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arrow of god essay Arrow of God (1964) by research paper Chinua Achebe, a political and cultural novel, is set in Nigeria in the early twentieth century when colonization by continuellement par reussir British government officials and Christian missionaries was well underway. In this novel two cultures confront their differences. Achebe portrays the disrupting effect an externally imposed power system (the British) has on an internally imposed power system (African tradition and customs). Conflicts within the Igbo society coupled with repercussions from external invasion result in disaster for the Igbo society which disintegrates from within and reorients itself to Christianity. This reorientation will lead not only to the assimilation of Western values and beliefs, but also to the eventual loss of the hcci research, Igbo cultural identity. Arrow of God , Achebe's third novel, is an intricate and complex narrative. Ezeulu, the main character, is the chief priest of vs new technology Ulu, a god created by the people almost a century before when the research paper, six villages of Umuaro united to withstand the Abam slave raiders.
As chief priest, Ezeulu is responsible for safeguarding the traditions and rituals of the people. Paper Thesis. For example, Ezeulu watches each month for the new moon. He eats a sacred yam and beats the ogene to mark the beginning of each new month. Only the chief priest can name the day for hcci the feast of the Pumpkin Leaves or for the New Yam Feast, which ushers in the yam harvest. Ezeulu considers himself merely a watchman (3) for old technology technology essays Ulu. His power was no more than the power of a child over a goat that was said to be his (3). Achebe is interested in investigating this power and hcci, how a priest determines the gods' decrees (Interview with Lewis Nkosi 21). Structurally, Arrow of God begins en medias res with a flashback to explain a disagreement between Ezeulu and thesis, Nwaka five years before. Nwaka is a prosperous man and a supporter of hcci research paper Ezidemili, the book sale, chief priest of the god, Idemili.
The initial conflict between the two men is over a land dispute between Umuaro and the nearby village of Okperi. Research. Nwaka leads a group of villagers who want to go to war against book sale Okperi. Ezeulu opposes them. All six villages of Umuaro side with Nwaka and override Ezeulu. Akukalia, an emissary from Umuaro, is sent to Okperi to announce the paper, war. Nursing Case. Feeling as if he was not properly received, Akukalia, in a fit of hcci paper anger, breaks one of the villager's personal gods which prompts the people of Okperi to kill the messenger from Umuaro igniting open conflict. The war ends abruptly when the British get involved.
Captain T.K.Winterbottom, the en essayant, District Officer, stops the paper, war and breaks all the guns in nursing case studies cardiac Okperi and Umuaro. Ezeulu later testifies on Government Hill that the people of Umuaro had no claim to Okperi land, thus impressing Captain Winterbottom with his lack of bias. Ezeulu, on his part, was also impressed with Captain Winterbottom. All of this, told in hcci research flashback, foreshadows the future conflict between Ezeulu and his people, which will fracture the nursing case studies cardiac, community. Ezeulu has four sons-Edogo, Obika, Oduche, and Nwafo.
Ezeulu sends Oduche to study Christianity with the white missionaries led by Mr. Hcci Paper. Goodcountry. Ezeulu initial motive is steven connor, so that Oduche might learn the wisdom of the paper, white men (42). Later, he realizes that if the white men take over nursing case studies cardiac, the country, as it seems obvious they will, it would be prudent to have one of his own sons in the inside circle. I have sent you to be my eyes there (189) he says.
Ezeulu's old friend, Akuebue discourages Ezeulu's decision to send Oduche to the white men. When you spoke against the war with Okperi you were not alone . . .But if you send your son to join strangers in hcci research desecrating the land you will be alone (134). Nevertheless, Ezeulu sends his son. Oduche is instructed by Mr. Goodcountry to kill the nursing studies cardiac, sacred python. Oduche places a python in research paper a footlocker, but the snake is discovered and is released unharmed. Even though everyone in Umuaro knows that Oduche is responsible for this desecration of a sacred symbol, Ezeulu does not punish his son.
The incident further fuels the divide between Ezeulu and his enemies. Shortly after this, Ezeulu is summoned to connor Okperi to research paper Government Hill for a meeting with Winterbottom who wants to old technology vs new technology essays make Ezeulu a puppet chief. The British attempted to instigate a policy advanced by Lord Lugard, governor-General of research Nigeria from 1912-19. The idea of indirect rule allows the colonizers to rule the analysis thesis, colonized people through appointed native chiefs (Maja-Pearce 18). Research. Before Ezeulu leaves for connor Okperi, Ezeulu's enemy, Nwaka draws attention to hcci research paper Ezeulu's friendship with the white men who are taking the Igbo land.
Ezeulu angers Winterbottom by delaying his departure for en essayant on finit Okperi. Hcci Research. When Ezeulu arrives on nursing Government Hill he is imprisoned. Winterbottom has become ill and is in the hospital. Assistant District Officer Tony Clarke makes the offer to Ezeulu that the British would like to make him a ruler. Ezeulu declines to be a white man's chief (175). Ezeulu angers the British administration, which detains him for paper two more months. Old Technology Vs New Technology. During his imprisonment, Ezeulu cannot eat the sacred yams or announce the new moons. Angry with his people for letting the British detain him, Ezeulu refuses to eat the yams. Paper. When he is released he stubbornly moves the New Yam Festival forward two months.
By refusing to announce the feast, the yams cannot be harvested and they rot in the fields causing avfamine. You all know our custom, Ezeulu says, I only call a new festival when there is only one yam left from the last. Paper Thesis. Today I have three yams and hcci, so I know that the time has not come (207). Aware that he is punishing and hurting his people, Ezeulu likens himself to the arrow in the bow of Ulu. The people become divided between their loyalty to do homework for me Ulu and their loyalty to the survival of the hcci research paper, community. They begin to question the chief priest and ask that the custom be altered. While the people argue and starve, Ezeulu's son Obika dies suddenly while performing as Ogbazulobodo, the night spirit, in a ritual for a funeral. The people take Obika's death as a sign that Ulu had either chastised or abandoned his priest and that no man however great was greater than his people; that no one ever won judgment against his clan (230).
Ezeulu is a tragic hero who imperiled his community to make a point. Because Ulu failed them, the people of Umuaro turned to paper Christianity, harvesting the hcci paper, yams and taking a sacrificial offering to Mr. Goodcountry who received them with open arms. Of the ending John Updike says that the events of the conclusion proved unexpected and, as I think about them, beautifully resonant, tragic and theological. That Ezeulu, whom we had seen stand up so invincibly to both Nwaka and book sale, Clarke, should be so suddenly vanquished by his own god Ulu and by something harsh and vengeful within himself, and his defeat in a page or two be the fulcrum of a Christian lever upon his people, is an ending few Western novelists would have contrived (Letter from John Updike 56). Achebe's achievement, then, in hcci research paper this novel, is to portray his obvious love and respect for the Igbo people balanced with an honest representation of their lives, conflicts, and culture. Examining the influence traditional canonical texts had on Achebe leads to Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (1902) (http://www.heartofdarkness.html). When studying the venerated Conradian text, Achebe realized that the African characters are stereotypes and that Conrad is giving the typical colonial view of the natives.
In contrast to Conrad's half-naked, silent, spear rattling savages, Achebe creates complex and complicated human beings existing within an equally complex and steven, complicated society. As if pointedly playing with Conrad, Achebe presents his European characters, Winterbottom, Clark, and Wright as one dimensional stereotypes. So successful is he that one critic misses the apparent irony and takes Achebe to hcci research paper task saying, Once again the white characters are not much more than parodies, though perfectly fair ones . . . some day Chinua Achebe must give us a white man whom he takes as seriously as he does his Ibos, rather than a series of dei ex machina (Moore 52) . Another traditional text that influenced Achebe is Joyce Cary's Mister Johnson . This novel, also set in Nigeria, struck Achebe as a most superficial picture of-not only of the country-but even of the Nigerian characters, and so I thought if this was famous, then perhaps someone ought to analysis paper thesis try and look at hcci paper this from the studies, inside (Pieterse and Duerden 4). Conducting a dialogue with Achebe's other novels shows that all of paper Achebe's texts look at Nigeria from the inside. Arrow of analysis paper God is the third of hcci four novels Achebe wrote between 1955-1965, which are about Nigeria from the do homework, beginning of British colonization in the 1890's through the research, military coup in the 1960's. Achebe's first novel, Things Fall Apart (1958) (http://www.thingsfallapart.html) is steven connor essay, set in pre-colonial Nigeria and addresses the first encounters of the Igbo people with the British invaders.
The main character, Okonkwo, like the main character Ezeulu in Arrow of God , is destroyed by setting himself apart from his people. The two main characters, however, have totally different reactions to colonization. Hcci Research Paper. No Longer at Ease (1960) (http://nolongeratease.html) is set in both the Nigerian capital of en essayant continuellement Lagos and in Umuofia, a Nigerian village. The main character is an educated Nigerian man who attempts to negotiate a past and present Nigerian society in the 1950's-a time of hcci research paper great political change. A Man of the People (1966) (http://www.manofthepeople.html) investigates the impact of politics on vs new essays native culture. The action is set in contemporary Nigeria after achieving independence from British rule. Anthills of the Savannah (1987) (http://www.anthillsofthesavannah.html) raises questions about power and military rule in hcci research paper Nigeria after independence from Britain.
Comparing Achebe's Arrow of God to Rigoberta Menchu's I, Rigoberta Menchu (http://www.irigobertamenchu.html),one of the steven connor, best known Latin American post colonial texts, there are similarities and differences. Research Paper. One obvious difference is book sale, genre. Arrow of God is a novel, while Menchu's text is hcci research, a testimonio. While both texts deal with a colonized situation, Achebe's novel does not idealize the for me, indigenous African people as Menchu's text idealizes the Guatemalans. Achebe's characters have both good and bad traits, which are equally exposed and hcci research, explored in the novel. Achebe's point is that the book sale, Igbo people were in some way susceptible to assimilation by Western culture because they could not reconcile the internal discord within their own culture. Perhaps the hcci research, same dissension within led to the subjugation of Menchu's Mayan culture by the Spanish, but it is not a theme she explores as readily as Achebe. Menchu admits that the Indians are separated by ethnic barriers, linguistic barriers, that there's no dialogue between us (143), and that the government uses these divisions within the culture to exploit the people (143), but she does not draw any conclusions from the implications. Instead, she places the blame on the government, saying this is what the White Man did; it's the fault of the analysis paper, White Man (69). Menchu, of course, is hcci paper, not an artist in the sense Achebe means, nor was she writing a novel. However, by her failure to be more balanced, or, at least slightly detached, Menchu opens the door for detractors who feel her testimony at times borders on propaganda.
It is well for the reader of Menchu to keep in analysis thesis mind that Menchu is on hcci paper a crusade and studies cardiac, that her anger is a sort of righteous anger that fuels the emotion of her story, but may not give a completely balanced view of hcci research reality. This conflict between 'two brothers' is one Menchu does not elaborate on. When the old technology, villagers capture the government soldier she says that for the pregnant girls raped by the soldiers, the baby was like a monster, something unbearable (148), implying that the bloodlines could not mix, yet she later says the soldier was also an hcci Indian, not from a different race at all. Why brother is old technology vs new technology, fighting against hcci paper brother, why Igbo betrays Igbo is a cultural psychological question, one Menchu sidesteps but Achebe tackles head on. Another interesting textual dialogue is to compare Achebe's text with other counter narratives.
Arrow of God , like the Latin American text of Miquel Angel Asturias' Men of Maize (1949) (http://www.menofmaize.html), is a counter narrative. Both Achebe and Asturias investigate the do homework for me, colonization of indigenous peoples by Europeans. Both texts present counter narratives and counter histories to the official European narrative. Neither Achebe nor Asturias demonizes the hcci, colonizers; instead, both authors show the faults within the indigenous culture they represent. Chinua Achebe, novelist, short story writer and essayist, is considered one of Africa's most important novelists. He is so important that many scholars believe him to nursing be the originator of modern African literature (Gikandi 2), even though there were many impressive African writers who preceded Achebe such as Amos Tutuola, Thomas Mofolo, Sol Plaatje, and Peter Abrahams.
Achebe, christened Albert Chinualumogu, was born at Ogidi in Eastern Nigeria November 16,1930 to Isaiah Okafor and Janet Achebe. His father was a catechist for the Church Missionary Society and his mother was also a convert to Christianity. His father was in charge of the village school run by the Church Missionary Society. Growing up Achebe felt the impact of living between two cultures-the traditional Igbo culture of Ogidi and the European Christian culture his parents both embraced. He says, On one arm of the cross we sang hymns and read the bible night and day. On the paper, other my father's brother and his family, blinded by heathenism, offered food to continuellement idols. That was how it was supposed to be anyhow ( Morning Yet on Creation Day 68). After being educated in the village school, Achebe went to Government College in Umuahia in Eastern Nigeria during the years, 1944-1948. He originally intended to study medicine, but changed his major to the arts.
By the time he graduated in 1953 from University College at Ibadan, a British style university, he had been taught that European values and culture were superior to his native Igbo culture. Achebe took issue with this point of view. He felt that canonical literary books did not accurately or adequately represent Africans as anything other than stereotypes. He began to think about writing a new African literature in which African culture and people were realistically represented. In 1954 Achebe became Talks Producer for the Nigerian Broadcasting Service and studied in London with the BBC in 1956.
In 1958 he published Things Fall Apart which is about the effect of British colonization on the Igbo culture. During 1960-1961 he went to East Africa on a Rockefeller Fellowship. In 1961 Achebe married Christie Chinwe Okoli and became Director of External Broadcasting for the Nigerian Broadcasting Service. In 1963 Achebe traveled to hcci the United States, Brazil and Britain. In 1964 he published Arrow of God. After the military coup in Nigeria in 1966, Achebe returned to Eastern Nigeria and nursing case studies cardiac, became a spokesman for hcci research paper Biafra. In later years Achebe became Visiting Professor of Literature at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and the University of Connecticut, Storrs. He has continued to publish books, short stories, children's books and essays.
His latest book, Anthills of the Savannah was published in 1989. Achebe received the par reussir, Nigerian National Merit Award for intellectual achievement. Achebe is committed to helping create a national African culture through African literature. The worst thing that can happen to any people is the hcci paper, loss of steven connor essay their dignity and self-respect. The writer's duty is to help them regain it by showing them in research paper human terms what happened to them, what they lost. There is a saying in Ibo that a man who can't tell where the thesis, rain began to beat him cannot know where he dried his body. The writer can tell the people where the rain began to beat them (The Role of the hcci research paper, Writer in a New Nation 158) In his novels, and as an African writer, Achebe shows his people where and how they lost their identity.
He can also assist them in reclaiming it. I'm an Igbo writer, he says, because this is my basic culture; Nigerian, African and old technology technology essays, a writer . . . no, black first, then a writer. Each of these identities does call for a certain commitment on my part. Paper. I must see what it is to be black-and this means being sufficiently intelligent to know how the book sale, world is moving and how the black people fare in hcci research the world. En Essayant Continuellement. This is what it means to be black. Or an African-the same: what does Africa mean to the world? When you see an African what does it mean to a white man? (Appiah et.al.) Achebe's goal, then, as a writer is to paper instruct. En Essayant Continuellement On Finit. He says, I would be quite satisfied if my novels (especially the ones I set in the past) did no more than teach my readers that their past-with all its imperfections-was not one long night of savagery from which the first Europeans acting on hcci paper God's behalf delivered them (The Novelist as Teacher 45). Achebe's novels not only teach Africans, they also enlarge the knowledge and paper, understanding of non-Africans about the Igbo culture, as well as about universal truths of human nature. There are three main ethnic groups in Nigeria-the Hausa-Fulani, the Yoruba, and the Igbo.
The Igbos, or Ibos, of southeastern Nigeria are one of 250 tribes. These many diverse tribes each have their own dialects, culture, and political systems. Each village has its own marketplace, gods, and shrines. The Ibos have one supreme god, Chukwu. Paper. Each Ibo, male and female, is steven essay, given a chi at birth-a personal god who controls that person's fate (Innes 2) British colonization between 1900-1910 formed the many tribes into the one nation of Nigeria. The British set up a system of direct rule.
In 1918 direct rule was replaced with indirect rule as the District Commissioners appointed native chiefs as puppet rulers within each village. This system remained in effect until 1960. For more information on hcci research paper the Igbo's see: J.C. Anene, Southern Nigeria in Transition (1966); Richard Henderson, The King in Every Man (1971); Igbo Traditional Life, Culture and Literature, edited by M.J.C. Echeruo and E.N. Obiechina (1971); E.N. Do Homework For Me. Obiechina, Culture, Tradition and Society in the West African Novel (1975). The following sites give a brief summary of the history of Nigeria: (http://www.motherlandnigeria.com/history.html) and (http://18.104.22.168/post/nigeria/nigeriahistov.html) This site is maintained by hcci Boomie Olunbunmi. Contents are extensive and include: Geography, Patriotic information, People, Languages, Names and Origins, Marriage, Food and Drink, Recipes, Healthcare, Education, Holidays, Festivals, Attire, Transportation, Sports, The Arts, Music, Pictures, Brief History, Government, Historical Government, Democracy Watch, Legal system, Economics, Agriculture, Telephone, Travel information, Tourist Attractions, Famous Nigerians, Notable Women of thesis Nigeria, Other links, Nigerian organizations, Kidzone, Humor, Stories, Proverbs, Games.
This site has a discussion of Pre-colonialism, colonialism and Post-colonialism and a Nigerian History Overview. There is also information on hcci research women's history with a detailed look at the role of Nigerian women in pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial Nigeria. This site has Biographies, Chat Rooms, Classified, Codes of Honor, Culture, Education, Embassies, Ethnic Groups, Folk Tales, Government, Literature, Message Center, Music, Nigerian News, Personals, Polls, Quizzes, Recipes, Religions, Nigerian Nation Store. This site provides information about teaching African Literature. Also, under Selection of Resources on the World Wide Web one can find background information and current affairs on Africa. Proverb links include: Arrow of analysis God can be taught in many ways.
Some teachers prefer to confront the primary text and allow it to explicate its own background information; some prefer to goround students with background reading and supplemental texts before reading the primary text. This section will examine both techniques, as well as the strategy of approaching the book as a counternarrative. In teaching any cultural text the hcci research, teacher is confronted at the outset with the reality that the student will need background information. Without understanding the culture represented in the text, a reader may fail to nursing studies comprehend or appreciate its significance. Assigning reports on Nigeria, the Ibos, Achebe, British colonization in Africa from a pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial perspective, examining the role of the family and women in Ibo society or how the British invasion upset the natural checks and hcci research, balances within the Ibo culture would be one way to help students beginlearning more about the time period and the conflicting cultures Achebe portrays. However, since the text itself is a place of cultural interaction some instructors might opt to book sale forego background information and hcci, immerse the students directly in steven connor the text. If so, it would be helpful to raise questions at the beginning that the research, student can keep in mind as he reads. Vs New Technology. Such questions might be Who is the arrow of God? Could Ezeulu disobey Ulu? Did you sympathize with Ezeulu or the starving people?
Why did Ezeulu not eat the sacred yams? What will be the result of Umuaro's conversion to Christianity? After the hcci research paper, students have read the text in depth analysis can be assigned examining narrative techniques, rhetorical techniques, historical/cultural contrasts and book sale, comparisions, character analysis, theme, point of view, the interrelationship between literature and politics. The students could analyze Ezeulu's character and compare it with his sons' characters; compare and contrast the protagonist, Ezeulu, and the antagonist, Nwaka; identify other protagonist/antagonist conflicts in the text; identify the hcci, central conflict. Analysis. Another focus might be to examine Achebe's use of language.
One could study African folktales, songs, and research paper, proverbs. Achebe uses proverbs as a way to communicate the African oral tradition within the frame of the western novel. In Things Fall Apart , Achebe writes, Among the Ibo the art of conversations is regarded very highly and proverbs are the palm oil with which words are eaten (7). An examination of nursing case studies cardiac how proverbs work in the novel would be a way to discuss theme, clarify character, and explain the culture. Achebe says, when I use these forms in my novels, they both serve a utilitarian purpose, which is to reenact the life of the people that I am describing, and also delight through elegance and aptness of imagery. This is what proverbs are supposed to hcci research do (Lindfors 67). For a detailed analysis of analysis thesis Achebe's use of proverbs see Austin Shelton's 'The Palm-Oil' of Language: Provrebs in Chinua Achebe's Novels. Modern Language Quarterly 30(1969): 103.
Another suggestion is to explore the text as a counternarrative. Paper. To do this it would be beneficial for the instructor to become acquainted with Achebe's article The Novelist as Teacher. In this essay Achebe explains his purpose in his novels. He wants to portray Africans as real human beings in order to correct their misrepresentation in canonical literary texts. Having the students read Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness , then read Achebe's essay An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness would be an en essayant continuellement par reussir ideal way to compare and contrast Arrow of God with a canonical literary text and confront the stereotypes Achebe points out. Other novels about British colonization would work as well, for example, Rudyard Kipling's Kim, E.M. Forrester's Passage to India , George Orwell's Burmese Days , or Olive Schreiner's Story of an African Farm . Examining how Arrow of God works as a counternarrative is an excellent segway to studying Point of View. One could even broaden the scope to include Latin American counternarratives such as Asturias' Men of Maize or Castellanos' Nine Guardians. To find the latest articles and books on Achebe consult the MLA International Bibliography, the hcci paper, Journal of Commonwealth Literature , and Callaloo . For biographical sources, interviews, Igbo studies, background studies on anthropology, history, politics, religion, critical commentary sources, and information on audio visual aids see Bernth Lindors' Approaches to Teaching Achebe's Things Fall Apart.
New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1991. Achebe, Chinua. Do Homework. A Man of the People. London: Heinemann, 1966. ___. An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Hopes and Impediments Selected Essays . New York: Doubleday, 1988. 1-13. ___.
Anthills of the Savannah . London: Heinemann, 1987. ___. The Novelist as Teacher. Hcci. Hopes and steven, Impediments Selected Essays . Research. New York:Doubleday, 1988. 40-46. ___. Interview with Lewis Nkosi. Africa Report . Paper. July 1964. ___.
Letter from John Updike. The Writer and research paper, his Community. Hopes and Impediments Selected Essays. New York: Doubleday, 1988. 47-61. ___. For Me. Morning Yet on research paper Creation Day: Essays. London: Heinemann, 1975. ___.
No Longer at Ease . Do Homework For Me. London: Heinemann, 1960. ___. The Role of the Writer in the New Nation. Hcci Research. Nigeria Magazine. 81 (June1964): 158-79. Things Fall Apart. London: Heinemann, 1958. ___. En Essayant Par Reussir. Things Fall Apart. London: Heinemann, 1958. Appiah, Anthony, Ryle, John and Jones, D.A.N.
Interview with Chinua Achebe: Times Literary Supplement , February 26, 1982. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Ed. Ross C. Murfin. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's P, 1989. Egejuru, Phanuel Akubueze, ed. Towards African Literary Independence: A Dialogue With Contemporary African Writers.
Westport: Greenwood, 1980. Gikandi, Simon. Reading Chinua Achebe . London: James Currey, 1991. Innes, C.L. Chinua Achebe . Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. Lindfors,Bernth, ed. Approaches to Teaching Achebe's Things Fall Apart . New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1991. ___. Conversations with Chinua Achebe. Research Paper. Jackson: Un. of Mississippi P, 1997.
Maja-Pearce, Adewale. A Mask Dancing Nigerian Novelists of the Eighties . London:Hans Zell Pub., 1992. Menchu, Rigoberta. I, Rigoberta Menchu An Indian Woman in analysis thesis Guatemala. New York:Verso, 1984. Moore, Gerald. Achebe's New Novel. Transition . 4 (May/June 1964): 52. Pieterse, Cosmo and Duerden, Dennis, eds.
African Writers Talking: A Collection of Radio Interviews. London: Heinemann, 1972.
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parent license essay Philosophy and research paper, Public Affairs ( Winter 1980) pp. 182-97. Feel free to read the essays essay here, download it for private use, or. link to it. But do not place copies of the file on any other server.
In this essay I shall argue that the hcci research paper state should require all parents to be licensed. My main goal is to demonstrate that the licensing of parents is theoretically desirable, though I shall also argue that a workable and just licensing program actually could be established. My strategy is analysis paper thesis simple. After developing the basic rationale for the licensing of parents, I shall consider several objections to the proposal and argue that these objections fail to research, undermine it. I shall then isolate some striking similarities between this licensing program and our present policies on analysis thesis, the adoption of research, children. If we retain these adoption policies--as we surely should--then, I argue, a general licensing program should also be established. Finally, I shall briefly suggest that the reason many people object to book sale, licensing is that they think parents, particularly biological parents, own or have natural sovereignty over their children.
REGULATING POTENTIALLY HARMFUL ACTIVITIES. Our society normally regulates a certain range of activities; it is illegal to perform these activities unless one has received prior permission to do so. We require automobile operators to have licenses. We forbid people from hcci research practicing medicine, law, pharmacy, or psychiatry unless they have satisfied certain licensing requirements. Society's decision to regulate just these activities is not ad hoc. The decision to restrict admission to certain vocations and to forbid some people from driving is based on an eminently plausible, though not often explicitly formulated, rationale.(1) We require drivers to be licensed because driving an auto is an activity which is potentially harmful to others, safe performance of the activity requires a certain competence, and we have a moderately reliable procedure for do homework determining that competence.
The potential harm is obvious: incompetent drivers can and do maim and research, kill people. Do Homework. The best way we have of limiting this harm without sacrificing the hcci research benefits of automobile travel is to require that all drivers demonstrate at analysis paper, least minimal competence. We likewise license doctors,. lawyers, and psychologists because they perform activities which can harm others. Paper. Obviously they must be proficient if they are to perform these activities properly, and we have moderately reliable procedures for determining proficiency Imagine a world in for me, which everyone could legally drive a car, in which everyone could legally perform surgery, prescribe medications, dispense drugs. or offer legal advice. Such a world would hardly be desirable. Consequently, any activity that is potentially harmful to others and requires certain demonstrated competence for its safe performance, is subject to regulation that is, it is theoretically desirable that we regulate it. If we also have a reliable procedure for determining whether someone has the requisite competence, then the action is not only subject to regulation but ought, all things considered, to be regulated. It is particularly significant that we license these hazardous activities, even though denying a license to someone can severely inconvenience and research paper, even harm that person.
Furthermore, available competency tests are not 100 percent accurate. Denying someone a driver's license in our society, for example, would inconvenience that person acutely. In effect that person would be prohibited from working, shopping, or visiting in places reachable only by car. Similarly, people denied vocational licenses are inconvenienced, even devastated. We have all heard of for me, individuals who had the life-long dream of becoming physicians or lawyers, yet were denied that dream. However, the realization that some people are disappointed or inconvenienced does not diminish our conviction that we must regulate occupations or activities that are potentially dangerous to others. Innocent people must be protected even if it means that others cannot pursue activities they deem highly desirable.
Furthermore, we maintain licensing procedures even though our competency tests are sometimes inaccurate. Some people competent to perform the hcci paper licensed activity (for example, driving a car) will be unable to demonstrate competence (they freeze up on the driver's test). Others may be incompetent, yet pass the test (they are lucky or certain aspects of competence -- for example, the sense of responsibility--are not tested ) . We recognize clearly--or should recognize clearly-- that no test will pick out en essayant continuellement on finit, all and only competent drivers, physicians, lawyers, and so on. Research. Mistakes are inevitable. This does not mean we should forget that innocent people may be harmed by faulty regulatory procedures. In fact, if the procedures are sufficiently faulty, we should cease regulating that activity entirely until more reliable tests are available. I only want to do homework, emphasize here that tests need not be perfect. Research Paper. Where moderately reliable tests are available, licensing procedures should be used to protect innocent people from incompetents.(2)
These general criteria for regulatory licensing can certainly be applied to parents. En Essayant On Finit Par Reussir. First, parenting is an activity potentially very harmful to hcci research paper, children. The potential for for me harm is apparent: each year more than half a million children are physically abused or neglected by their parents.(3) Many millions more are psychologically abused or neglected--not given love, respect, or a sense of research paper, self-worth. The results of this maltreatment are obvious. Abused children bear the physical and psychological scars of maltreatment throughout their lives. Far too often they turn to crime.(4) They are far more likely than others to abuse their own children.(5) Even if these maltreated children never harm anyone, they will probably never be well-adjusted, happy adults. Therefore, parenting clearly satisfies the first criterion of activities subject to regulation.
The second criterion is also incontestably satisfied. Analysis. A parent must be competent if he is to avoid harming his children; even greater competence is hcci paper required if he is to do the job well. Paper Thesis. But not everyone has this minimal competence. Hcci Research. Many people lack the knowledge needed to rear children adequately. Many others lack the requisite energy, temperament, or stability. Do Homework. Therefore, child-rearing manifestly satisfies both criteria of hcci paper, activities subject to regulation. In fact, I dare say that parenting is steven a paradigm of such activities since the potential for harm is so great (both in the extent of hcci paper, harm any one person can suffer and in the number of en essayant continuellement on finit par reussir, people potentially harmed) and the need for competence is so evident. Consequently, there is good reason to believe that all parents should be licensed. The only ways to avoid this conclusion are to research, deny the analysis paper need for licensing any potentially harmful activity; to deny that I have identified the standard criteria of activities which should be regulated; to deny that parenting satisfies the standard criteria; to show that even though parenting satisfies the standard criteria there are special reasons why licensing parents is not theoretically desirable; or to show that there is no reliable and just procedure for implementing this program.
While developing my argument for licensing I have already identified the standard criteria for activities that should be regulated, and paper, I have shown that they can properly be applied to parenting. One could deny the legitimacy of regulation by licensing, but in doing so one would condemn not only the regulation of parenting, but also the regulation of drivers, physicians, druggists, and doctors. Analysis Paper. Furthermore, regulation of hazardous activities appears to be a fundamental task of any stable society. Thus only two objections remain. In the next section I shall see if there are any special reasons why licensing parents is not theoretically desirable.
Then, in the following section, I shall examine several practical objections designed to hcci paper, demonstrate that even if licensing were theoretically desirable, it could not be justly implemented. THEORETICAL OBJECTIONS TO LICENSING. Licensing is studies cardiac unacceptable, someone might say, since people have a right to have children, just as they have rights to hcci research, free speech and case, free religious expression. Hcci. They do not need a license to vs new technology, speak freely or to worship as they wish. Why? Because they have a right to engage in these activities. Similarly, since people have a right to have children, any attempt to research paper, license parents would be unjust. This is an important objection since many people find it plausible, if not self-evident. However, it is not as convincing as it appears.
The specific rights appealed to book sale, in this analogy are not without limitations. Hcci Research. Both slander and book sale, human sacrifice are prohibited by law; both could result from the unrestricted exercise of freedom of hcci, speech and freedom of religion. Thus, even if people have these rights, they may sometimes be limited in order to protect innocent people. Consequently, even if people had a right to have children, that right might also be limited in order to do homework, protect innocent people, in this case children. Research Paper. Secondly, the phrase right to have children is ambiguous; hence, it is important to thesis, isolate its most plausible meaning in research, this context.
Two possible interpretations are not credible and can be dismissed summarily. It is implausible to claim either that infertile people have rights to be given children or that people have rights to en essayant, intentionally create children biologically without incurring any subsequent responsibility to them. A third interpretation, however, is more plausible, particularly when coupled with observations about the degree of intrusion into one's life that the licensing scheme represents. On this interpretation people have a right to hcci research, rear children if they make good-faith efforts to rear procreated children the best way they see fit. One might defend this claim on the ground that licensing would require too much intrusion into the lives of sincere applicants. Undoubtedly one should be wary of unnecessary governmental intervention into individuals' lives. In this case, though, the continuellement intrusion would not often be substantial, and when it is, it would be warranted. Those granted licenses would face merely minor intervention; only those denied licenses would encounter marked intrusion.
This encroachment, however, is a necessary side-effect of licensing parents -- just as it is for automobile and vocational licensing. Hcci Research. In addition, as I shall argue in more detail later, the degree of intrusion arising from a general licensing program would be no more than, and do homework for me, probably less than, the present (and presumably justifiable) encroachment into the lives of people who apply to hcci, adopt children. Furthermore, since some people hold unacceptable views about what is best for do homework children (they think children should be abused regularly), people do not automatically have rights to hcci research paper, rear children just because they will rear them in a way they deem appropriate.(6) Consequently, we come to a somewhat weaker interpretation of nursing studies cardiac, this right claim: a person has a right to rear children if he meets certain minimal standards of child rearing. Parents must not abuse or neglect their children and must also provide for the basic needs of the children.
This claim of right is certainly more credible than the previously canvassed alternatives, though some people might still reject this claim in situations where exercise of the right would lead to paper, negative consequences, for example, to overpopulation. More to the point, though, this conditional right is compatible with licensing. On this interpretation one has a right to en essayant continuellement on finit, have children only if one is not going to abuse or neglect them. Of course the research very purpose if licensing is just to determine whether people are going to steven connor essay, abuse or neglect their children. If the hcci determination is made that someone will maltreat children, then that person is subject to the limitations of the right to have children and can legitimately be denied a parenting license. In fact, this conditional way of formulating the steven essay right to hcci paper, have children provides a model for continuellement on finit formulating all alleged rights to engage in hazardous activities.
Consider, for hcci paper example, the en essayant continuellement par reussir right to paper, drive a car. People do not have an unconditional right to drive, although they do have a right to vs new essays, drive if they are competent. Paper. Similarly, people do not have an unconditional right to practice medicine; they have a right only if they are demonstrably competent. Hence, denying a driver's or physician's license to someone who has not demonstrated the requisite competence does not deny that person's rights. Likewise, on this model, denying a parenting license to someone who is not competent does not violate that person's rights.
Of course someone might object that the analysis paper thesis right is conditional on actually being a person who will abuse or neglect children, whereas my proposal only picks out those we can reasonably predict will abuse children. Hence, this conditional right would be incompatible with licensing. There are two ways to interpret this objection and it is important to distinguish these divergent formulations. First, the objection could be a way of hcci, questioning our ability to par reussir, predict reasonably and hcci research paper, accurately whether people would maltreat their own children. This is an important practical objection, but I will defer discussion of it until the next section. Second, this objection could be a way of expressing doubt about the moral propriety of the prior restraint licensing re quires. A parental licensing program would deny licenses to book sale, applicants judged to be incompetent even though they had never maltreated any children. This practice would be in tension with our normal skepticism about the propriety of prior restraint. Despite this healthy skepticism, we do sometimes use prior restraint.
In extreme circumstances we may hospitalize or imprison people judged insane, even though they are not legally guilty of any crime, simply because we predict they are likely to harm others. More typically, though, prior restraint is used only if the restriction is not terribly onerous and the restricted activity is one which could lead easily to serious harm. Most types of licensing (for example, those for research paper doctors, drivers, and druggists) fall into this latter category. They re quire prior restraint to prevent serious harm, and generally the restraint is minor though it is important to remember that some individuals will find it oppressive. Continuellement Par Reussir. The same is true of research, parental licensing. The purpose of en essayant, licensing is to prevent serious harm to children.
More over, the prior restraint required by licensing would not be terribly onerous for many people. Certainly the restraint would be far less extensive than the presumably justifiable prior restraint of, say, insane criminals. Criminals preventively detained and paper, mentally ill people forcibly hospitalized are denied most basic liberties, while those denied parental licenses would be denied only that one specific opportunity. They could still vote, work for political candidates, speak on essay, controversial topics, and so on. Doubtless some individuals would find the restraint onerous. Hcci Research. But when compared to other types of restraint currently practiced, and when judged in light of the for me severity of harm maltreated children suffer, the restraint appears relatively minor.
Furthermore, we could make certain, as we do with most licensing programs, that individuals denied licenses are given the hcci research opportunity to reapply easily and case studies cardiac, repeatedly for hcci paper a license. Thus, many people correctly denied licenses (because they are incompetent) would choose (perhaps it would be provided) to for me, take counseling or therapy to improve their chances of passing the next test. Hcci Paper. On the other hand, most of those mistakenly denied licenses would probably be able to demonstrate in a later test that they would be competent parents. Consequently, even though one needs to be wary of prior restraint, if the potential for harm is old technology vs new technology essays great and hcci research paper, the restraint is minor relative to the harm we are trying to prevent -- as it would be with parental licensing -- then such restraint is justified. Continuellement On Finit Par Reussir. This objection, like all the hcci research theoretical objections reviewed, has failed. PRACTICAL OBJECTIONS TO LICENSING. I shall now consider five practical objections to licensing. Each objection focuses on the problems or difficulties of implementing this proposal. According to these objections, licensing is (or may be) theoretically desirable; nevertheless, it cannot be efficiently and justly implemented. The first objection is that there may not be, or we may not be able to discover, adequate criteria of a good parent. Thesis. We simply do not have the knowledge, and hcci research paper, it is unlikely that we could ever obtain the book sale knowledge, that would enable us to hcci research, distinguish adequate from inadequate parents.
Clearly there is some force to this objection. It is highly improbable that we can formulate criteria that would distinguish precisely be tween good and less than good parents. There is too much we do not know about child development and par reussir, adult psychology. My proposal, however, does not demand that we make these fine distinctions. It does not demand that we license only the hcci research paper best parents; rather it is book sale designed to research, exclude only the very bad ones.(8) This is not just a semantic difference, but a substantive one. Although we do not have infallible criteria for picking out good parents, we undoubtedly can identify bad ones-- those who will abuse or neglect their children. Even though we could have a lively debate about the range of freedom a child should be given or the appropriateness of corporal punishment, we do not wonder if a parent who severely beats or neglects a child is adequate. We know that person isn't.
Consequently, we do have reliable and nursing case studies cardiac, useable criteria for determining who is a bad parent; we have the criteria necessary to make a licensing program work. The second practical objection to licensing is that there is no re liable way to predict who will maltreat their children. Hcci Research Paper. Without an accurate predictive test, licensing would be not only unjust, but also a waste of for me, time. Now I recognize that as a philosopher (and not a psychologist, sociologist, or social worker), I am on shaky ground if I make sweeping claims about the present or future abilities of professionals to produce such predictive tests. Nevertheless, there are some relevant observations I can offer. Initially, we need to be certain that the hcci research paper demands on old technology, predictive tests are not unreasonable.
For example, it would be improper to require that tests be 100 percent accurate. Procedures for licensing drivers, physicians, lawyers, druggists, etc., plainly are not 100 percent (or anywhere near 100 percent) accurate. Presumably we recognize these deficiencies yet embrace the hcci paper procedures anyway. Par Reussir. Consequently, it would be imprudent to demand considerably more exacting standards for the tests used in licensing parents. In addition, from what I can piece together, the practical possibilities for hcci research paper constructing a reliable predictive test are not all that gloomy. Old Technology Technology. Since my proposal does not require that we make fine line distinctions between good and less than good parents, but rather that we weed out research, those who are potentially very bad, we can use existing tests that claim to isolate relevant predictive characteristics -- whether a person is violence-prone, easily frustrated, or unduly self-centered. In fact, researchers at par reussir, Nashville General Hospital have developed a brief interview questionnaire which seems to have significant predictive value.
Based on their data, the researchers identified 20 percent of the interviewees as arisk group--those having great potential for hcci research paper serious problems. After one year they found the for me incidence of major break down in parent-child interaction in the risk group was approximately four to hcci research, five times as great as in the low risk group.(9) We also know that parents who maltreat children often have certain identifiable experiences, for connor example, most of them were themselves maltreated as children. Consequently, if we combined our information about hcci research paper, these parents with certain psychological test results, we would probably be able to predict with reasonable accuracy which people will maltreat their children. However, my point is not to argue about the precise reliability of present tests. I cannot say emphatically that we now have accurate predictive tests.
Nevertheless, even if such tests are not available, we could undoubtedly develop them. For example, we could begin a longitudinal study in which all potential parents would be required to take a specified battery of tests. Then these parents could be followed to analysis paper, discover which ones abused or neglected their children. By correlating test scores with information on maltreatment, a usable, accurate test could be fashioned. Therefore, I do not think that the present unavailability of such tests (if they are unavailable) would count against the legitimacy of licensing parents. The third practical objection is that even if a reliable test for ascertaining who would be an acceptable parent were available, administrators would unintentionally misuse that test. Hcci Research. These unintentional mistakes would clearly harm innocent individuals.
Therefore, so the argument goes, this proposal ought to be scrapped. Connor Essay. This objection can be dispensed with fairly easily unless one assumes there is some special reason to believe that more mistakes will be made in research, administering parenting licenses than in other regulatory activities. No matter how reliable our proceedings are, there will always be mistakes. We may license a physician who, through incompetence, would cause the death of a patient; or we may mistakenly deny a physician's license to old technology, some one who would be competent. But the fact that mistakes are made does not and paper, should not lead us to en essayant continuellement on finit par reussir, abandon attempts to determine competence. The harm done in these cases could be far worse than the hcci research paper harm of mistakenly denying a person a parenting license. As far as I can tell, there is no reason to believe that more mistakes will be made here than elsewhere. The fourth proposed practical objection claims that any testing procedure will be intentionally abused.
People administering the process will disqualify people they dislike, or people who espouse views they dislike, from rearing children. The response to this objection is studies cardiac parallel to the response to the previous objection, namely, that there is no reason to believe that the licensing of parents is more likely to be abused than driver's license tests or other regulatory procedures. In addition, individuals can be protected from prejudicial treatment by pursuing appeals available to them. Since the licensing test can be taken on numerous occasions, the hcci paper likelihood of the applicant's working with different administrative personnel increases and vs new, therefore the likelihood decreases that intentional abuse could ultimately stop a qualified person from rearing children. Consequently, since the probability of such abuse is not more than, and may even be less than, the intentional abuse of hcci paper, judicial and other regulatory authority, this objection does not give us any reason to reject the licensing of continuellement on finit par reussir, parents. The fifth objection is that we could never adequately, reasonably, and fairly enforce such a program. That is, even if we could establish a reasonable and fair way of determining which people would be inadequate parents, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to enforce the program. How would one deal with violators and what could we do with babies so conceived? There are difficult problems here, no doubt, but they are not insurmountable.
We might not punish parents at all we might just remove the children and put them up for adoption. However, even if we are presently uncertain about the paper precise way to nursing case cardiac, establish a just and effective form of enforcement, I do not see why this should undermine my licensing proposal. Hcci Research Paper. If it is important enough to connor essay, protect children from research paper being maltreated by parents, then surely a reasonable enforcement procedure can be secured. At least we should assume one can be unless someone shows that it cannot. AN ANALOGY WITH ADOPTION. So far I have argued that parents should be licensed. Undoubtedly many readers find this claim extremely radical. Case Studies Cardiac. It is revealing to notice, however, that this program is research not as radical as it seems.
Our moral and legal systems already recognize that not everyone is capable of rearing children well. In fact, well-entrenched laws require adoptive parents to be investigated--in much the nursing case cardiac same ways and for much the same reasons as in hcci research paper, the general licensing program advocated here. For example, we do not allow just anyone to do homework for me, adopt a child; nor do we let someone adopt without first estimating the likelihood of the person's being a good parent. In fact, the adoptive process is hcci research far more rigorous than the steven essay general licensing procedures I envision. Prior to research paper, adoption the candidates must first formally apply to adopt a child. The applicants are then subjected to technology essays, an exacting home study to determine whether they really want to have children and whether they are capable of caring for and rearing them adequately. No one is allowed to adopt a child until the administrators can reasonably predict that the person will be an adequate parent. The results of these procedures are impressive.
Despite the trauma children often face before they are finally adopted, they are five times less likely to hcci research, be abused than children reared by their biological parents.(9) Nevertheless we recognize, or should recognize, that these demanding procedures exclude some people who would be adequate parents. The selection criteria may be inadequate; the testing procedures may be somewhat unreliable. Book Sale. We may make mistakes. Probably there is some intentional abuse of the system.
Adoption procedures intrude directly in hcci research, the applicants' lives. Yet we continue the present adoption policies because we think it better to mistakenly deny some people the opportunity to adopt than to let just anyone adopt. Once these features of analysis thesis, our adoption policies are clearly identified, it becomes quite apparent that there are striking parallels between the general licensing program I have advocated and hcci, our present adoption system. Both programs have the steven essay same aim --protecting children. Both have the same drawbacks and are subject to the same abuses. The only hcci research obvious dissimilarity is that the adoption requirements are more rigorous than those proposed for the general licensing program. Consequently, if we think it is so important to protect adopted children, even though people who want to adopt are less likely than biological parents to nursing studies, maltreat their children, then we should likewise afford the same protection to children reared by their biological parents. I suspect, though, that many people will think the hcci cases are not analogous. The cases are relevantly different, someone might retort, because biological parents have a natural affection for their children and book sale, the strength of this affection makes it unlikely that parents would maltreat their biologically produced children. Even if it were generally true that parents have special natural affections for their biological offspring, that does not mean that all parents have enough affection to hcci research paper, keep them from maltreating their children. This should be apparent given the number of children abused each year by their biological parents.
Therefore, even if there is generally such a bond, that does not explain why we should not have licensing procedures to protect children of parents who do not have a sufficiently strong bond. Consequently, if we continue our practice of regulating the adoption of children, and certainly we should, we are rationally compelled to continuellement on finit, establish a licensing program for all parents. However, I am not wedded to a strict form of licensing. Hcci. It may well be that there are alternative ways of analysis, regulating parents which would achieve the desired results -- the protection of children--without strictly prohibiting nonlicensed people from hcci paper rearing children. En Essayant. For example, a system of tax incentives for licensed parents, and protective services scrutiny of nonlicensed parents, might adequately protect children. If it would, I would endorse the less drastic measure. My principal concern is to protect children from hcci maltreatment by parents. I begin by advocating the more strict form of licensing since that is the steven connor essay standard method of regulating hazardous activities. I have argued that all parents should be licensed by the state.
This licensing program is attractive, not because state intrusion is inherently judicious and hcci research paper, efficacious, but simply because it seems to be the best way to prevent children from case cardiac being reared by research paper, incompetent parents. Continuellement. Nonetheless, even after considering the research previous arguments, many people will find the nursing case cardiac proposal a useless academic exercise, prob ably silly, and hcci paper, possibly even morally perverse. But why? Why do most of us find this proposal unpalatable, particularly when the arguments supporting it are good and the objections to it are philosophically flimsy? I suspect the answer is en essayant on finit found in a long-held, deeply ingrained attitude toward children, repeatedly reaffirmed in recent court decisions, and present, at least to research paper, some degree, in almost all of us. The belief is that parents own, or at least have natural sovereignty over, their children.(10) It does not matter precisely how this belief is do homework for me described, since on both views parents legitimately exercise extensive and virtually unlimited control over their children.
Others can properly interfere with or criticize parental decisions only in unusual and tightly prescribed circumstances--for example, when parents severely and repeatedly abuse their children. Research Paper. In all other cases, the parents reign supreme. This belief is abhorrent and old technology vs new, needs to be supplanted with a more child-centered view. Why? Briefly put, this attitude has adverse effects on children and on the adults these children will become. Parents who hold this view may well maltreat their children.
If these parents happen to treat their children well, it is only because they want to, not because they think their children deserve or have a right to good treatment. Research. Moreover, this belief is manifestly at continuellement par reussir, odds with the conviction that parents should prepare children for life as adults. Children subject to parents who perceive children in this way are likely to be adequately prepared for adulthood. Hcci Research Paper. Hence, to book sale, prepare children for life as adults and to protect them from maltreatment, this attitude toward children must be dislodged. As I have argued, licensing is a viable way to protect children. Furthermore, it would increase the likelihood that more children will be adequately prepared for life as adults than is hcci paper now true. Case. (11) 1. When practice of a profession or calling requires special knowledge or skill and intimately affects public health, morals, order or safety, or general welfare, legislature may prescribe reasonable qualifications for persons desiring to hcci paper, pursue such professions or calling and require them to demonstrate possession of such qualifications by examination on subjects with which such profession or calling has to deal as a condition precedent to right to follow that profession or calling. 50 SE 2nd 735 (I949). Case Cardiac. Also see I99 US 306, 3I8 (I905) and I23 U8 623, 66I (I887).
2. What counts as a moderately reliable test for these purposes will vary from hcci paper circumstance to vs new technology essays, circumstance. For example, if the hcci research activity could cause a relatively small amount of book sale, harm, yet regulating that activity would place extensive constraints on people regulated, then any tests should be extremely ac curate. On the other hand, if the activity could be exceedingly harmful but the constraints on the regulated person are minor, then the test can be considerably less reliable. 3. The statistics on the incidence of child abuse vary. Research. Probably the most re cent detailed study (Saad Nagi, Child Maltreatment in the United States, Columbia University Press, I977) suggests that between 400,000 and I,000,000 children are abused or neglected each year. Other experts claim the incidence is case studies cardiac considerably higher. 4. According to the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse, more than 80 percent of incarcerated criminals were, as children, abused by their parents. Hcci Research Paper. In addition, a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association I68, no. 3: I755-I758, reported that first-degree murderers from middle-class homes and en essayant, who have no history of addiction to drugs, alcoholism, organic disease of the brain, or epilepsy were frequently found to have been subject to hcci paper, remorseless physical brutality at the hands of the parents. 5. A review of the literature points out that abusive parents were raised in nursing case cardiac, the same style that they have recreated in the pattern of rearing children. An individual who was raised by parents who used physical force to research paper, train their children and who grew up in vs new, a violent household has had as a role model the use of force and violence as a means of hcci research, family problem solving.
R. J. Gelles, Child Abuse as Psychopathology--a Sociological Critique and Reformulation, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 43, no. 4 (I973): 6I8-I9. 6. Some people might question if any parents actually believe they should beat their children. However, that does appear to be the sincere view of many abusing parents. See, for example, case descriptions in A Silent Tragedy by Peter and steven essay, Judith DeCourcy (Sherman Oaks, CA.: Alfred Publishing Co., I973). 7. I suppose I might be for licensing only good parents if I knew there were reasonable criteria and some plausible way of hcci paper, deciding if a potential parent satisfied these criteria. However, since I don't think we have those criteria or that method, nor can I seriously envision that we will discover those criteria and that method, I haven't seriously entertained the stronger proposal. 8. Case Studies. The research gathered by Altemeir was reported by Ray Helfer in Review of the Concepts and a Sampling of the Research Relating to Screening for research the Potential to Abuse and/or Neglect One's Child.
Helfer's paper was presented at a workshop sponsored by the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse, 3-6 December I978. 9. According to a study published by the Child Welfare League of America, at least 5I percent of the adopted children had suffered, prior to adoption, more than minimal emotional deprivation. See A Follow-up Study of Adoptions: Post Placement Functioning of Adoption Families, Elizabeth A. Lawder et al., New York I969. According to a study by David Gil (Violence Against Children, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, I970) only paper .4 percent of abused children were abused by adoptive parents. Since at hcci research paper, least 2 percent of the steven connor children in the United States are adopted (Encyclopedia of Social Work, National Association of paper, Social Workers, New York, I977), that means the paper rate of abuse by biological parents is five time that of hcci paper, adoptive parents. 10. We can see this belief in book sale, a court case chronicled by DeCourcy and research, De Courcy in A Silent Tragedy. The judge ruled that three children, severely and analysis paper thesis, regularly beaten, burned, and research, cut by en essayant on finit, their father, should be placed back with their father since he was only trying to do what is right. If the court did not adopt this belief would it even be tempted to so excuse such abusive behavior? This attitude also emerges in the all-too-frequent court rulings ( see S. Katz, When Parents Fail, Boston: Beacon Press, 197I) giving custody of children back to their biological parents even though the parents had abandoned them for years, and even though the paper children expressed a strong desire to stay with foster parents.
In The Child, the Law, and the State ( Children's Rights: Toward the Liberation of the Child, Leila Berg et al., New York: Praeger Publishers, I97I), Nan Berger persuasively argues that our adoption and foster care laws are comprehensible only if children are regarded as the property of their parents. 11. For helpful comments and criticisms, I am indebted to Jeffrey Gold, Chris Hackler, James Rachels, and especially to William Aiken, George Graham, and the Editors of the studies journal. A somewhat different version of research paper, this essay will ap pear in book sale, the Proceeding of the Loyola University (Chicago) Symposium, Justice for research the Child within the Family Context. En Essayant On Finit. Thanks are due to the directors of the hcci research symposium for do homework kind permission to publish the hcci paper essay in Philosophy and Public Affairs.
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mozart course work Mozart as a Teacher. by Alfred Mann and Mario R. Mercado. This small contribution to the observances of the Mozart anniversary is offered under dual authorship since its discussion emanated from two recent studies. Research Paper? One of technology them, published as one of the last volumes in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe, the new Critical Edition of Mozart's works to be concluded in hcci 1991, deals with Mozart's work as a teacher of composition. Vs New Technology Essays? 1 The other is concerned with the development of Mozart's keyboard idiom and touches upon questions of what in modern terminology would be referred to as piano pedagogy. 2. The didactic situation in Mozart's time differed in research its approach significantly from that of twentieth-century teaching. Vocal or instrumental instruction was, as a rule, not treated as an isolated phenomenon but in studies conjunction with training in theory and composition. Piano lessons as such were something upon which Mozart looked with disdain.
I leave that to people who cannot do anything but play the piano. I am a composer, he wrote in a letter (February 7, 1778) to his mother. Nevertheless, a dichotomy by research paper which instruction in performance was separated from do homework for me that in composition began to take shape in the course of Mozart's teaching activities, and it was prompted both by the development of the students' careers and the role Mozart's own creative work played in it. Mozart had several keyboard students that figured prominently in his work as a composer; the Salzburg Countess Antonia Lützow was the dedicatee of the Concerto in C, K. Hcci? 238 written in 1776; Rosa Cannabich and Thérèse Pierron Serrarius, pupils during Mozart's Mannheim sojourn of case studies cardiac 1778, prompted important keyboard works: the Sonata in C, K. 309 (284b) for piano solo and the Sonata in hcci paper C, K. Steven Connor Essay? 296 for piano and violin. About Rosa Cannabich, the daughter of Christian Cannabich, composer, violinist, and paper, Konzertmeister of the celebrated Mannheim orchestra, Mozart made the connor, following remarks in hcci research a report home to his father:
As soon as I can, I shall have the sonata which I have written for Mlle Cannabich copied out on small paper and shall send it to my sister. I began to do homework for me teach it to research Mlle Rosa three days ago. We finished the opening Allegro today. The Andante will give us most trouble, for it is vs new essays, full of hcci research expression and must be played accurately and with the exact shades of forte and piano, precisely as they are marked. She is very smart and learns very easily. Her right hand is vs new essays, very good, but her left, unfortunately, is completely ruined . For she has got into the habit of doing what she does, because no one has ever shown her any other way.
I have told her mother, and I have told her too, that if I were her regular teacher, I would lock up all her music, cover the keys with a handkerchief and make her practice, first with the research, right and then with the old technology vs new, left, nothing but passages, trills, mordants and research paper, so forth, very slowly at first, until each hand should be thoroughly trained. I would then undertake to turn her into a first-rate clavierist. Mozart's activity as a teacher grew in the last decade of his life, the Vienna years, after he made the irrevocable break with the Archbishop of Salzburg and took up the existence of a free-lance artist. Teaching held the potential for a lucrative and fairly steady income, though Mozart learned early that he had to come to certain understandings with the nobility, many of whom figured as his students, to undercut a frivolous attitude toward their studies and, more importantly, to avoid a loss in essential income. En Essayant On Finit Par Reussir? In January 1782, Mozart wrote to his father:
I have three pupils now, which brings me in eighteen ducats a month; for research paper I no longer charge for twelve lessons, but monthly. I learnt to case studies my cost that my pupils often dropped out for weeks at a time, so now, whether they learn or not, each of them must pay me six ducats. I shall get several more on research paper these terms, but I really need only one more, because four pupils are quite enough. We do not know the exact literature Mozart taught his students, though he included his own sonatas for piano solo and piano and violin as well as sets of variations for his advanced pupils. A letter from 1781, again to his father, closes with a hasty explanation of the need to finish a set of variations for the imminent lesson of a pupil, the Countess Marie Thiennes de Rumbecke; the variations in question were one of three sets composed during the summer of 1781 in Vienna #151; either the Variations in F, K. 352 (374c) for thesis piano on Dieu d'amour, a chorus from the Gretry opera Les mariages samnites, or the hcci paper, Variations in G, K. 359 (374a) for thesis piano and violin on the French song La bergère Célimène, or the Variations in G minor, K. 360 (374b) for piano and violin on Hélas, j'ai perdu mon amant. Thérèse von Trattner, wife of the research, bookseller and printer Joseph von Trattner, as well as the case studies cardiac, Countess Rumbecke, were among the three pupils Mozart mentioned in the above letter. To Thérèse von Trattner he dedicated his Sonata in C minor, K. Hcci Paper? 457 composed in 1784 and the Fantasy in C minor, K. 475 written in 1785, both works published in 1785 as his Op. 11 by do homework Artaria, the leading Viennese music publisher. Mme. von Trattner was reputed to be a gifted pianist, an opinion which is borne out by the demands made on pianistic technique in hcci research both works. However, not all of Mozart's sonatas posed such uncompromising technical challenges; his justly famous C major sonata K. Steven? 545, written in 1788, carried the epithet fur Anfänger. Intended as a teaching piece, the ostensibly simple and transparent pianistic idiom of the sonata nonetheless calls for an assured technique.
The third pupil to whom Mozart referred in the letter was the most gifted musician of the three, Josepha von Auernhammer. Like the others, she was close to hcci paper Mozart's age. Mlle. For Me? von Auernhammer and Mozart performed often as duo-pianists: he composed the brilliant concertante Sonata in hcci D, K. 448 for studies two pianos for her. Though the two piano parts are mostly on equal footing, Mozart intended the primo part for her. They gave frequent performances of the paper, Concerto in E-flat, K. 365 (316a), written in 1779, and the Concerto in F, K. 242, for three pianos, composed in 1776, which Mozart had subsequently arranged for two pianos. He also dedicated to her his Op. 2, the series of six sonatas which included K. Nursing? 296,376-380(296,374d, 374e, 317d, 373a, 374f). In general, Mozart gave his students from three to five one-hour lessons a week (at least during the early Viennese years; as Mozart's obligations increased #151; both as a performer and as a composer, and as he took on more students #151; it is difficult to believe that he continued to be as generous with his time). Research? Nonetheless, correspondence with his father suggests that, during the early months of their association, he taught Josepha von Auernhammer on a daily basis and that he maintained a cordial relationship with her family that lasted throughout his career in Vienna.
The correspondence also reveals that teaching usually occupied Mozart's mid-day; he sought to reserve the early morning and the evening for analysis composing. Josepha von Auernhammer established herself as a pianist, composer, and teacher in Vienna. Among her various compositions was a set of variations on Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja, which was published in 1793. Keyboard variations became established as very fashionable forms with the rising class of cultivated music amateurs of late-eighteenth century Vienna and Paris; for themes or subjects, composers chose opera arias or songs. As publications, variation sets functioned in a fashion analogous to the widely disseminated songs. As a teaching vehicle, the hcci, variation form developed by Mozart proved ideal, providing for each hand pianistic problems and idioms; interpolated into the series of en essayant continuellement on finit ongoing figure patterns were variations contrasting in style, mode, and hcci research, tempo. In a sense, the variation sets tested all aspects of contemporary pianistic technique and occupied the role which collections of pianistic studies or études were to steven connor essay assume in the nineteenth century. Unlike other genres of works, the majority of hcci Mozart's variation sets were published during his life.
Evident in Mozart's evaluation of the old technology vs new, shortcomings in Rosa Cannabich's keyboard skills as well as in his method toward correcting them is his opinion of a requisite grounding in hcci paper fundamentals of pianistic technique. Mozart regarded as indispensable the absolute independence of the thumb and fingers of each hand. In this regard, his recommendation to practice scales, passages, and ornaments on a keyboard covered with a handkerchief is telling: such an on finit approach compels a uniform touch. Moreover, it is hcci, noteworthy that the only surviving exercise by Mozart is one, believed to emanate from the late 1780s, which stresses finger independence through broken chord patterns. Of the numerous other students, Prince Karl Lichnowsky occupies a rather different position in Mozart's life. Like the others mentioned above, he became a piano pupil of Mozart; however, he also assumed the do homework, role of patron #151; he facilitated the composer's trip to hcci paper Prague, Dresden, Leipzig, and Berlin in 1789 #151; and serves to link the generations of the Viennese classical school.
His wife, Christiane, née Thun, was the daughter of Countess Wilhelmine von Thun, who had studied with Haydn and became a friend to Mozart. Through the introduction of Haydn, Beethoven was to meet the young and musically sophisticated Prince Lichnowsky when he moved to the Imperial capital in 1792. Beethoven's first lodgings were rooms in one of the Lichnowsky Viennese residences and the Lichnowskys proved his kind and generous supporters. Book Sale? The prince himself accompanied Beethoven on a concert tour in hcci paper 1796 which, coincidentally, proceeded along the same itinerary as that he had undertaken with Mozart. Beethoven's respect and admiration for Prince Lichnowsky gained expression in nursing studies cardiac various dedications, including his Op. Paper? 1, a set of three piano trios, and the Sonate pathétique, Op. 13. As we know, Mozart was obliged to teach throughout his career in Vienna.
Particularly moving are the letters of the last years to analysis paper his fellow mason Michael Puchberg in which he entreats Puchberg for hcci paper financial assistance and informs him of paper thesis his need to secure additional students. Hcci Research Paper? In contrast stands the period of the mid- I780s during which the income received by teaching as well as through subscription concerts, subscription sales of his music, and commissions contributed to a prosperous and secure era for Mozart; the year 1784 is often singled out as one of Mozart's happiest and most productive. It was also in this year that Mozart began the cultivation of the most mature series of piano concertos and two of them, in E-flat, K. 449 and G, K. 453, were dedicated to a favorite student, the pianist Barbara Ployer. For Me? In fact, Mozart's roles as instructor of piano and harmony and counterpoint converge in the instruction of hcci research Barbara Ployer. From the year 1784 dates a preserved notebook of Barbara Ployer which a later owner entitled Mozarts Unterricht in par reussir der Komposition. It contains exercises in four-part harmony that range from simple keyboard settings, for which the top part and a figured bass are assigned, to complete movements for hcci string quartet as well as sporadic studies in counterpoint. For Me? Mozart had given what was probably his earliest instruction in composition (1778) to the daughter of the Duke of hcci paper Guines in Paris. The young lady was not very gifted, and the lessons developed into somewhat of a struggle well documented in Mozart's correspondence with his father. Mozart wrote to him on May 14,1778: . she made a rather acceptable bass for the first minuet I had put down for her, and has now begun to write in three parts . but she tires easily . I can't move ahead . Old Technology Vs New? it seems too early even if she had real talent, but she doesn't. He continues: I have tried all sorts of things . Among others, I hit on the idea of giving her a very simple minuet to see if she could not write a variation on it #151; in vain . Now I thought she probably does not know how to begin. so I varied the first measure and hcci research, told her to follow up the pattern . this worked more or less. The method Mozart had developed, however, came to a sudden halt when he asked the book sale, student to research commence with an idea of her own.
As he reports, she thought about it for a quarter of an hour, but nothing came. He then tried the do homework for me, device of writing out four measures of another minuet, saying: Look, what a fool I am; I have started a minuet and now I don't know how to end even the hcci paper, first section. Be good enough to finish it for me. Yet the attempt led to no perceptible success. Leopold Mozart's reply (May 28, 1778) is highly interesting: You want her to have ideas of her own #151; do you think everyone has your genius? . If she has a good memory, eh bien! Let her crib #151; or, to put it politely, adopt #151; it is vs new technology, all right for the beginning until some Courage comes; with variations you have made a good start, just carry on! Barbara Ployer's studies show that Mozart took his father's advice to heart.
The variation principle had assumed a prominent role in his own early exercises, conducted under Leopold's guidance; and Mozart's emphasis on contrapuntal training in later years may have been derived in part from the fact that he saw in repeated assignments on an unchanging cantus firmus a didactically sound application of this principle. There are two further notebooks from the 1780s in which Mozart's lessons in paper composition are contained. In both cases we are dealing with rather advanced students and very thorough courses of study. In the summer of thesis 1785, Thomas Attwood, a young English composer who had gone to the continent on a stipend from the Prince of Wales, applied to research paper Mozart for book sale instruction, and hcci, his studies extended over the better part of two years. 3 Overlapping with these is the work Franz Jakob Freystädtler carried on under Mozart's guidance for several months (probably from the summer of 1786 to the spring of 1787).
Freystadtler (whose name, as well as the nickname Gaulimauli Mozart gave him, is known from the analysis paper thesis, Canon, K. 232) soon joined the circle of Mozart's close friends, as had Attwood; and it is clear from research Mozart's correspondence that he considered both of them junior colleagues rather than mere students. Nevertheless, he took them back initially to steven essay basic exercises, and it is paper, remarkable to see that in the continuation of their rigorous studies, their writing, suggesting relatively inexperienced hands at first, began more and studies, more to resemble Mozart's own, so that in hcci research paper the end a differentiation between the entries of teacher and student begins to pose serious problems. Attwood's work under Mozart took its beginning in a manner somewhat similar to do homework that of Barbara Ployer. But after some time, Mozart realized that what was needed was a careful schooling in hcci linear writing. It was now no longer Leopold's influence so much that made itself felt in technology Mozart's method of instruction, but that of Haydn, with whom his close personal and artistic association developed during the decade of the 1780s. The dedication of hcci paper Mozart's string quartets Opus X, addressed to book sale Haydn as their father, guide, and friend, stands as a testimony to the fact that he considered the hcci research paper, older master (who himself had received strong impulses from Mozart's work) his mentor. Do Homework For Me? It was evidently also in questions of pedagogy that Mozart was decisively influenced by Haydn, for the documents suggest that to the latter he owed his detailed knowledge of the formal study of paper counterpoint. Haydn had become a choirboy at St.
Stephen's Cathedral in book sale Vienna when the venerated master of the Imperial chapel, Johann Joseph Fux, was still living, and in early years he acquired Fux's famed Gradus ad Parnassum, the classical manual of counterpoint. Hcci Research Paper? With tireless exertion Haydn sought to comprehend Fux's theory. For Me? He worked his way through the whole method, did the hcci research paper, exercises, put them by for several weeks, then looked them over nursing case studies again and polished them until he thought he had got them right. 4. Haydn's copiously annotated copy of the work was preserved in research the Esterházy library until the Second World War, when it fell victim to studies the flames in the siege of Budapest. But various manuscript duplications of his exhaustive commentary exist, and the composer's well-worn copy had apparently gone through Mozart's hands, as can be seen from hcci details of wording and musical examples in the Attwood studies. Attwood's counterpoint studies covered several months; Attwood meticulously dated them. Connor Essay? In the research paper, case of Freystädtler, Mozart began the instruction immediately with two-part exercises in species counterpoint according to book sale Fux, and the more than 100 pages of the student's combined fascicles of manuscript are devoted entirely to the study of counterpoint (as was Haydn's instruction given to Beethoven). There is no question that such complete devotion to strict contrapuntal schooling had a profound influence upon the masters' own work and, in fact, the rise of the Classical Viennese style. In a lecture left in manuscript (British Library Add. Ms.
35014 f.) by Samuel Wesley, the foremost English organist of the early eighteenth century, we find the following remark: Mr. Thomas Attwood, His Majesty's Organist, who studied in research Germany under Mozart, related to me many years ago an anecdote of connor his which frequently recurs to memory. Being naturally anxious to make a rapid progress under such a master and such a genius, he soon observed to Mozart, Sir, I am extremely desirous to produce a good fugue from your instructions #151; to which he replied, Do not be too much in a hurry #151; study plain counterpoint for about twelve months, and then it will be quite time enough to talk about fugues. 1) Serie X Supplement, Werkgruppe 30 Band 2: Barbara Ployers and Franz Jacob Freystädtlers Theorie- and Kompositionstudien by Mozart, Hellmut Federhofer and hcci paper, Alfred Mann, editors, Kassel 1989.
Alfred Mann, Professor Emeritus, Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, known through his numerous publications on eighteenth-century music, has served as co-editor for book sale two volumes of the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe. Musicologist Mario R. Mercado is Director of Programs at The Kurt Weill Foundation for Music in New York. 2002-2005by Music Associates of America. All Rights Reserved. music associates of america // 224 king street // englewood // new jersey // 07631.
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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. Hcci Paper? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in nursing case studies, helping people write essays faster and paper, easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Old Technology Vs New Essays? Speculate about what caused the situation. Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to hcci research paper, fit your assignment.
Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to en essayant on finit, the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children? Does the hcci research paper age of the child make a difference? How does the for me divorce of parents affect the dating and marriage relationships of their children?
What is the effect of long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to hcci research paper, be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to analysis paper thesis, rebel against their parents?
What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to become sexually active?
How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the hcci research paper effect of on finit par reussir, growing up in a single-parent household? What is the research effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the new two child policy change family dynamics?
What are the effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the effect of family vacations on family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in the U.S.? What are the effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the en essayant continuellement on finit increase in hcci research, international adoption in Western countries? What is the effect on children (or adults) of essay, watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations?
What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on hcci research paper social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the cause of do homework for me, men still out-earning women in wages? What is the effect? What is the effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for paper, many people around the world? What is the effect of book sale, people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of hcci research paper, inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and paper thesis, racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the effect on children of growing up in poverty?
What has caused the hcci paper dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the analysis paper thesis effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa?
What is the effect of climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to paper, eradicate? What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements?
What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on steven connor essay oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies?
What effect does an increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on teeth?
What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of research paper, elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to book sale, spend more money? What effect does social media have on hcci teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity?
What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on essay teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and towards tablets and research, smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on case the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on hcci paper students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to think school is boring?
Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the do homework effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the research actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to technology essays, learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the paper effect of having an open high school campus? What is the en essayant continuellement effect on the education of students when a district has year-round schooling?
What causes teachers to paper, burn out? What causes some schools to do homework, fail to hcci, educate students? What causes American students to analysis, lag behind students from other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on research paper a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in on finit par reussir, schools have on education? What caused the research paper Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the old technology vs new essays increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences?
What effect did WWII have on research the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.? What was the effect of nursing studies cardiac, colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the paper causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of immigration on a country (pick any country)?
What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of book sale, American drone attacks on hcci paper terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by steven essay, Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. Research Paper? Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States.
Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in vs new technology essays, China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Hcci? Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and writing class its good. Analysis Paper? Hi thanks for helping me. Hcci Research Paper? these topics are really good.. i used some of book sale, these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. Research Paper? I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships.
Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on book sale my life. Thanks for paper, your LARGE ammount of tips. These topics really helped me for school. Vs New Technology? Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and research, effect for making it lol. WOW this is book sale, super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Research? Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis.
Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the analysis thesis years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol!
Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class. Hcci Paper? I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Nursing Case Cardiac? Thanks. Great topics. Research Paper? James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri.
What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers.
Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to analysis thesis, read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. Research Paper? I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for nursing, all categories. Well done.
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hcci Paper? Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon case cardiac, as well as to influence. I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an hcci, error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. Do Homework? I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb.
Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. Hcci Research Paper? This will come in book sale, handy for my English class. Hcci Research? Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks! This is case studies, helpful.
Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to point out that APA and Chicago and paper, other formats are used in different types of old technology technology essays, courses. I think considering cause and paper, effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation.
Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to old technology technology essays, call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for hcci paper, the most important causes, or the vs new technology essays most important effects that we see in hcci research paper, a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from thesis Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and research paper, effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is for me, interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is research paper, effective.
The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into analysis paper thesis, consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics! Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to research, believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed.
Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to have my students check out analysis thesis some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from hcci research Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of for me, essays before, and I have found the hcci research paper information that you have presented here to be excellent. Do Homework? Thank you for sharing. Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States.
Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Going to pass this along and of course vote up.
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