago, Fairholme calculated from the rate of differential equation homework, recession of sport, Niagara Falls that the river began to flow there only five thousand years ago. Differential Equation Homework Help. Since North America is comparison, underlain by aqueous sedimentary rocks that now form dry land, he said, the continent must have emerged from the sea at that time. When the land rose, Lake Erie began to overflow its basin, and the Niagara River began to carve out the falls.  Such assertions were quite unsupportable on the basis of the science of the day, much less thereafter. Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses to Scientific Developments. How did leading theologically conservative commentators assess the about, accumulation of geological, biogeographical, and geomorphological evidence in sport, the early nineteenth century? In commentaries on Genesis and dictionary articles on the flood, we encounter a broad spectrum of essays, approaches ranging from those of Charles Simeon to sport comparison essay Edward Robinson. Language Essays 2014. At one extreme, Charles Simeon (1759-1836), founder of the low church party in the Church of England, completely avoided all the thorny problems and all interaction with other writers in his Expository Outlines on the Whole Bible (1833). Assuming the universality of the flood to sport comparison be unproblematic, Simeon was concerned only with the moral and spiritual applications of the flood story to the lives of individual believers and to the life of the church. At the opposite extreme was Edward Robinson (1794-1863), founder of the journal Biblical Repertory and professor of biblical literature at Andover and Union Theological Seminaries. Robinson, a thoroughly conservative scholar but one of the first Americans to admit the rights of biblical criticism, painstakingly, if erroneously, dealt with much of the relevant extrabiblical material.  Most nineteenth-century commentators continued to assume the literal historicity and 3rd grade guidelines, universality of the essay, deluge.
Some assigned a date to the deluge by ap english language extrapolating from sport essay genealogies and other chronological markers in the biblical text. Methodist commentator Adam Clarke (1762-1832) put the flood at 2468 BC, while Robinson put it at 2348 BC. Courses on 3rd grade book report guidelines, the chronology and history of the biblical books formed an important component of American seminary curricula of the period, and comparison, William Hales 's massive multi-volume work A New Analysis of drug smuggling, Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy filled an important niche as a resource. Hales (1747-1831) was an Irish chronologist, a professor of Oriental languages at Trinity College, Dublin, and sport essay, later the rector of Killashandra. His work originally appeared in three volumes between 1809 and 1812, and a second four-volume edition appeared in essay, 1830 just prior to his death. Hales's study included a table of suggested dates for the onset of the deluge ranging from the Septuagint's 3246 BC to the 2104 BC of the Vulgar Jewish Computation.
He preferred 3155 BC himself. The Capacity of the Ark. Discussions of the ark's capacity, frequently based on appeals to sport comparison seventeenth-century calculations, were often stunningly out of touch with the equation help, latest knowledge. Sport Essay. Adam Clarke was justly famed throughout England as an outstanding Wesleyan preacher, scholar, and anthem essays, churchman, and it has been said that the comparison essay, scholarship in his massive Bible commentary is marked by an amazing openness regarding difficulties and points of essays, detail in essay, the biblical text. Essay Help. He gives evidence of some acquaintance with the science of his day as well, although he appealed to John Arbuthnot 's calculation of ark capacity and sport comparison, adopted the essay help, common argument that the sport, number of animals was much less than commonly perceived. He acknowledged that later discoveries had established a greater number of species than were known to Arbuthnot or John Wilkins (whose calculations he also warmly approved), but he blithely proceeded to state without demonstration that the whole of language essays 2014, these would occupy but little room in the ark.
He failed to comparison essay deal in any way with the issue of the larger number of extinct animals that had turned up in the fossil record, in the end simply affirming confidently that the capacity of the language essays, ark, which has been made an essay, objection against Scripture, ought to language 2014 be esteemed a confirmation of comparison essay, its Divine authority.  Edward Robinson made his observations concerning the ark's capacity in his updated 1832 American edition of the Dictionary of the Holy Bible, a massive work originally compiled in 1730 by eighteenth-century French Roman Catholic scholar Augustin Calmet (1672-1757). Robinson, according to 3rd grade book report Jerry Wayne Brown the one American scholar to essay achieve an international reputation in biblical studies before the Civil War, was especially careful to bring material on philology, interpretation, and geography up to the highest standards of contemporary scholarship. Yet in the matter of the flood narrative, Robinson apparently relied on Calmet's antiquated arguments, for, like Clarke, he wrote that the number of animals on the ark was not so great as generally believed, used outdated estimates of the number of known species, and made no mention of extinct mammals. Essays. His estimates were scarcely larger than those of Ralegh and Wilkins despite the explosion of knowledge about the world's animals. Although acknowledging that modern discoveries have augmented the variety of species of beasts and birds, he claimed that the number of them is not sufficiently great to comparison annul the argument he has adduced.
He went on to endorse the equation homework help, outdated argument that the number of species increased substantially after the sport comparison, flood as well: The innumerable varieties of species now known, are greatly the effect of climate, of food, of habit, whether roving or domesticated, and these would allow for considerable deductions from the general mass of creatures in the Ark. Drug Smuggling.  Hales claimed that the ark could have carried 20,000 men with provisions for six months plus 1,800 cannons and associated military stores. Could we then doubt its ability to contain eight people and 250 pairs of four-footed animals? Despite Hales's efforts to eliminate mistakes from his earlier edition, his figures, too, were outdated, and he took no account of extinct species.  Methodist minister Joseph Sutcliffe had not only written books on scriptural geology but also published a commentary on the entire Bible. Offended by a lecture suggesting that the ark would not have been able to hold pairs of sport comparison essay, all the essay about help, world's creatures, Sutcliffe responded by essay opting for a cubit not less than thirty inches long, forgetting that an enlarged cubit solved nothing if all the animals were correspondingly larger.  The ark, he thought, must have been equal to ten or twelve first-rate ships of war. Although claiming John Wilkins as one of the best writers on the capacity of the ark, Sutcliffe himself made no estimate of the number of known species. The German evangelical Lutheran Heinrich A. C. Havernick (1811-1845), a theologian at book report the University of Konigsberg who endorsed E. W. Hengstenberg's conservatism on questions of sport essay, Old Testament authorship and book anthem, unity, confidently asserted that excellent mathematicians had shown that the ark could contain more than 6,600 kinds of comparison, animals: this fact has remained till now unrefuted, as from its nature it cannot be otherwise.  While Clarke accounted for the ark's capacity in naturalistic terms, he appealed to miracle to account for how the essay, pairs of comparison essay, animals were brought in book, an orderly fashion to the ark and how the carnivores lived in sport comparison, peace with the other animals for a year. Robinson granted that a quick migration of animals to the ark from the extreme heat of Africa or the coldest parts of the North might well have proved fatal to wrestling them but argued that they could have escaped that fate had they migrated by insensible degrees or been bred there.
Moreover, he wrote, animals not now living in Mesopotamia might have lived there in sport essay, Noah's time. Havernick wanted to solve the problem the same way. In support, Robinson pointed out that several animal species were formerly abundant in countries where none presently existed. He knew that fossils of the hippopotamus, wolf, and beaver had been recovered from England, and smuggling, he knew that cranes and storks had formerly bred in England as well as Holland. Despite Robinson's awareness of some contemporary paleontological discoveries, he failed to recognize that various American and Australian animals had no fossil counterparts in Europe, Asia, or the Middle East. Theories of the Flood.
Several commentators believed that physical evidence plainly pointed to the flood, but virtually all were acquainted at sport comparison essay best only with outdated science. In his inaugural address at the opening of the Presbyterian Princeton Theological Seminary in 1812, founding professor Archibald Alexander (1772-1851) urged those preparing for gospel ministry to become scientifically literate. Noting that natural history, chemistry, and geology have sometimes been of important service in assisting the Biblical student to solve difficulties contained in Scripture, Alexander stressed the importance for book, the advocate of the Bible to sport attend to truth in all its forms. The sacred office would suffer contempt if the theologian or minister failed to take due heed to science.  We should not be surprised, then, to find that in his teaching about the biblical flood, Alexander appealed to both tradition and physical evidence. The tradition of the flood has been handed down through successive generations in almost every country, he said, and is attested in the physical record as well: We find traces of the deluge in differential, every part of the world, such as marine substances on sport comparison, the highest mountains. Language. The fact that bones and relics of sea and land animals are promiscuously mingled together in sport comparison essay, many parts of the earth. can never be reconciled with the theories of unbelievers, that the sea and land have by degree changed places. Book Essays.  Alexander quoted no sources, so we do not know where he received his ideas.
His writing suggests that he thought that fossils in stratified rocks on mountaintops were the result of the flood, however, which would have put him decades out of touch with the best geological thinking, but he may have had in mind the geomorphological and paleontological evidence in surficial deposits to which some late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century naturalists had appealed. Adam Clarke contended that an immense quantity of sport comparison, water occupied the center of the antediluvian earth. As this burst forth at book anthem God's command, circumambient strata sank and comparison, filled the vacuum occasioned by the elevated waters. God could have used lightning to convert the differential equation help, whole atmosphere into water had he wished to do so. Sport Comparison Essay. As it was, the incessant glare of lightning and the continual peals of thunder added indescribable horrors to the scene.
The rain and the abyss together were sufficient to overflow the about, earth and to dissolve the whole terrene fabric as judicious naturalists had supposed. Clarke appealed to the outdated works of John Ray and John Woodward, who, he said, had rendered it exceedingly probable that the whole terrestrial substance was amalgamated with the waters, after which the different materials of its composition settled in beds or strata according to their respective gravities. Sport Comparison. He was not concerned with long-standing objections that existing strata are not ordered in anything like ascending specific gravities; he maintained that any such anomalies could be attributed to disruptions introduced by essay earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. As Woodward had shown, every part of the earth bore unequivocal evidence of disruption and essay, violence. The present disordered state of the world could not be an original creation of the God of order.
The globe everywhere bore the marks of the crimes of men, and of the essays, justice of God. The most recent geologist to whom Clarke referred was Richard Kirwan, apparently unaware of the fact that Kirwan disagreed with Woodward's assertion that all sedimentary rocks could be attributed to comparison the flood, he completely overlooked the essays, work of such recent geologists as Buckland, Sedgwick, and Fleming. Chronologist William Hales specifically adopted Kirwan's idea that the comparison essay, main current of deluge waters came from the south and differential, cited as evidence the deep indentations in the southern coasts of Asia, Africa, America, Ceylon, and Madagascar. He argued that the universality and northerly course of the deluge were also evidenced by the abundant fossils in the Alps and Pyrenees, bivalves high in the Andes, skeletons of rhinoceroses and comparison, hippopotamuses in Siberia, and frozen mammoths in Siberia. Despite Buckland's compelling argument for a northerly source of the deluge, Hales concluded that we have no longer room to doubt of the about, northerly progress of the cataracts of the deluge from high southern regions. The fact that Hales cited invertebrates in stratified rocks as examples of flood relics shows that he, too, was appealing to substantially outdated theory. Sport Comparison Essay.  Isaac Voss 's local flood hypothesis bothered Edward Robinson. He wondered how Voss could know that parts of the world outside the Near East were uninhabited at the time of the flood. Help. Why would such a prodigious ark need to be built? And if a local flood had covered the mountains of sport essay, Armenia, would it not have spread into language essays neighboring countries?
But Robinson was also aware of the sport comparison essay, difficulties of universality. The greatest problem as he saw it was the quantity of water needed, and he resolved it with an appeal to the subterranean abyss. But what of the cold that would have affected Noah and the animals at the great heights to which they would have been elevated by equation homework help the waters? Robinson asserted that, although air is colder and sharper on the tops of the highest mountains, people do not die there from sport essay those causes. Essay Help. In any event, he thought it likely that the colder air would have been raised yet higher by the rising envelope of essay, flood water, so that the ark's passengers probably breathed nearly, or altogether, the same air as they would have ordinarily breathed a thousand or twelve hundred paces lower, that is, on the surface of the about, earth. Sport Essay. Robinson liked Burnet's theory but wished that he hadn't gone to book anthem essays such extremes. He thought it credible that the state of the globe before the deluge was different from sport that of the present. He also cited Woodward approvingly, noting that he had produced proofs of this great event still remaining in sufficient abundance -- proofs that had since been enlarged by others, including Buckland. Like Clarke, Robinson seemed unaware that Woodward's views had long since been discredited and he failed to book anthem essays grasp the fact that Buckland's flood was totally different from Woodward's.
Sutcliffe theorized that God increased the comparison essay, powers of gravitation at the time of the flood, causing the seas to rush onto the land in increasingly high tides until the mountains were washed and the latent rocks presented their shaggy cliffs. Sutcliffe was evidently familiar with the views of Whiston and Halley, because he specifically rejected them, arguing that the waters that overflowed the anthem essays, mountains were held there neither by the laws of sport, gravity nor by the approach of a comet. Book. He was probably more comfortable with the views of Woodward, Catcott, and sport essay, Penn, as suggested by his repeated references to help the flux and reflux of comparison essay, tides that stratified the homework, earth and left the world of plants and trees, which once grew in the warmer climates, deposed in our coal-fields along with numberless plants of which botany is now ignorant.  Havernick asserted that remains and essay, traces of a deluge indicated its universality, but he failed to book report identify those remains.  The Landing Site of the sport essay, Ark. Discussions of the landing site continued to be important. While agreeing that the ark landed in Armenia, Clarke disputed claims that the ark remained on Mount Ararat, because nothing of the anthem essays, kind was to be seen there. Contradicting his comments elsewhere, Robinson expressed skepticism that Mount Ararat was the landing site for Noah on the grounds that the cold would have destroyed any person who should have the hardihood to persevere. He adopted the older tradition that the ark came to sport rest in 3rd grade book, the mountains of Kurdistan. Sport Comparison. Sutcliffe observed that the drug, existence of the ark was attested in comparison essay, antiquity by differential equation homework help Abydenus, Berossus, and Herodotus and sport, suggested that the essays about wrestling, ark finally came to rest on Mount Ararat, the comparison essay, elevation of which he estimated at eight thousand feet above sea level. Essays Wrestling. 
Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses. Early nineteenth-century Christians had an obvious desire to sport comparison essay claim the support of essays, science or natural history for their understanding of the sport comparison, biblical flood story. While the exact relationship of the book, deluge to surface deposits was still being debated, there was no doubt among leading geologists that the sedimentary rock pile was caused by interchanges of land and sea acting over long periods of time, not by a single brief deluge. Geologists knew that sedimentary layers had consolidated prior to deposition of succeeding layers, and they recognized that deposition had been interrupted by episodes of uplift and essay, erosion. The discoveries of the remains of mammoths, giant sloths, and various terrestrial dinosaurs in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries made it clear that the world had formerly been populated by essays a large number of now extinct animals. The difficulty of imagining how all these beasts (and especially the many enormous ones among them) could have entered the ark and comparison essay, survived there for a year presented further challenges to a literal reading of the help, biblical flood narrative. In addition, the explosion of knowledge of new species of essay, animals and their fossil distribution militated against the assumption that they could all have migrated across the wrestling, globe to and from the ark. The scriptural geologists had to ignore a vast amount of comparison, compelling evidence in order to book sustain the traditional view of the flood. Whether in ignorance or by design, many commentators cited as authoritative the writings of naturalists a century or more out of date.
Certainly it became increasingly difficult to make such an error innocently as the burden of evidence continued to sport mount. Book. And, in sport comparison, fact, as the drug, nineteenth century wore on, scriptural geology and flood geology schemes in general began to disappear from the sport comparison, scene as Christians began to essay face the growing extrabiblical evidence honestly and to seek ways in which they could affirm both the truth of the sport essay, physical record and the truth of the biblical narrative. The Popularizers of Geology. During the first half of the nineteenth century, geology throughout Europe and America became an increasingly professional enterprise. Several technical geology journals came into print, university chairs in geology were created, geological societies were founded, and book anthem, governmental geological surveys were established. Geology emerged as a distinct discipline from natural history, separate from chemistry and physics. Students of the earth came to be identified as geologists rather than natural philosophers or natural historians. Sport. Geology developed its own methods of investigation and became less tied to equation the demands of biblical exegesis and the interests of orthodox Christian theology.
In Martin J. S. Rudwick's words, geologists gradually excluded as unscientific almost all that had previously made the earth rich in cosmological meaning: the origin of the earth, its ultimate fate, and, above all, the origin and early history of mankind.  Technical literature evidenced little concern to relate geological discoveries or theories to biblical texts. Geological inquiry was conducted as if the Scripture were not in existence, and geology no longer provided evidential support for a global deluge. Because of the sport comparison, increasingly technical character of geology, few biblical scholars or clergy had either access to or time to read such professional journals as the Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions or the Geological Society of London Quarterly, or presidential addresses of the Geological Society. The failure of individuals such as Clarke or Robinson to grapple with the latest geological knowledge is thus partly understandable. At the drug, same time, ordinary Christians seemed to sport comparison know enough about developments in the field to equation help realize that contemporary geologists were abandoning support for a global deluge. Comparison Essay. Indeed, many British clergy in particular, including the scriptural geologists, came to view geology as an infidel science dedicated to undermining Christian orthodoxy.
In this unsettling context, an equation, invaluable service was performed by theologically orthodox popularizers of geology. Several Christian geologists, professional and amateur, as well as some geologically knowledgeable theologians, wrote eloquently for the Christian community to introduce them to earth history and to convince them that, far from posing any threat to Christianity, recent discoveries harmonized beautifully with Scripture properly understood. Sport Comparison. These writings, presented in a manner accessible to essay Christian clergy and theologians, exerted a profound influence among theological conservatives.  James R. Moore has argued that the interval between 1832 (the date of the publication of Lyell's Principles of Geology , which arguably marked the sport comparison, point at which the field of geology was professionalized) and 1860 (the date of the publication of Essays and book report, Reviews , which arguably marked the point at which the comparison essay, field of Old Testament scholarship was professionalized) witnessed the book report guidelines, efflorescence'' of scriptural geologists and the harmonizers. He remarked that in Germany an older division of labor had left the reconciling of the findings of sport essay, geologists and biblical scholars to a few conservative theologians, whereas in Great Britain and America it was the anthem, geologists who did the sport comparison, harmonizing. In what follows we will examine the opinions of differential equation help, three major popularizers -- England's John Pye Smith , America's Edward Hitchcock , and Scotland's Hugh Miller . John Pye Smith (1774-1851), a divinity tutor in the dissenting Homerton College in essay, London, established his conservative credentials early in his career by challenging German biblical criticism. He was well versed in geology and occasionally wrote on geological topics.  A landmark set of Smith's lectures was issued in smuggling, 1840 under the title On the Relation between the Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science . Smith was persuaded that contemporary geologists were discovering genuine truths.
He maintained that geologists were honorable and that Christians were wrong to accuse them of being heretics simply because their claims seemed to contradict traditional interpretations of some Scripture passages. Smith argued that geological truth was compatible with biblical truth. He devoted much of his book to showing the compatibility of geology and the Genesis 1 creation account using a novel version of the restitution or gap interpretation, but he also devoted two chapters to the flood. Sport. Smith strongly believed that the biblical account was consistent with a limited deluge. Adopting an about, argument that would become a staple of essay, local flood advocates, Smith wrote, It is evident that 'the earth' is book anthem, put, by a frequent scriptural metonymy, for the inhabitants of the earth; whence it is reasonable to essay infer that the universal terms in our text have their proper reference to mankind, the subjects of guilt, whose flagitious character cried for a condign manifestation of essay, Jehovah's displeasure.  Smith was convinced of the sport, historicity of the flood, citing the wrestling, histories and traditions of all nations as adequate proof that the sport comparison, cataclysm was indelibly graven upon the memory of the human race. But he was surprised that so many scholars saw some logical connection between the universality of essays, historical tradition, and a geographical universality of the deluge itself.
He insisted that all that could be proved by the traditions was anthropological universality. Smith discussed examples of British drift that had often been cited as evidence of the deluge and sport comparison, asserted that such formations had probably been deposited before the creation of man. 3rd Grade. Writing before acceptance of the glacial hypothesis, Smith suggested that the sport comparison essay, rounding of pebbles and smuggling essay, boulders in drift required a very long time of rubbing and sport comparison essay, grinding by currents, eddies, and tides at essays the bottom of the essay, sea. He attributed the blocks of Alpine rocks now found in the Jura mountains as well as gravels and grooves on outcrop surfaces in essay, North America and Europe to comparison essay several local deluges. Drug Smuggling. In support, he quoted the recantations of Buckland, Sedgwick, and Greenough from their earlier deluge theories. Smith inferred that the occurrence of most diluvial phenomena in the northern hemisphere was adverse to the admission of a deluge simultaneous and universal for every part of the earth's surface.
The cindery volcanic cones of the Auvergne region could not have survived a monstrous flood. Comparison. Either the Auvergne volcanoes had formed since the deluge, which he doubted, or else the deluge did not reach to this part of the earth. Regarding biogeography, Smith conceded that past calculations of the capacity of the smuggling essay, ark worked so long as the number of animal species was on the order of four hundred, but he rightly charged that recent calculations generally showed the most astonishing ignorance of every branch of comparison essay, Natural History; the catalogue of essays about, known species at comparison that time included more than a thousand mammals, five thousand birds, and two thousand reptiles. Homework.  There was no way that pairs of all these animals could have fit on the ark, said Smith. Comparison Essay. And then there was the yet greater problem of accounting for the transportation of the animals to and from the ark. Anthem Essays. He dismissed a variety of comparison, ostensible solutions and in general expressed ridicule for. the idea of their being brought into one small spot, from the polar regions, the torrid zone, and all the drug smuggling, other climates of Asia, Africa, Europe, America, Australia, and essay, the thousands of islands; their preservation and provision; and the final disposal of them; without bringing up the idea of miracles more stupendous than any that are recorded in Scripture , even what appear appalling in comparison.
The great decisive miracle of Christianity, the RESURRECTION of the LORD JESUS, sinks down before it.  He denounced as fanciful the scriptural geologies of drug, Penn, Fairholme, Young, and comparison, Kirby. What then, asked Smith, should we make of the flood? The idea of creation and annihilation of the ap english, waters was ruled out by the language of Scripture, and we are not at liberty thus to invent miracles, since the Bible had already assigned two natural causes. Smith suggested that the biblical terms excluded the idea of a sudden and violent irruption and presented the idea of essay, a gentle elevation and later subsidence so that the ark was lifted, floated, and borne over the awful flood in a calm and quiet manner.
Smith assumed that the human race had not spread far from Eden. The human population was small and in a course of rapid progress towards an book anthem, extreme reduction, which would have issued in a not very distant extinction. Adopting an essentially Lyellian subsidence hypothesis, Smith located the antediluvian population in central Asia considerably below sea level. In addition to tremendous rain, he supposed an elevation of the floor of the sport essay, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean or else a subsidence of the inhabited land of central Asia. These combined, he said, would be sufficient causes, in the hand of almighty justice, for submerging the district, covering its hills, and destroying all living beings within its limits. Drainage would be effected by a return of the seabed to its previous level or by uplift of some tracts of drug smuggling essay, land. Finally Smith reminded his readers that the comparison essay, orthodox seventeenth-century clerics Poole and Stillingfleet had concluded that the Bible spoke of a localized flood on biblical grounds without the benefit of homework, any geological findings. Very influential on American attitudes toward the flood was Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864), student and friend of Benjamin Silliman, a Calvinistic Congregationalist theologian, president of Amherst College, founding member of the National Academy of Sciences, and expert on comparison essay, New England geology.  On numerous occasions, the geologist-theologian took up his pen to elucidate the bearing of geology on Christian faith. According to Stanley Guralnick, Hitchcock saw it as his task to assure the world, especially any skeptics of science, that every finding of geology could then be corroborated in essay, revelation, so that there was never any contradiction between the two accounts of nature.  Because Hitchcock wrote for theological and ecclesiastical journals, he had a major impact on the thought of theologians and pastors.
In one of his early efforts, Hitchcock irritated theologian Moses Stuart of Andover Theological Seminary by noting the unsettled character of the exegesis of Genesis 1 and asking whether geology might not put into the interpreter's hand the clue that will disentangle all difficulties. Eager to guard an increasingly professionalized exegesis against comparison, any infringement of its rights by science, Stuart said that he was unable to see how the discoveries of modern science and of recent date, can determine the meaning of Moses' words. Undeterred, Hitchcock addressed the topic of the flood in a lengthy article that appeared in The American Biblical Repository, an equation homework help, organ of Congregationalist Andover Seminary, in three parts in 1837 and 1838. Essay.  In the first part, Hitchcock reviewed the biblical story and extrabiblical flood traditions. Although some of book, his contemporaries regarded many of the traditions as unrelated, Hitchcock believed that they all originated in the deluge of Noah because many of the sport essay, gods and equation homework, demigods resembled Noah and his sons, the ark was alleged to have been involved in heathen worship, and the dove, raven, and rainbow were all featured in ancient mythology. In the second part, Hitchcock reviewed the history of ideas regarding the historical and sport essay, geological deluges. About. He lamented the fact that some theologians continued to accept the old diluvialism in part because of a prevailing ignorance of geology.
What was desperately required, he said, was much more acquaintance with geology, than at present prevails. He rejoiced that at comparison essay least some advances toward the drug, truth had been made in essay, the previous fifty years. Hitchcock understood why people once believed that fossiliferous stratified rocks were the product of the deluge, but he failed to essay about help understand how Kirby, Penn, and Fairholme could continue to espouse such discredited views. Comparison. That such opinions should be advanced by so able a scientist as Kirby, said Hitchcock, simply confirmed the fact that he knew very little geology. But while ignorance explained the lapse, Hitchcock did not believe it excused it; in fact, he was concerned that Kirby's radically erroneous views might powerfully arrest the progress of truth. Hitchcock dismissed the work of Penn and Fairholme as physico-theology modernized. He was not impressed by their presumed geological knowledge or unwarranted self-confidence. Mincing no words, he charged that their knowledge of geology was obtained mostly by smuggling reading. They so presented facts as to betray at once their want of practical acquaintance with the subject, especially when they were so positive on points which all working geologists know to essay be quite problematical. He vehemently objected to the practice of homework, accusing geologists of atheism simply because they imputed the changes in the earth's condition to comparison secondary causes.
He repudiated their extravagant theories on the grounds that they greatly distorted geological facts as well as Scripture. Hitchcock flatly rejected the view that primary rocks were created just as we find them, that secondary rocks were deposited between the ap english language essays 2014, creation and comparison essay, the deluge, and that tertiary and 3rd grade book guidelines, diluvial strata were deposited by the deluge. None but a geologist can know what absurdities must be received, and what distortions made of facts, before such opinions can be embraced. They answered well enough for the times when physico-theology was in comparison, its glory; because then it was only a few generalities, and drug smuggling essay, these very misty, that were known: and at this day they can be embraced, without a suspicion of their absurdity, by those who know but few of the details of geology. Yet to the geologist they appear a thousand times more extravagant and opposed to facts than any opinions that have been entertained by the cultivators of sport, this science, and which Penn and Fairholme so violently oppose. 
Hitchcock recognized three major classes among recent front-rank geologists. The first denied any universal or general deluge, the second believed a general deluge had taken place before the essay about, creation of man and believed that the Mosaic deluge was probably a more restricted event, and the third believed that traces of sport comparison essay, several extensive deluges could be found and drug smuggling, that the last of these might have been the Noachic deluge. Hitchcock lumped the first two classes together because they agreed that no traces of the Noachian deluge had been found. He argued that their position did not necessarily conflict with revelation, because the Mosaic account did not require that traces of the deluge remain permanently. It would in fact be unreasonable to expect to find traces of the Mosaic deluge among the fossiliferous secondary or tertiary rocks. For one thing, a tumultuous deluge would have torn up the earth's surface, sweeping detritus elsewhere, but the fossiliferous rocks generally appear to have been deposited in quiet water and sport essay, are arranged with great regularity. For another, a year-long flood could not have produced the immense numbers of fossils that had been found. Furthermore, most fossils were not identical to existing species of animals and plants, and organic remains become more and more unlike living beings as we go deeper in a pile of strata. Report. If all animals except those spared on the ark had been killed and entombed by sport the agitated waters of language, a deluge, the existing races should be found as often at the bottom as at the top of the sport essay, fossiliferous rocks.
Hitchcock saw no escape from the force of the equation help, evidence unless one maintained that there was an entirely new creation of species that were mostly different from those destroyed by the deluge. Hitchcock went on to argue that deluge currents would have removed softer parts of the surface, abraded the harder parts, and produced thin deposits. But as similar processes have been going on everywhere since the last deluge, it would probably be difficult after the lapse of centuries to distinguish diluvial from alluvial action. Traces of comparison essay, Noah's deluge might easily be obliterated. If so, however the fact argues nothing against the scriptural account. Essay About. The absence of comparison essay, traces of the biblical flood should cause no alarm, said Hitchcock, because geology furnished presumptive evidence in favor of the occurrence of drug smuggling, such a deluge -- the view of the third class of comparison, geologists. Hitchcock marshaled three lines of drug smuggling essay, evidence to support the Bucklandian conclusion that the phenomena of diluvium prove a powerful rush of water from the north over the northern hemisphere. First, boulders and diluvial gravel are found almost uniformly in a southerly direction from the rocks from which they have been detached. He described a host of occurrences of boulders and gravel throughout New England, the Great Lakes region, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Although not yet a convert to the ice age theory about to essay burst on the scientific world, Hitchcock granted that masses of ice might have participated in the diluvial transport by carrying larger boulders to their present locations. After all, would not a rush of about, water over our continent from the sport, Arctic regions have swept along icebergs? But he maintained that the vast accumulations of diluvial sand and gravel bore the marks of the differential help, action of water. Hitchcock attributed the rounding of the boulders to the action of streams that existed prior to the last cataclysm. The second line of evidence included scratches and grooves with a north-south orientation on bedrock as well as valleys with the same alignment. Hitchcock asserted that these features, with which he had become thoroughly acquainted in his study of essay, New England's topography, had led most intelligent men to feel as if there could not be much doubt respecting the occurrence of book guidelines, a general deluge in sport comparison, the northern hemisphere in comparatively modern times. Hitchcock third line of evidence focused on differential help, the animal remains found in caverns and fissures. Comparison. Relying heavily on Reliquiae Diluvianae , Hitchcock could not explain the phenomena in about help, any other way, than by admitting the sport, occurrence of such a catastrophe. But then he raised the big question. Was this alleged deluge identical with that described by Moses? He listed three major reasons not to equate the two floods.
First, prior discoveries in geology indicated that progressively older fossiliferous formations contain fossils that are progressively more unlike living organisms. Thus the essay about, great preponderance of extinct species among the sport, fossils in book, the diluvium implied some degree of antiquity. Second, if the purpose of the biblical flood was to wipe out humanity, human remains should be found in flood deposits, but none had been. The only way to escape the force of that argument was to limit antediluvians to central Asia, a region whose diluvium has been as yet little explored. Third, the Mosaic deluge was too short to have produced the diluvial phenomena which geology exhibits. Hitchcock tentatively concluded that the arguments against the identity of the two deluges outweighed those in favor.
Even so, he insisted again, no presumption is derived from geology against comparison essay, the truth of Moses' history of the deluge. To the contrary, there was a presumption in about wrestling, its favor even on the most unfavorable supposition. In the third part of his series, Hitchcock asked if the Mosaic account was true. Comparison. After reviewing six major objections to the Mosaic chronology, including the argument from homework help biogeography, he argued that the biblical account was true and comparison, that a localized deluge sufficiently satisfied the demands of the text. He maintained that appeals to miracle solved no problems associated with the flood, and commented that God generally didn't operate through miracle anyway. Hitchcock cautiously endorsed the theory of French geologist Elie de Beaumont (1798-1874) that the sudden catastrophic uplift of mountain chains generated great waves that washed over the continents and that tremendous volcanic eruptions simultaneously triggered torrential rains.  If such conclusions were admitted, every reasonable man will allow, that the Mosaic account of the deluge stands forth fairly and fully vindicated from all collision with the essay, facts of science. Realizing that some people wanted to claim more positively that geology strikingly confirms the sport, Mosaic history, Hitchcock urged his readers to consider the matter unsettled. In 1851 Hitchcock again tackled the flood in essays, Religion of Geology , a work that included a condensation of his three articles with slight shifts in emphasis and a conclusion in which he summarized arguments in essay, favor of a local flood. Only miracle could salvage universality, he argued, and the Bible didn't require miracles here. The problems with universality included the sources of such a vast quantity of water, the difficulty of providing for the animals in the ark, the distribution of the smuggling essay, animals and plants on the globe after the flood, and sport comparison essay, the probability that vegetation would have been destroyed. No provision was made for seeds on the ark, and book anthem essays, so presumably a new plant creation would have been required, a point to which the biblical text did not speak at all.
Moreover, the Bible often used universal language to describe a limited event. Assuming that human beings occupied only a limited portion of one continent, Hitchcock wondered why it would have been necessary to depopulate all other continents and islands, inhabited only by comparison irresponsible animals, who had no connection with man? He called on Bishop Stillingfleet, Matthew Poole, and John Pye Smith for support. Abandoning Beaumont's uplift hypothesis, Hitchcock turned to Smith's subsidence idea that the Caspian Sea region had been flooded. He speculated that volcanic eruptions caused by anthem essays vertical movements of the Indian Ocean seabed might have condensed enough water vapor to yield forty days of rain.
Hitchcock concluded that even though newer interpretations of the essay, biblical narrative did not seem to be the most natural meaning, yet if geological facts unequivocally require such an interpretation to harmonize the Bible with nature, then science must be allowed to essay help modify our exegesis of Scripture. He suggested that such exegetical modifications would immediately disarm skepticism. Sport. And he insisted that the Bible still stood as an immovable rock amid the conflicting waves even though no trace of the deluge event remained in nature. Hitchcock had not completely swung over to Moses Stuart's point of view, but, despite his continued allegiance to natural theology and harmonization, his catastrophism had become more placid and he was less concerned about a literal match between Scripture and geological details. Surpassing both Smith and Hitchcock was Hugh Miller (1802-1856), a highly respected and devout Presbyterian who was gifted with an elegance, grace, wit, and clarity of written expression matched by few. In his capacity as editor of Witness , the voice of the evangelical wing of the Church of Scotland that ultimately formed the Free Church of Scotland during the Disruption of 1843, Miller gained a reputation as a zealous, eloquent, and trusted defender of Christian orthodoxy.  In earlier years, Miller had been a stonemason, and he honed his talents for drug smuggling essay, geological observation during years in the quarries.
He became an amateur geologist who described primitive fossil fish and did pioneering studies of Britain's famous Old Red Sandstone. Miller was highly respected by leading scientists including Agassiz, who wrote a long commendatory introduction to the American edition of Miller's Footprints of the sport essay, Creator . Miller was indeed an effective popularizer of geology. His reputation for theological soundness and his facility with the pen enabled him to reassure Christian believers that geology posed no threat to about help orthodoxy. Among the harmonizers, Hugh Miller may have been first among equals.  Like Hitchcock, Miller attributed the deluge traditions to a historical flood event that was burned into the consciousness of the comparison, race.
He did not believe that the universality of the traditions implied a geographically universal flood, however he maintained that it simply implied that all human beings had descended from differential equation homework help those who went through the flood. Given Noah's isolation, there could have been no human testimony to determine whether the exterminating deluge was universal or partial, and Noah himself must have been ignorant of the extent of the deluge. Sport. God could have provided that information, but Miller noted that God's revelations usually effected exclusively moral purposes. More generally, Miller asserted that those who have perilously held that the Bible imparted definite physical facts, geographic, geologic, or astronomical along with moral facts ''have almost invariably found themselves involved in monstrous error. Because the report guidelines, extent of the deluge was a physical question that had no more moral implications than the shape or the age of the earth or the motions of the essay, heavenly bodies, there was no need to reveal such information. Miller reminded his readers that the Bible used the common eastern device of metonymy (using the part to signify the whole), so it might well be that a major local inundation would be referred to as a universal flood.
He also reminded his readers that Poole and Stillingfleet had adopted a local flood on solely biblical grounds. In a clear appeal to extrabiblical data, Miller asserted that with respect to the flood as with respect to other biblical references to matters of physical science, the ap english essays 2014, limiting, modifying, explaining facts and circumstances must be sought for in that outside region of comparison essay, secular research, historic and scientific. He believed it essential that the church stay as well acquainted with such research as the enemies of the faith did. From research much valuable biblical illustration had been derived. He warned against ignorance of extrabiblical data, chided those who were content to solve scientific problems with the Bible alone, and showed that extrabiblical data had frequently corrected erroneous interpretations of the Bible. Plain men who set themselves to deduce from Scripture the figure of the planet had little doubt that the earth was flat until corrected by the geographer; plain men who set themselves to acquire from Scripture some notion of the language 2014, planetary motions thought that the sun moved around an earth at rest until corrected by the astronomer; plain men who have sought to sport comparison determine from Scripture the age of the ap english language essays, earth were confident that the earth was about six thousand years old until corrected by the geologist. In sum, plain men quite properly learned the way of salvation from the Bible, but every time they sought to deduce from it what it was not intended to teach -- the truths of physical science -- they have fallen into extravagant error.  And if such error is casually or, worse, boldly or even belligerently endorsed, it must necessarily mar the overall credibility of the church. To account for the apparently universal biblical language, Miller asked his readers to think about the impressions an observer would receive during sudden subsidence of the land or uplift of the seabed. An observer on a boat would be unaware of the cause of comparison essay, what was happening. If subsidence occurred, an intelligent witness could testify to the persistent rise of the sea, accompanied mayhap by rain and tempest.
The witness would testify that it had been flood without ebb, as if the fountains of the great deep had been broken up for book anthem, many days. But the observer would depart perilously from sport essay his position as a witness-bearer if he claimed, when his boat floated above a hill eight hundred feet in elevation that all hills with the same elevation everywhere were also covered. The observer could not legitimately infer a global deluge from a local depression. Miller joined Smith and Hitchcock in discounting the old diluvialism. He noted that for fifty years no one acquainted with paleontology or the true succession of the sedimentary formations had believed that any proof of a general deluge can be derived from the older geological systems. Geologists had looked for traces of the deluge in surficial deposits, but John Fleming had clarified the difficulties of that endeavor, and many diluvialists had recanted. Miller also discounted Granville Penn's assertion that the flood had swept mammoth carcasses across the globe on the grounds that the mammoths were now known to have been native to the areas in which their remains were found. The remains of ap english language essays, many extinct species that were once thought to sport have been transported great distances before being deposited in caves were likewise later determined to differential homework have been native to essay Europe. Miller concluded that the ark would have had to be five or six times larger than the generally accepted dimensions to accommodate all known animals. Not only had there been many discoveries of new species but naturalists had also come to recognize that many different kinds of animals that had formerly been classified as a single species were in fact distinct species.
There were, for example, far more species of sheep than previously recognized. Miller also reminded his readers that the Bible spoke of at least seven of each clean animal being on the ark, a fact overlooked in many of the older calculations. Miller laid out the biogeographical evidence in more detail than anyone else had before. The migration of the wild animals to the ark would have involved a miracle nowhere recorded, he maintained, and book essays, the burden of proof for such a miracle lay on those who asserted a universal deluge. Setting aside the issue of whether carnivores could have ceased being carnivorous during the sport comparison, flood time, Miller noted that of the creatures that live on vegetables, many are restricted in their food to single plants, which are themselves restricted to limited localities and remote regions of the globe.
Many insects had no wings and feeble locomotive powers, some gnats could live for essay, only a few hours or days after losing their wings, and comparison essay, other insects lived only upon single plants. Drug. Getting all the animals to the ark posed staggering difficulties, and getting them all back after the flood posed equally staggering difficulties. How would the insects have returned, for instance? As wingless grubs? Miller warned his opponents that the expedient of having recourse to sport supposititious miracles in order to get over a difficulty insurmountable on every natural principle, is not of the nature of argument, but simply an evidence of the want of it. Vastly expanded knowledge of the fossil record made the biogeographical argument far more persuasive than it had been only a century earlier. Animals in various parts of the essay help, world had been preceded by sport comparison essay similar animals. The sloths of South America had been preceded by the extinct megatherium , known only from ap english essays 2014 fossil remains. The kangaroos and wombats of Australia had been found as fossils only in that region. The birds of New Zealand were found as fossils only in New Zealand.
The problem of the migration of species to and from the ark could not be evaded by recourse to an interchange of sport essay, land and sea. Miller claimed with devastating logic spiced with biting humor that, on the supposition that a continuous tract of land stretched between South America and Asia, it is just possible that, during the hundred and wrestling, twenty years in which the comparison, ark was in building, a pair of essay help, sloths might have crept by comparison inches across this continuous tract, from where the 2014, skeletons of the great megatheria are buried, to where the great vessel stood. Comparison Essay. But after the Flood had subsided, and the change in sea and land had taken place, there would remain for them no longer a roadway; and so, though their journey outwards might, in all save the impulse which led to drug smuggling essay it, have been altogether a natural one, their voyage homewards could not be other than miraculous . One would need miracles for even less well-traveled species. How could Great Britain and Ireland have been restocked with their original inhabitants? While the red deer and the native ox might have swam across the Straits of Dover or the comparison essay, Irish Channel, such an effort would have been far beyond the about help, power of such feeble natives of the sport comparison essay, soil as the drug essay, mole, the hedgehog, the shrew, the dormouse, and the field-vole.  But the biological distribution problem was even more serious.
Freshwater fish and mollusks would have been killed. Given the spawning habits of salmon and trout, would not the flood have destroyed them? Invertebrates of the shores would be destroyed. Few of the more than 100,000 species of plants or their seeds could survive submersion in water for a year. Without another miracle, three quarters of the globe's vegetation would necessarily have perished. Miller professed puzzlement that learned, respectable theologians would accept any amount of unrecorded miracle rather than admit a partial deluge. Could they not see that the controversy was not between Moses and the naturalists but between the readings of comparison essay, different theologians?
Since all of about wrestling, natural science was arrayed against the theologians who held a global deluge, and inasmuch as there has been always such a marked economy shown in the exercise of miraculous powers, Miller concluded that theologians who held that the deluge was coextensive with its moral purpose were on the right track. His quarrel lay not with Moses or the truth of sport comparison essay, revelation. but with the opponents of Stillingfleet and of Poole. Chastising those who ignored geology as baseless speculation, Miller vigorously insisted that Christians had to pay attention to drug smuggling the discoveries of the science of comparison, geology. Individuals unacquainted with geology placed themselves in positions greatly more perilous than they seem to think, when they enter on the field of argument with men who for many years have made it a subject of special study. The cumulative evidence from geology against a universal flood was overwhelming. Where did Miller locate his partial flood? Borrowing from Lyell and Smith, he looked to the sunken basin of the Caspian and Aral Seas in book, central Asia.
He supposed that if a trench-like strip between the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Finland were depressed, it would so open up the fountains of the great deep as to lay under water an extensive and populous region. The vast plains around the sport comparison, Caspian, laden with salt and sea shells, show that the caspian Sea was at no distant period greatly more extensive than it is now. If the equation homework, land began gradually to sink, Miller speculated, slowly and equably for forty days together, at the rate of about four hundred feet per comparison day, a rate less than twice the guidelines, rate at which the tide rose in essay, the Straits of essays, Magellan, such a rise would render itself only as a persistent inward flowing of the sea. One could further envision some volcanic outburst coincident with the depression that would affect the atmosphere, causing heavy drenching rains to descend the comparison essay, whole time. Although the rains would add little to the volume of the flood, they would appear to an observer as one of the flood's main causes and would add to book anthem the terror by swelling the rivers. By the end of the fortieth day, an area of about two thousand miles each way would have sunk in its centre to the depth of sixteen thousand feet -- a depth sufficiently profound to bury the loftiest mountains of the district. As the contours of sport essay, its hills and plains would remain as before, the doomed inhabitants would see but the water rising along the mountain sides, and one refuge after another swept away, till the last witness of the scene would have perished, and the last hill-top would have disappeared.  Summary of the Popularizers of Geology.
The contemporary church would benefit immensely from a rediscovery of the compelling writing of Smith, Hitchcock, and Miller. The specific exegeses of Genesis espoused by these individuals may be open to drug essay criticism, but it is to their credit that they viewed the growing body of extrabiblical evidence devastatingly opposed to the traditional ideas of the deluge not as a threat to comparison faith but as an occasion for reaching a better understanding of Genesis. Their considerable success in influencing late nineteenth-century conservative theology can probably best be attributed to 3rd grade book report the fact that they were very evidently committed to sport comparison essay truth in both the ap english, realm of science and the realm of faith. On the one hand they had practical experience in geology and sport comparison essay, were familiar with the help, leading geological scholarship of the day, and on the other hand they had impeccable orthodox credentials and made good use of formats that were readily accessible to theologians. Hitchcock reached the theologians through frequent contributions to theological journals, while Smith and Miller gave lectures and wrote popular books for an era that was fascinated by sport the issues of science and religion. Altogether they made it difficult for their contemporaries to remain ignorant of the fundamentals of geology or to ap english language evade its implications for sport essay, their reading of the biblical narrative. Modern Global Flood Geology To this day, flood catastrophism continues alive and well. Articles on the flood appear regularly in Creation Research Society Quarterly , for example. 3rd Grade Book Report. For the most part the essay, proposals lack empirical control and fail to differential engage or test the hypotheses of other flood geologists. Essay.  Flood geology has proved to be a marvelous illustration of the unlimited human capacity both to offer and essay help, embrace unchecked speculation.
One might expect that those who endorse a strict literalistic interpretation of the flood narrative (involving the complete destruction of human and animal life not preserved on the ark and the significant reordering of the earth's surface features) would be inclined simply to reject the relevance of extrabiblical data, given the comparison essay, fact that such data seem clearly and guidelines, overwhelmingly to deny that such a planet-altering flood ever took place. One might expect that such individuals would instead make appeals solely to the Word of God as the complete and final authority in all such matters and that they would denounce extrabiblical evidence as superfluous and misleading. And yet the proponents of sport comparison essay, flood geology have moved in the opposite direction, not only book essays showing a substantial interest in extrabiblical evidence but actually elevating it to the status of apologetic proof. The issue for flood geologists is not whether extrabiblical evidence is relevant to biblical interpretation but rather how to comparison interpret that evidence. 3rd Grade Book Report. Having already employed, without benefit of sport essay, external evidence, a hermeneutic that demands a literal interpretation of the Bible, flood geologists are prepared to do anything but accept the smuggling, mainstream scientific evidence that flatly refutes their claims that the earth is geologically young and that a global deluge deposited the comparison essay, fossiliferous strata. They have thus been forced either to appeal to miracles or to construct elaborate theories that manipulate the extrabiblical data to fit their view of drug essay, what must be true. The appeals to miracle have been made mostly in the context of arguments for a young earth (e.g., in sport comparison essay, claims that God created the world in such a way that it simply has the appearance of great age). The flood theories themselves have been characterized more by speculation ungrounded in valid data or by the selective use and mishandling of the real facts of science.
The typical twentieth-century flood geologist has paid great attention to the ark, to deluge traditions, and to stratigraphy and paleontology but has largely ignored the overwhelming contrary evidence from anthropology, comparative mythology, archeology, biogeography, petrology, and geochemistry. Among their ranks, only Whitcomb and Morris (authors of book essays, The Genesis Flood , 1961) have attempted to address the serious problems posed by biogeography and anthropology. The few flood geologists who have sought to deal with stratigraphic and paleontological evidence have on the whole been poorly informed in sport comparison, those fields. Most have lacked substantial experience in field geology, have not been well acquainted with relevant scientific literature, and have generally tended to view geological data in a fragmented fashion, isolated from the larger context of regional geology. Drug Smuggling Essay.  Their work is broadly characterized by untested or untestable speculations that have a more solid grounding in sport comparison, the imagination than in smuggling, God's creation.
They assert confidently but without support that these speculations are the real facts of science, and then they propose that these real facts constitute an apologetic for the Bible literally interpreted.  In the process, they effectively divorce the Word of God from any connection to God's actual created handiwork. In recent decades, the flood geologists have devoted more energy than any other group to discussion of the biblical flood. Because most flood geologists have expressed a commitment to comparison the infallibility of the Bible, God's revelation, and salvation through Christ alone, conservative twentieth-century evangelicals (who are already isolated from the broader academic community and a bit suspicious of higher intellectual endeavors) have generally been receptive to their pronouncements on scientific matters as well, especially since the alternatives have seemed implicitly to threaten their understanding of Scripture. And since mainstream evangelical scientists have done relatively little to educate the laity about the degree to which flood geologists have failed in both their understanding and their treatment of scientific data and technical literature, the latter have been able to exert an unwarranted force in evangelical thinking. This has established a vicious circle: in following the flood geologists and divorcing themselves from the mainstream scientific community, evangelicals have further cut themselves off from important sources of information that might have served to correct the errors. If flood geologists and drug smuggling essay, evangelicals really want to be serious about sport comparison heeding extrabiblical evidence, they will have to exercise more scientific competence, sophistication, and integrity than they have displayed thus far in the twentieth century. As we have seen, the wrestling, idea of a universal deluge was the sport essay, settled interpretation of the church for nearly seventeen centuries, but that changed as a body of compelling evidence undercutting that interpretation gradually accumulated. About Help. The cumulative pressure of sport comparison essay, general revelation can be ignored only so long.
Christians must always be ready to reexamine even settled interpretations when a wealth of ap english language 2014, external data call these interpretations into question. God may be trying to tell us something! This case study of the flood suggests the need for more humility and essay, less dogmatism in interpretation. The arrogant attitude displayed by some commentators who have lacked appropriate scientific knowledge, especially in this century, is appalling. Christians must also be cautious in using extrabiblical data for apologetic purposes, since their data may eventually be supplanted by better information that demands a different interpretation. There is danger in basing an apologetic for our interpretations on a presumed agreement of the Bible with science. The church is too often overly cautious and reactionary in handling extrabiblical information and desperately needs to develop an essays wrestling, attitude and a hermeneutic that eagerly embrace the discoveries that are made in essay, God's world. In response to the growing body of evidence regarding the essay, flood, many Christian scholars seem to have waited until the last possible moment to accept the sport essay, idea of a local flood.
Indeed, a large segment of the evangelical church still seeks to support a belief in a global flood by differential equation homework resisting, distorting, or misinterpreting relevant extrabiblical evidence. It is, of course, easy to find fault in comparison essay, hindsight. And as the ap english, church has been singed from time to time by overeager scholars who have rushed to construct the most tenuous hypotheses on the slenderest threads of evidence, some caution is understandable. Sport Comparison Essay. It is also understandable that long-held traditional ways of interpreting the Bible may easily become equated with what God is actually saying, and, of course, the church is reluctant to part with what it thinks God is saying! And yet many Christians have come to drug essay dread all scientific evaluations of the created world because they perceive in them a threat to the authority of the Bible and the certainty of personal salvation. A large segment of the essay, evangelical church has unfortunately locked itself into a biblical hermeneutic that requires a global flood and a recent six-day creation and that prevents it from dealing responsibly with God's creative work. I submit that there is differential help, something inherently flawed in any hermeneutic that prevents us from reading God's handiwork properly and that repeatedly puts us at comparison odds with the established conclusions of a scientific community that is equation help, composed not just of opponents of Christianity but also of confessing Christians. Some Christians delight in contrasting the infallible Word of God (that is to sport say, the Word of God infallibly interpreted by them) with the fallible ideas of sinful human beings and on essays about, that basis reject scientific conclusions they do not like. Scripture does oppose purely human philosophies, human pride, and human sin. But does the sport comparison essay, Bible oppose everything human? Science is differential homework help, a human endeavor that requires the input of fallible humans, but that hardly means that it is sport essay, anti-Christian, and 3rd grade report guidelines, it certainly does not prevent Christians from accepting and using the results of science.
Even the most doctrinaire advocates of a literal reading of Genesis 1-11 are selective in their objections to the findings of the comparison essay, scientific community. How many of about, them deny that the earth orbits the sun rather than the other way around, for example? How many object to sport the science that made high-tech electronics, manned missions to book guidelines the moon, or modern drugs possible? When so many scientists of such a diverse array of worldviews are able to achieve a virtual consensus regarding a given body of evidence, we had better pay attention. When for sport, the past two centuries thousands of geologists from around the world, including numerous Bible-believing Christians, insist from a lifetime of experience in looking at fossiliferous rocks that those rocks are extremely old and had nothing to do with a global deluge, then the church must listen.
Commentators who dismiss or disparage that body of geological knowledge solely on the grounds of their commitment to essays about wrestling a principle of interpretation might do well to essay question their commitment to 3rd grade book report guidelines truth in a larger sense. Essay. Is it likely that they will arrive at report a sound understanding of what God is saying in the biblical text if they reject a sound understanding of what God is saying in the created order? The extrabiblical data pertaining to the flood have been pushing the evangelical church to develop a better approach to the flood story and sport comparison essay, indeed to all the early chapters of essays, Genesis. Just what are those extrabiblical data? In summary, several centuries of effort to locate physical remnants of the comparison, biblical deluge have completely failed. Any physical evidence that has been claimed to support a global flood has eventually been demonstrated to have a different explanation. The idea that the flood deposited the anthem essays, world's stratified rocks has been thoroughly discredited by numerous lines of evidence. Many of the individual strata give evidence of having been deposited in such non-flood environments as rivers, beaches, deltas, lakes, glaciers, deserts, and shallow oceanic platforms.
Many strata, such as lake deposits and comparison essay, fossil reefs, contain abundant indicators of very slow deposition under environmentally sensitive conditions quite incompatible with a catastrophic deluge. Many strata are overlain by equation help fossil soils and separated from higher strata by erosional breaks that could only have been produced over extensive lengths of time. The fossils themselves are arrayed in progressive order in sport essay, the geologic column. Equation. Many of the organisms lived in environments utterly unlike flooded terrains. Sport Comparison Essay. Radiometric dating of volcanic ash or lava flows interbedded with fossiliferous strata show that they are millions of years old. Some large masses of essay, igneous rocks injected into the strata took hundreds of thousands of years to cool and crystallize. Many fossiliferous rocks have been metamorphosed, indicating extreme burial that could not possibly have occurred during a year-long deluge. All the evidence of the rocks tells us that they were not produced or arranged by a flood. The views of earth history offered by Woodward, Catcott, G.M.
Price, Whitcomb and Morris, and John R. Rice are simply and obviously incorrect. The evidence is also arrayed against views that confine the action of the flood to the globe's surface features. Sport. Most of the gravels, sands, boulders, smoothed U-shaped valleys, and essays about wrestling, surface grooves and scratches have been amply demonstrated to be the result of continental ice sheets rather than a flood. Comparison Essay. We now know that the frozen mammoths and their friends did not perish in a major catastrophe only a few thousand years ago involving a radical climatic change. These animals were well adapted to life on differential equation, the harsh tundra and died individually over a period of thousands of years in accidents that were catastrophic only to sport them.
The rubble-drift deposits of southern England and the Mediterranean (and scarcely evident at all in the Middle East) are most likely the result of downslope soil movements during the ice age. The views of the deluge propounded by Buckland, Sedgwick, Prestwich, and Wright are also incorrect. In addition to the wealth of geological evidence opposing the possibility of a global deluge, a variety of biogeographical evidence also counts conclusively against such an event. For one thing, there is no evidence whatsoever to indicate that human or animal populations were ever disrupted by a catastrophic global flood at any point in book anthem essays, the past. Sport. Indeed, all the evidence indicates continuous occupation by these populations of points around the homework, globe into sport essay the exceedingly distant past.
Human beings have been in North America for at least twelve thousand years and in Australia for at least thirty or forty thousand years, long before the book anthem essays, biblical deluge could have occurred by any consistent reading of the textual evidence of the Bible. Furthermore, a literal reading of the flood narrative requires us to presume that representatives of sport essay, tens of smuggling essay, thousands of different species left their natural habitats and comparison essay, restricted supplies of book, food, made their way from all the distant and isolated parts of the comparison, globe, crossing oceans, arctic wastes, and any number of hostile environments to arrive at the ark, that these vast numbers of creatures somehow all boarded the craft, which (presumably) already held enough food to drug sustain them for a year, and then after the retreat of the floodwaters all made the journey back to their respective habitats to replenish the earth. Comparison Essay. Commentators who maintain that fossils were laid down in the flood must apparently also assume that representatives of all the species in the fossil record, including dozens of species of ap english language, dinosaurs , were also aboard the ark. Is a literal reading of the flood narrative really so sacrosanct as to induce us to entertain such bizarre scenarios? Picture below right: a humorous look at Noah's Ark -- Everything I need to know about life, I learned from Noah's Ark. (a) Don't miss the sport comparison essay, boat. (b) Remember that we are all in the same boat. (c) Plan ahead. Essay. It wasn't raining when Noah built the comparison, Ark. (d) Stay fit.
When you're 600 years old, someone may ask you to do something really big. (e) Don't listen to critics. 3rd Grade Book Guidelines. Just get on with the job that needs to comparison be done. About Help. (f) Build your future on high ground. (g) For safety's sake, travel in pairs. (h) Speed isn't always an advantage. Sport Essay. The snails were on equation homework, board with the cheetahs. (i) When you're stressed, float a while. Comparison Essay. (j) Remember, the Ark was built by amateurs, the Titanic by professionals. (k) No matter the storm, when you are with God, there's always a rainbow waiting. We need to find an interpretation of the text that does not commit us to a globe-covering catastrophe. Surely the text itself provides clues to a better understanding. Doesn't the report guidelines, fact that the text suggests that Mesopotamian geography was not rearranged by the flood nor the sport essay, topsoil displaced suggest that it was not a globally catastrophic event? Given the frequency with which the Bible uses universal language to describe local events of great significance such as the differential equation, famine or the plagues in Egypt, is it unreasonable to suppose that the flood account uses hyperbolic language to describe an event that devastated or disrupted Mesopotamian civilization -- that is to say, the whole world of the Semites? I do not consider it a violation of the integrity of the sport essay, biblical text to suppose that the biblical flood account uses a major Mesopotamian event in order to make vital theological points concerning human depravity, faith, and obedience and divine judgment, grace, and mercy. The evangelical church serves no good end by clinging to failed interpretations of the Bible and refusing to explore new directions. Christian scholars have an language, obligation to essay lead the way toward a renewed reverence for report, God's truth wherever it can be found.
Conservative scholars must develop a more aggressive attitude toward creation and encourage the church's youth to enter not only the pastorate, mission work, and comparison essay, theology but also such fields as the guidelines, natural sciences, archeology, anthropology, and the social sciences. If anything, Christians should be preeminently motivated to investigate the intricacies of God's created order, confident that a better grasp of both God's Word and God's works will be forthcoming. If the fruits of sport comparison essay, that improved understanding are to be communicated to the Christians in language, the pew, their preachers will have to do the communicating. And this means that the theologians and commentators who educate the preachers have an obligation to consult more frequently with Christian scholars in other disciplines before making pronouncements on matters in those areas. What marvelous insights into Scripture might await the church if from now on the theologians and exegetes would work side by side with biologists, archeologists, anthropologists, geologists, linguists, astronomers, sociologists, and paleontologists! In a world of burgeoning knowledge about ancient literature, languages, civilizations, culture, and customs as well as about the workings of God's creation, biblical scholars must engage in dialogue with other representatives of the intellectual world they profess to want to influence with the good news -- the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David, and who through the sport comparison, Spirit of essay, holiness was declared with power to sport essay be the Son of language essays 2014, God by comparison his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord (Rom 1:2-4).
Davis A. Young , evangelical Christian geologist from Calvin College.  Henry, Commentary on the Holy Bible , vol 1 (1706; reprint, NY: Fleming H. Revell)  Wesley, Explanatory Notes upon the Old Testament , vol 1 (Bristol: William Pine, 1745).  See the 3rd grade book, journal entry for January 1770 in The Works of sport comparison, John Wesley , vol 3 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1958), p. 385-386.  Gill, An Exposition of the essays, Old Testament , vol 1 (London: W. H. Collingridge, 1852), p. 42-45.  Scott, The Holy Bible (NY: Collins Hanny, 1832).  For an extended review of the interpretations of selected texts relevant to the deluge that were adopted within the diluvialist tradition, see Davis A. Essay. Young, Scripture in the Hands of Geologists -- Part One, Westminster Theological Journal 49 (1987): 1-34.  Bellers, A Description of the Several Strata of Earth, Stone, Coal, Found in a Coal-Pit at the West End of Dudley in Staffordshire, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 27 (1710): 541-544; Strachey, A Curious Description of the Strata Observ'd in the Coal-Mines of Mendip in Somersetshire, Philosophcal Transactions 30 (1719): 968-973; Strachey, An Account of the Strata in Coal-Mines, etc. Philosophical Transactions 33 (1725): 395-398; Michell, Conjectures concerning the Cause and Observations upon the Phaenomena of Earthquakes, Philosophical Transactions 51 (1760): 566-634.  E.g., James Kelly, An Account of the Strata Met with in essay about, Digging for Marle, and of Horns Found under Ground in Ireland, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1726): 122-123.
 Vallisnieri, Dei Corpi Marini che sui Monti si Trovano (Venice, 1721). For a useful summary of the historical development of various classifications of mountains, see Frank Dawson Adams, The Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences (NY: Dover, 1954) and Rachel Laudan, From Mineralogy to essay Geology; The Foundations of essay, a Science, 1650-1830 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987).  Moro, Dei Crostacei e Degli Altri Corpi Marini che si Trovano sui Monti Libn Due (Venice: Ceremia, 1740).  Arduino, Osservazione sulla Fisica Constituzione delle Alpi Venete (1759).  Pallas, Observations sur la Formation des Montagnes et les Changemenis arrives au Globe, pamculierement de L'Empire Russe (St. Essay. Petersburg, 1777).  Lehmann, Versuch einer Geschichte von Flotzgeburgen (Berlin, 1756). Fiichsel, Historia Terrae et Maris ex Historia Thuringiae per Montium Descriptionen Erecta, Acta, Acad. Elect. Moguntinae zu Ehrfurt 2 (1762): 44-209.  On Werner, see Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology ; Alexander M. Ospovat, The Distortion of Werner in Lyell's Principles of Geology, British Journal for the History of Science 9 (1976): 190-198; and 3rd grade guidelines, Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982).
 Werner, ed. Brief Classification and Description of the Various Rocks , trans. Alexander Ospovat (NY Hafner Press, 1970).  Hutton, Theory of the Earth , vol 1 (Edinburgh: Creech, 1795).  De Maillet, Telliamed; or, Conversations between an Indian Philosopher and a French Missionary on comparison, the Diminution of the Sea , ed. Albert V. Carozzi (Urbana, IL: University of 3rd grade guidelines, Illinois Press, 1968). Essay. See also Albert V. Carozzi, De Maillet's Telliamed (1748): An Ultra-Neptunian Theory of the Earth, in language essays 2014, Toward a History of Geology , ed. Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969) p. 80-99.  Buffon's global cooling hypothesis can be found in comparison essay, The Natural History of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, with the Theory of the Earth in General (London, 1976) and Les Epoques de la Nature (Paris: Editions du Museum, 1962).
 For a brief discussion of essays 2014, Linnaeus, see chap 1 of Janet Browne's Secular Ark (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). For detail on Linnaeus's life, see Tore Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work (Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California, 1983).  Werner, Brief Classification and Description of the comparison essay, Various Rocks .  Sloane, An Account of Elephants' Teeth and Bones Found Underground, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 35 (1728): 457-71; and Of Fossil Teeth and Bones of Elephants: Part the Second, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1728): 497-514.  E.g., Thartham News; or, A Brief Relation of Some Strange Bones There Lately Digged Up, in ap english language, Some Grounds of Mr. John Somner's in Canterbury, Philosophical Transactions 22 (1701): 882-893.  For more extended discussions of the sport essay, early discoveries of essays, vertebrate remains in surficial deposits and the ways in which they were interpreted, see chap 4 in John C. Greene's The Death of Adam (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1959); chap 1-6 in Robert W. Howard's The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975); and comparison essay, Evelyn Stoles, The Six Days and the Deluge: Some Ideas on Earth History in the Royal Society of 3rd grade report guidelines, London, 1660-1775, Earth Science Journal 3 (1969): 13-39.  Ides, Three Years Travels from Moscow Over-land to China (London: W. Essay. Freeman, 1706).
 I. P. Tolmachoff, The Carcasses of the Mammoth and Rhinoceros Found in the Frozen Ground of Siberia, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society , 23 (1933): 23-24.  Frere, Account of Flint Weapons Discovered at drug smuggling Hoxne in Suffolk, Archaeologia 13 (1800): 204-5. For an exhaustive discussion of the early discoveries of human artifacts and their significance, see Donald K. Grayson, The Establishment of Human Antiquity (NY: Academic Press, 1983).  Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and sport comparison essay, Its Subsequent Catastrophe, Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 6 (1797): 233-308. For a general look at neptunism and the flood, see Colin Russell, Noah and the Neptunists, Faith and Thought 100 (1972): 143-158.  Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 3rd Grade Report Guidelines. 288.  Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 293.  Browne, Secular Ark , p. 16-23; and sport, Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work .  Zimmermann, Specimen Zoologiae Geographicae Quadrupedurn Domicilia et Migrationes Sitens (Leyden: T. Haak, 1777). For an analysis of Zirmmermann's work, see F. S. Bodenheimer, Zimmermann's Specimen Geographicae Quadrupedurn: A Remarkable Zoogeographical Publication at drug smuggling the End of the Eighteenth Century, Archives Internationale d'Historie des Sciences 8 (1955): 35, 1-57.  Playfair, Illustrations of the comparison, Huttonian Theory of the Earth (Edinburgh: William Creech, 1802). For an overview of help, late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century geological thought, see Charles C. Gillispie, Genesis and sport essay, Geology (NY: Harper, 1951).
 For a review of the transition from cosmogony to geology, see Martin J. S. Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 296-321.  De Saussure, Agenda; or, A Collection of Observations and Researches the Results of Which May Serve as the Foundation for a Theory of the Earth, Philosophical Magazine 3 (1799): 33-41, 147-156. De Saussure also discussed diluvial ideas in his massive books on the Alps.  See William Coleman, Georges Cuvier, Zoologist (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964), and Dorinda Outrarn, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984).  Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the ap english language essays 2014, Earth , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr., trans. Robert Kerr (1878; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978). The essay was first published as a Discous Preliminaire to Cuvier's great work Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossdes and subsequently issued separately as . Diswus sur les Revolutions de la Surface du Globe.  Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , p. 171-172.
 Greenough, A Critical Examination of the comparison essay, First Principles of essays, Geology (London: Strahan Spottiswoode, 1819).  Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 151-154.  Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 155. For Hall's ideas about the deluge, see James Hall, On the sport comparison essay, Revolutions of the Earth's Surface, Transactions of the Royal Society of book anthem, Edinburgh 7 (1815): 139-212.  Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 186.  Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 196.  Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology , 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. Comparison Essay. 60.  Buckland, Vindiciae Geologicae ; or, The Connexion of Geology with Religion Explained (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1820), p. Differential Homework Help. 23-24.  Conybeare and Phillips, Outlines of Geology of England and Wales (London: William Phillips, 1822), p. xxvii. The introduction dealing with the sport, relationship between geology and revealed religion was written specifically by Conybeare.  For a reproduction of Conybeare's caricature of Buckland entering Kirkdale cave and confronting a group of live hyenas, see Martin Rudwick, Encounters with Adam, or at Least the Hyaenas: Nineteenth-Century Visual Representations of the Deep Past, in History, Humanity, and Evolution , ed.
James R. Moore (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. Book Anthem. 245.  Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae ; or, Observations on the Organic Remains Contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel and on comparison, Other Geological Phenomena Attesting the Action of an about help, Universal Deluge , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr. Sport. (1823; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978), p. iii.  Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 223.  Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 1-2.  Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 51.  Buckland, Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to essays about wrestling Natural Theology , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 6 (London: William Pickering, 1837).
 Daubeny, On the comparison essay, Volcanoes of essays, Auvergne, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 3 (1820): 361-62. For more on the geology of Auvergne, see Kenneth L. Taylor, Nicolas Desmarest and Geology in the Eighteenth Century, in Toward a History of Geology , ed. Sport Comparison. Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969), p. 339-356.  On the early life of Silliman, see Chandos Michael Brown, Benjamin Silliman: A Life in the Young Republic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989). See also John F. Fulton and Elizabeth H. Thomson, Benjamin Silliman, 1779-1864: Pathfinder in American Science (NY: H. Schuman, 1947).  Bakewell, Introduction to Geology , 2d ed. (based on the fourth British edition), ed. Benjamin Silliman (New Haven: Hezekiah Howe, 1833); p. Book Report Guidelines. 404-413 and 458-466 in Silliman's addendum are specifically relevant to the issue of the deluge.
 Fleming, On the essay, Revolutions Which Have Taken Place in essay help, the Animal Kingdom, as These Are Indicated by sport essay Geognosy, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 8 (1823): 110-122. See also Fleming's Remarks Illustrative of the Influence of differential equation homework, Society on the Distribution of British Animals, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 11 (1824): 287-305.  Fleming, The Geological Deluge. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 14 (1826): 205-239.  See George P. Scrope, Memoir on the Geology of Central France, Including the Volcanic Formations of Auvergne, the Velay and comparison essay, the Vivarais (London, 1827), and Charles Lyell and Roderick I. Murchison, On the Excavation of Valleys, as Illustrated by language essays 2014 the Volcanic Rocks of Central France, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 13 (1829): 15-48. Comparison Essay. For a valuable discussion of the Auvergne volcanoes, see Martin J. S. Rudwick, Poulett Scrope on the Volcanoes of Auvergne: Lyellian Time and Political Economy, British Journal for the History of Science 7 (1974): 205-242.
 Sedgwick, Address to the Geological Society, Proceedings of the Geological Society of language essays, London 1 (1831): 313-314. Sedgwick's early ideas about the flood may be found in his essays On the Origin of Alluvial and Diluvial Formations, Annals of Philosophy 9 (1825): 241-257, and On Diluvial Formations, Annals of Philosophy 10 (1826): 18-37. On Sedgwick's life, see Colin Speakman, Adam Sedgwick, Geologist and Dalesman: A Biography in Twelve Themes (Heathfield, UK: Broad Oak Press, 1982).  Greenough, Anniversary Address to the Geological Society,'' Proceedings of the essay, Geological Society of London 2 (1838): 42-70.  Lyell, Principles of Geology , vol 3 (London: John Murray, 1833), p. 270-74. See also James R. Moore, Charles Lyell and the Noachian Deluge, Evangelical Quarterly 45 (1973): 141-160.  The term Pleistocene epoch was used to refer to the time when the latest surficial deposits were deposited on top of older rocks.
 For more detailed discussion of the essay about help, first proposals concerning the effects of glaciation and an ice age, see Horace B. Woodward, The History of the Geological Society of sport comparison essay, London (London: Geological Society, 1907), p. 136-145; Edward Lurie, Louis Agassiz: A Life in ap english language 2014, Science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), p. 96-106; and Nicolaas Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology, 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 96-107.  For a good overview of the historical growth of the geological time scale, see William B. N. Sport Essay. Berry, The Growth of a Prehistoric Time Scale (Palo Alto: Blackwell Scientific, 1987).  For detail on Sedgwick and Murchison and the establishment of the Devonian time period, see Martin J. Essays About Wrestling. S. Rudwick, The Great Devonian Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1985).  For further detail on Sedgwick and Murchison and the establishment of the Cambrian and Silurian periods, see James A. Secord, Controversy in Victorian Geology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986).  On Murchison's contributions, see Robert A. Stafford, Scientist of comparison, Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989). For additional insight into the career of Murchison and anthem, the development of sport comparison essay, both the 3rd grade, Silurian and Ordovician periods, see David R. Oldroyd, The Highlands Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).  For recent overviews of the geological time scale, see N. J. Snelling, The Chronology of the comparison, Geological Record (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1985), and essays 2014, Walter B. Comparison. Harland, A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1990).  Brief accounts of some of the major vertebrate discoveries can be found in Woodward's History of the Geological Society of about wrestling, London , p. 114-133; chap 1 of Adrian J. Sport Comparison Essay. Desmond's The Hot-Blooded Dinosaurs (NY: Warner Books, 1975); Rupke's Great Chain of History , p. 130-148; and J. B. Delair and 3rd grade book guidelines, W. A. S. Sport Comparison Essay. Sarjeant's The Earliest Discoveries of Dinosaurs, Isis 66 (1975): 5-25.  See Adrian J. Desmond, Archetypes and essay, Ancestors: Paleontology in Victorian London, 1850-1875 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).  Owen, quoted by comparison essay Robert W. Howard in The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975) p. 136.
 See Moore, Geologists and about, Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 322-350; Milton Millhauser, The Scriptural Geologists: An Episode in the History of Opinion, Osiris 11 (1954): 65-86; and Rupke, The Great Chain of History , p. 42-50.  Among the writings of the scriptural geology school were George Young and J. Bird's Geological Survey of the Yorkshire Coast, Describing the sport comparison essay, Strata and about wrestling, Fossils Occuring between the Humber and sport comparison, the Tees, from the German Ocean to the Plain of York (Whitby, 1828); George Bugg's Scriptural Geology (London, 1826-1827); Sharon Turner's Sacred History of the World, as Displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to the Deluge (London, 1832); Joseph Sutcliffe's Short Introduction to the Study of Geology, Comprising a New Theory of the ap english language essays, Elevation of the Mountains and the Stratification of the Earth, in Which the Mosaic Account of the Creation and the Deluge Is Vindicated (London, 1817); and Joseph Sutcliffe's Geology of the Avon (Bristol, 1822).  Granville Penn, A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies (London: Ogle, Duncan, 1822), p. 76-77. Penn gave evidence of a similar certainty about sport essay God's strategy in creating and ordering the world in his earlier work A Christian's Survey of all the Primary Events and Periods of the World, from the Commencement of History to the Conclusion of Prophecy (London, 1811).  Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 336.  Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 341-46, 399-417.
 Kirby, On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God as Manifested in book report guidelines, the Creation of Animals and in Their History, Habits, and Instinct , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 7 (London: William Pickering, 1835).  Fairholme, New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and Period of the Mosaic Deluge (London: James Ridgway, 1837), p. 408-410.  Fairholrne, New and Conclusive , p. 186-197, 228-237.  On Robinson, see Jerry Wayne Brown, The Rise of Biblical Criticism in America, 1800-1870: The New England Scholars (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969).  Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible (NY: G. Lane, 1846), p. 66-82.  Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible: American Edition (Boston: Crocker Brewster, 1832), s.v. ark.  Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , vol 1, 2nd ed. (London: Rivington, 1830), p. 323.  See Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament (London: John Mason, 1838).  Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch (Edinburgh: T T Clark, 1850).
This volume is an English translation of the sport, 1837 German edition.  Alexander, The Sermon Delivered at the Inauguration of the Rev. Archibald Alexander, D.D., as Professor of about help, Didactic and Polemic Theology, in the Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, in the United States of America, to Which Are Added the Professor's Inaugural Address and the Charge to the Professor and Students [NY: J. Seymour, 1812). Most of the inaugural address has been reprinted in Mark Noll's book The Princeton Theology, 1812-1921 (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983).  Alexander, Theological Lectures: Nature and Evidence of Truth, October 1812 (manuscript of a classroom lecture). Sport Essay. The cited material appears in an. excerpt from the lecture in Noll's Princeton Theology , pp. 61-71.
On Alexander's life, see Lefferts A. Loetscher, Facing the Enlightenment and Pietism: Archibald Alexander and anthem, the Founding of Princeton Theological Seminary [Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1983).  Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , p. Comparison Essay. 326.  Sutcliffe, Commentary on 3rd grade report guidelines, the Old and New Testament , pp. 20-21.  Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch , p. 113.  Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible , p. 74; Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the comparison, Holy Bible , s.v. Ararat; and Sutcliffe, Commentary on 3rd grade book report, the Old and New Testament , p. 21.  Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in sport, God and Nature , ed. Equation. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 296-321.
 Moore, Geologists and sport comparison, Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and essays wrestling, Nature , p. Comparison. 322-350.  On Smith's life see J. Medway, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of essays, John Pye Smith (London, 1853).  Smith, On the Relation between the comparison, Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science (NY: D. Appleton, 1840), p. 98.  Smith, On the Relation , p. Help. 136-137.  Smith, On the Relation , p. Sport Comparison. 252-253.  For analyses of Hitchcock's thought, see Philip J. Lawrence, Edward Hitchcock: The Christian Geologist, Proceedings of the smuggling essay, American Philosophical Society 116 (1972): 21-34; and Stanley M. Guralnick, Geology and sport essay, Religion before Darwin: The Case of Edward Hitchcock, Theologian and Geologist, Isis 63 (1972): 529-543.
For Hitchcock's views on the flood, see Rodney Lee Stiling, The Diminishing Deluge: Noah's Flood in Nineteenth-Century American Thought (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991), p. 51-101.  Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin, p. 530.  Hitchcock's initial contributions to his exchange with Stuart included the differential equation, following articles: The Connection between Geology and Natural Religion, The Biblical Repository and sport, Quarterly Observer 5 (1835): 113-138; The Connection between Geology and the Mosaic History of the Creation, The Biblical Repository 5 (1835): 439-451 and 6 (1835): 261-332; and Remarks on equation, Professor Stuart's Examination of Gen. 1 in Reference to Geology, The Biblical Repository 7 (1836): 448-487. Stuart wrote Critical Examination of sport comparison, Some Passages in differential homework help, Gen. 1; with Remarks on comparison, Difficulties That Attend Some of the Present Modes of Geological Reasoning, The Biblical Repository 6 (1836): 46-106. Hitchcock's later three-part treatment of the issues appeared under the title The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, The American Biblical Repository 9 (1837): 78-139; 10 (1837): 328-374; 11 (1838): 1-27.  Hitchcock, The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, p. 109.
 On Beaumont, see Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982).  On Miller, see Peter Bayne, The Life and Letters of Hugh Miller (London: Strachan, 1871); Charles D. Waterston, Hugh Miller: The Cromarty Stonemason (Edinburgh: National Trust for smuggling essay, Scotland, 1966); and George Rosie, Hugh Miller -- Outrage and Order: A Biography and Selected Writings (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1981).  Among his geological writings are The Old Red Sandstone ; or, New Walks in an Old Field (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858), Footprints of the Creator ; or, The Asterolepis of Stromness (NY Hurst, n.d.), and The Testimony of the Rocks (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858).  Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 305-306.  Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 347-348.
 Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , pp. 356-359.  See, e.g., D. Russell Humphreys, Is the Earth's Core Water? Creation Research Society Quarterly 15 (1978): 141-147; David W. Unfred, Asteroidal Impacts and the Flood- Judgment, Creation Research Society Quarterly 21 (1984): 82-87; and Robert Kofahl, Could the Flood Waters Have Come from a Canopy or Extraterrestrial Source? Creation Research Society Quarterly 13 (1977): 202-206.  See Howard J. Van Till, Davis A. Sport Essay. Young, and Clarence Menninga, Science Held Hostage: What's Wrong with Creation Science and Evolutionism (Downers Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 1988), especially chap 6, Making Mysteries out of about help, Missing Rock, which explores the failures of flood geologists to deal adequately with regional geology and geological literature, using the Grand Canyon as a case study.
 See James R. Moore, Interpreting the New Creationism, Michigan Quarterly Review 22 (1983): 321-334.
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Essay on Sports for Children and Students
Essay on City Life vs. Sport Essay? Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the 3rd grade report guidelines, most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government. Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of essay, transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and about made it convenient for them to live together in sport comparison essay, large aggregations.
The growth of cities is a special feature of essays wrestling, modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the sport essay, urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in book, the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the sport comparison, rural community custom is the anthem, king, the folkways and mores control most of comparison, behaviour,” The sense of ap english, group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of village family is sport comparison generally patriarchal in essay, which the status of the individual is the status of sport comparison essay, his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner.
There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and essays about wrestling hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the essay, only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the equation help, other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life.
The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Essay? Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of equation homework, conduct, sexual and essay otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to language, Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of essay, any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and equation homework refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of sport essay, which are community housekeeping duties.
Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and book the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is sport a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour.
Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey.
There is an atmosphere of indifference and homework help callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an sport essay inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. About Help? In the words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the sport, relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village. Life in a village community is simple and homework uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and sport essay rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of homework, all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation.
When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of enterprise and sport comparison adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production.
In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an essay about help extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of sport essay, a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations.
Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to 3rd grade report, different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the sport comparison, competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is language essays 2014 rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for sport comparison essay, each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and smuggling private schools for the poor.
It also provides distinctive schools for essay, elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.
The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for the other.”
Specialization is also seen in differential homework help, the physical structure of the city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is sport comparison a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women.
If the book essays, social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and sport specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and essays liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and comparison the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and about wrestling will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life.
He is fatalistic and essay is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the 3rd grade guidelines, ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and sport comparison quicker responses to equation homework help, changing situations.
The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Sport Comparison? Any violation of essays about wrestling, them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to comparison essay, personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid.
If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to drug smuggling, help. There is an comparison essay atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of book anthem essays, a common mode of occupation and comparison the great impersonality of report, city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to sport, make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it.
The competitiveness of the language, city places the sport essay, individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the essay help, village may have to face disappointment and despair in comparison, the city. So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life. Essay About Help? In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of comparison essay, physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and essays communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life.
This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and sport countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to differential equation, cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: